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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112657/placental-complications-associated-with-psychostimulant-use-in-pregnancy
#1
Jacqueline M Cohen, Sonia Hernández-Díaz, Brian T Bateman, Yoonyoung Park, Rishi J Desai, Kathryn J Gray, Elisabetta Patorno, Helen Mogun, Krista F Huybrechts
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether psychostimulants used to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are associated with risk of adverse placental-associated pregnancy outcomes including preeclampsia, placental abruption, growth restriction, and preterm birth. METHODS: We designed a population-based cohort study in which we examined a cohort of pregnant women and their liveborn neonates enrolled in Medicaid from 2000 to 2010. Women who received amphetamine-dextroamphetamine or methylphenidate monotherapy in the first half of pregnancy were compared with unexposed women...
November 3, 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102783/influence-of-intertrial-interval-on-basal-and-drug-induced-impulsive-action-in-the-5-choice-serial-reaction-time-task-effects-of-d-amphetamine-and-%C3%A2-2-5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine-doi
#2
Ciaràn M Fitzpatrick, Vojislav S Maric, Simon T Bate, Jesper T Andreasen
Impulsivity is a characteristic of a number of neuropsychiatric disorders such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT) is a rodent paradigm extensively used to assess attention and impulsivity. Notably, 5-CSRTT studies do not typically account for the reduction in premature responding, the measure of impulsive action, occurring upon repeated exposure to test sessions with long or variable intertrial intervals (ITIs). This present 5-CSRTT study investigated the use of variable ITIs (5, 10 or 15s) across 15 test days (4 training days followed by 1 drug test day per week for three weeks) as previous experience had shown that 4 training days would be sufficient to induce consistent premature response levels in male C57BL/6J mice...
November 2, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985738/mitigating-risks-of-students-use-of-study-drugs-through-understanding-motivations-for-use-and-applying-harm-reduction-theory-a-literature-review
#3
REVIEW
Dor David Abelman
As postsecondary students' use of "study drugs" becomes more popular with increasingly reported negative effects on health and academic performance, failing prohibitionist policies to reduce consumption, and ambiguity in literature towards best practices to address this population, we present a literature review that seeks effective solutions educational institutions can apply to improve outcomes for students who use drugs. Motivations for use, effects of the substances, an analysis of efforts to control use from educational institutions, and suggestions on promoting most effective outcomes based on harm reduction, are described...
October 6, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735675/treatment-of-narcolepsy-and-other-organic-hypersomnias-in-children
#4
REVIEW
Suresh Kotagal
The comprehensive management of chronic disorders such as hypersomnias of childhood requires combining life-style changes with rational pharmacotherapy that is based on treating the symptoms that are most bothersome, the age, comorbidities, and metabolic and endocrine status of the patient. The excessive sleepiness of narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia is best treated with dextroamphetamine or methylphenidate preparations or modafinil/armodafinil. Cataplexy treatment requires sodium oxybate, tricyclic agents, selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors...
June 20, 2017: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686057/patient-relevant-outcomes-associated-with-generic-tamsulosin-levothyroxine-and-amphetamine-in-the-fda-adverse-event-reporting-system-a-pilot-study
#5
Sathiya Priya Marimuthu, Geetha Iyer, Jodi B Segal, Sonal Singh
AIM: Patient-reported outcomes associated with adverse events (AEs) reported with generics have not been evaluated. To map AEs associated with generics to the NIH Patient-reported Outcomes Measurement Information System. METHODS: We mapped 381 AEs from 148 case reports of generic tamsulosin, levothyroxine and amphetamine/dextroamphetamine to the physical, mental and social domain of the NIH Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System after reviewing 1237 case reports in the US FDA's Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS; 2011-2013)...
July 2017: Journal of Comparative Effectiveness Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653428/effects-of-dextroamphetamine-in-subacute-traumatic-brain-injury-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-pilot-study
#6
Tessa Hart, John Whyte, Thomas Watanabe, Inna Chervoneva
Psychostimulants that affect neurotransmitters implicated in cognitive function and neural plasticity have potential to enhance the rate and extent of recovery after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Ten milligrams dextroamphetamine (DEX) or an identical placebo was administered daily for 3 weeks to 32 participants with moderate to severe TBI, engaged in inpatient rehabilitation, at a mean of 2 months post injury. A variety of outcome measures assessing cognitive function and overall functional status was administered at weekly intervals, to examine effect sizes that may inform a larger trial, and to evaluate safety...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632508/combined-dextroamphetamine-and-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-in-poststroke-aphasia
#7
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Zafer Keser, Michelle Weber Dehgan, Shaparak Shadravan, Nuray Yozbatiran, Lynn M Maher, Gerard E Francisco
There is a growing need for various effective adjunctive treatment options for speech recovery after stroke. A pharmacological agent combined with noninvasive brain stimulation has not been previously reported for poststroke aphasia recovery. In this "proof of concept" study, we aimed to test the safety of a combined intervention