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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29944175/pharmacological-treatment-for-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-in-children-with-comorbid-tic-disorders
#1
REVIEW
Sydney T Osland, Thomas Dl Steeves, Tamara Pringsheim
BACKGROUND: This is an update of the original Cochrane Review published in Issue 4, 2011.Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most prevalent of the comorbid psychiatric disorders that complicate tic disorders. Medications commonly used to treat ADHD symptoms include stimulants such as methylphenidate and amphetamine; non-stimulants, such as atomoxetine; tricyclic antidepressants; and alpha agonists. Alpha agonists are also used as a treatment for tics. Due to the impact of ADHD symptoms on the child with tic disorder, treatment of ADHD is often of greater priority than the medical management of tics...
June 26, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891587/characterization-of-the-neurochemical-and-behavioral-effects-of-solriamfetol-jzp-110-a-selective-dopamine-and-norepinephrine-reuptake-inhibitor
#2
Michelle G Baladi, Michael J Forster, Michael B Gatch, Richard B Mailman, Danielle L Hyman, Lawrence P Carter, Aaron Janowsky
Excessive sleepiness (ES) is associated with several sleep disorders, including narcolepsy and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). A role for monoaminergic systems in treating these conditions is highlighted by the clinical use of US Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs that act on these systems, such as dextroamphetamine, methylphenidate, modafinil, and armodafinil. Solriamfetol (JZP-110) is a wake-promoting agent that is currently being evaluated to treat ES in patients with narcolepsy or OSA. Clinical and preclinical data suggest that the wake-promoting effects of solriamfetol differ from medications such as modafinil and amphetamine...
August 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29859849/amphetamine-improves-mouse-and-human-attention-in-the-5-choice-continuous-performance-test
#3
David A MacQueen, Arpi Minassian, Johnny A Kenton, Mark A Geyer, William Perry, Jonathan L Brigman, Jared W Young
Non-medical use of prescription stimulants amongst college students is common, with claims of cognitive and academic benefits. The mechanism, magnitude, and pervasiveness of the cognitive enhancing effects of stimulants in healthy adults remain poorly understood however. The present study determined the effects of dextroamphetamine (D-amp) on the 5-choice continuous performance test (5C-CPT) of attention in healthy young adult humans and mice. A mixed gender sample received placebo (n = 29), 10 (n = 17) or 20 mg D-amp (n = 25) in a double-blind fashion before 5C-CPT testing...
May 31, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456930/review-of-the-evidence-for-the-management-of-co-morbid-tic-disorders-in-children-and-adolescents-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#4
REVIEW
Michael O Ogundele, Hani F Ayyash
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurodevelopmental disorder in children and adolescents, with prevalence ranging between 5% and 12% in the developed countries. Tic disorders (TD) are common co-morbidities in paediatric ADHD patients with or without pharmacotherapy treatment. There has been conflicting evidence of the role of psychostimulants in either precipitating or exacerbating TDs in ADHD patients. We carried out a literature review relating to the management of TDs in children and adolescents with ADHD through a comprehensive search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and Cochrane databases...
February 8, 2018: World Journal of Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316800/pro-dopamine-regulator-kb220z-attenuates-hoarding-and-shopping-behavior-in-a-female-diagnosed-with-sud-and-adhd
#5
Thomas McLaughlin, Kenneth Blum, Bruce Steinberg, Edward J Modestino, Lyle Fried, David Baron, David Siwicki, Eric R Braverman, Rajendra D Badgaiyan
Background Addictive-like behaviors (e.g., hoarding and shopping) may be the result of the cumulative effects of dopaminergic and other neurotransmitter genetic variants as well as elevated stress levels. We, therefore, propose that dopamine homeostasis may be the preferred goal in combating such challenging and unwanted behaviors, when simple dopaminergic activation through potent agonists may not provide any resolution. Case presentation C.J. is a 38-year-old, single, female, living with her mother. She has a history of substance use disorder as well as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, inattentive type...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273699/false-positive-findings-on-dopamine-transporter-spect-due-to-therapeutic-dextroamphetamine-and-amphetamine
#6
REVIEW
Joseph A Frankl, Sudeshna Bose, Phillip H Kuo
Dopamine transporter SPECT is an accurate adjunct to clinical evaluation for Parkinson disease when the diagnosis is difficult. Dopaminergic medications may significantly affect dopamine transporter availability and, thus, uptake of dopamine transporter tracers. A patient had a false-positive dopamine transporter SPECT result while she was taking dextroamphetamine and amphetamine for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. The SPECT findings normalized after amphetamine therapy was withheld. An accurate medication history combined with knowledge of drugs that interfere with dopamine transporter imaging is critical to ensure accuracy...
June 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112657/placental-complications-associated-with-psychostimulant-use-in-pregnancy
#7
Jacqueline M Cohen, Sonia Hernández-Díaz, Brian T Bateman, Yoonyoung Park, Rishi J Desai, Kathryn J Gray, Elisabetta Patorno, Helen Mogun, Krista F Huybrechts
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether psychostimulants used to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are associated with risk of adverse placental-associated pregnancy outcomes including preeclampsia, placental abruption, growth restriction, and preterm birth. METHODS: We designed a population-based cohort study in which we examined a cohort of pregnant women and their liveborn neonates enrolled in Medicaid from 2000 to 2010. Women who received amphetamine-dextroamphetamine or methylphenidate monotherapy in the first half of pregnancy were compared with unexposed women...
December 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102783/influence-of-intertrial-interval-on-basal-and-drug-induced-impulsive-action-in-the-5-choice-serial-reaction-time-task-effects-of-d-amphetamine-and-%C3%A2-2-5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine-doi
#8
Ciaràn M Fitzpatrick, Vojislav S Maric, Simon T Bate, Jesper T Andreasen
Impulsivity is a characteristic of a number of neuropsychiatric disorders such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT) is a rodent paradigm extensively used to assess attention and impulsivity. Notably, 5-CSRTT studies do not typically account for the reduction in premature responding, the measure of impulsive action, occurring upon repeated exposure to test sessions with long or variable intertrial intervals (ITIs). This present 5-CSRTT study investigated the use of variable ITIs (5, 10 or 15s) across 15 test days (4 training days followed by 1 drug test day per week for three weeks) as previous experience had shown that 4 training days would be sufficient to induce consistent premature response levels in male C57BL/6J mice...
November 2, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985738/mitigating-risks-of-students-use-of-study-drugs-through-understanding-motivations-for-use-and-applying-harm-reduction-theory-a-literature-review
#9
REVIEW
Dor David Abelman
As postsecondary students' use of "study drugs" becomes more popular with increasingly reported negative effects on health and academic performance, failing prohibitionist policies to reduce consumption, and ambiguity in literature towards best practices to address this population, we present a literature review that seeks effective solutions educational institutions can apply to improve outcomes for students who use drugs. Motivations for use, effects of the substances, an analysis of efforts to control use from educational institutions, and suggestions on promoting most effective outcomes based on harm reduction, are described...
October 6, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735675/treatment-of-narcolepsy-and-other-organic-hypersomnias-in-children
#10
REVIEW
Suresh Kotagal
The comprehensive management of chronic disorders such as hypersomnias of childhood requires combining life-style changes with rational pharmacotherapy that is based on treating the symptoms that are most bothersome, the age, comorbidities, and metabolic and endocrine status of the patient. The excessive sleepiness of narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia is best treated with dextroamphetamine or methylphenidate preparations or modafinil/armodafinil. Cataplexy treatment requires sodium oxybate, tricyclic agents, selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors...
January 2018: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686057/patient-relevant-outcomes-associated-with-generic-tamsulosin-levothyroxine-and-amphetamine-in-the-fda-adverse-event-reporting-system-a-pilot-study
#11
Sathiya Priya Marimuthu, Geetha Iyer, Jodi B Segal, Sonal Singh
AIM: Patient-reported outcomes associated with adverse events (AEs) reported with generics have not been evaluated. To map AEs associated with generics to the NIH Patient-reported Outcomes Measurement Information System. METHODS: We mapped 381 AEs from 148 case reports of generic tamsulosin, levothyroxine and amphetamine/dextroamphetamine to the physical, mental and social domain of the NIH Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System after reviewing 1237 case reports in the US FDA's Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS; 2011-2013)...
July 2017: Journal of Comparative Effectiveness Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653428/effects-of-dextroamphetamine-in-subacute-traumatic-brain-injury-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-pilot-study
#12
Tessa Hart, John Whyte, Thomas Watanabe, Inna Chervoneva
Psychostimulants that affect neurotransmitters implicated in cognitive function and neural plasticity have potential to enhance the rate and extent of recovery after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Ten milligrams dextroamphetamine (DEX) or an identical placebo was administered daily for 3 weeks to 32 participants with moderate to severe TBI, engaged in inpatient rehabilitation, at a mean of 2 months post injury. A variety of outcome measures assessing cognitive function and overall functional status was administered at weekly intervals, to examine effect sizes that may inform a larger trial, and to evaluate safety...
April 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632508/combined-dextroamphetamine-and-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-in-poststroke-aphasia
#13
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Zafer Keser, Michelle Weber Dehgan, Shaparak Shadravan, Nuray Yozbatiran, Lynn M Maher, Gerard E Francisco
There is a growing need for various effective adjunctive treatment options for speech recovery after stroke. A pharmacological agent combined with noninvasive brain stimulation has not been previously reported for poststroke aphasia recovery. In this "proof of concept" study, we aimed to test the safety of a combined intervention consisting of dextroamphetamine, transcranial direct current stimulation, and speech and language therapy in subjects with nonfluent aphasia. Ten subjects with chronic nonfluent aphasia underwent two experiments where they received dextroamphetamine or placebo along with transcranial direct current stimulation and speech and language therapy on two separate days...
October 2017: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593504/an-algorithm-to-identify-generic-drugs-in-the-fda-adverse-event-reporting-system
#14
Geetha Iyer, Sathiya Priya Marimuthu, Jodi B Segal, Sonal Singh
INTRODUCTION: Although generic drugs constitute approximately 88% of drugs prescribed in the US, there are no reliable methods to identify generic drugs in the US FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop an algorithm for identifying generic drugs in the FAERS. DATA SOURCE: We used 1237 adverse event reports for tamsulosin, levothyroxine, and amphetamine/dextroamphetamine from the publicly available FAERS from 2011-2013, and 277 source case narratives obtained from the FDA...
June 7, 2017: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590365/the-efficacy-of-psychostimulants-in-major-depressive-episodes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
REVIEW
Roger S McIntyre, Yena Lee, Aileen J Zhou, Joshua D Rosenblat, Evyn M Peters, Raymond W Lam, Sidney H Kennedy, Carola Rong, Jeanette M Jerrell
BACKGROUND: Psychostimulants are frequently prescribed off-label for adults with major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder. The frequent and increasing usage of stimulants in mood disorders warrants a careful appraisal of the efficacy of this class of agents. Herein, we aim to estimate the efficacy of psychostimulants in adults with unipolar or bipolar depression. METHODS: The PubMed/Medline database was searched from inception to January 16, 2016 for randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials investigating the antidepressant efficacy of psychostimulants in the treatment of adults with unipolar or bipolar depression...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507321/pet-imaging-of-dopamine-d2-receptor-internalization-in-schizophrenia
#16
J J Weinstein, E van de Giessen, R J Rosengard, X Xu, N Ojeil, G Brucato, R B Gil, L S Kegeles, M Laruelle, M Slifstein, A Abi-Dargham
Recent genetic, molecular and post-mortem studies suggest impaired dopamine (DA)-D2 receptor (D2R) trafficking in patients with schizophrenia (SZ). Imaging and preclinical studies have shown agonist-induced D2R internalization can be imaged with positron emission tomography (PET) using D2R radiotracers combined with psychostimulant challenge. This is feasible if radiotracer binding is measured when postchallenge DA levels have returned to baseline, following the initial competition phase between DA and radiotracer for binding to D2R...
May 16, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258180/rare-case-of-severe-serotonin-syndrome-leading-to-bilateral-compartment-syndrome
#17
Verena Clarissa Samara, Judith Warner
The term 'serotonin syndrome' describes a constellation of symptoms caused by serotonergic overstimulation. Its characteristic clinical presentation consists of encephalopathy, neuromuscular signs and autonomic hyperactivity. After removal of the offending agent, the clinical course is usually self-limited but can occasionally lead to severe symptoms. We report the case of a 68-year-old woman who presented emergently with encephalopathy. Home medications included paroxetine and dextroamphetamine/amphetamine...
March 3, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168425/the-effects-of-histone-deacetylase-inhibition-on-the-levels-of-cerebral-cytokines-in-an-animal-model-of-mania-induced-by-dextroamphetamine
#18
Samira S Valvassori, Wilson R Resende, Roger B Varela, Camila O Arent, Fernanda F Gava, Bruna R Peterle, Gustavo C Dal-Pont, André F Carvalho, Monica L Andersen, João Quevedo
Studies have suggested the involvement of inflammatory processes in the physiopathology of bipolar disorder. Preclinical evidences have shown that histone deacetylase inhibitors may act as mood-stabilizing agents and protect the brain in models of mania and depression. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of sodium butyrate (SB) and valproate (VPA) on behavioral changes, histone deacetylase activity, and the levels of cytokines in an animal model of mania induced by dextroamphetamine (d-AMPH)...
February 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979580/a-case-report-of-reversible-takotsubo-cardiomyopathy-after-amphetamine-dextroamphetamine-ingestion-in-a-15-year-old-adolescent-girl
#19
REVIEW
Michael S Toce, Michael Farias, Rebecca Bruccoleri, David W Brown, Michele M Burns
Stimulant medications are used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and serious cardiac complications can occur when these medications are abused. We present a 15-year-old adolescent girl who was found to have a Takotsubo cardiomyopathy after acute amphetamine/dextroamphetamine ingestion.
March 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791160/optogenetic-activation-of-dopamine-neurons-in-the-ventral-tegmental-area-induces-reanimation-from-general-anesthesia
#20
Norman E Taylor, Christa J Van Dort, Jonathan D Kenny, JunZhu Pei, Jennifer A Guidera, Ksenia Y Vlasov, Justin T Lee, Edward S Boyden, Emery N Brown, Ken Solt
Dopamine (DA) promotes wakefulness, and DA transporter inhibitors such as dextroamphetamine and methylphenidate are effective for increasing arousal and inducing reanimation, or active emergence from general anesthesia. DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) are involved in reward processing, motivation, emotion, reinforcement, and cognition, but their role in regulating wakefulness is less clear. The current study was performed to test the hypothesis that selective optogenetic activation of VTA DA neurons is sufficient to induce arousal from an unconscious, anesthetized state...
October 24, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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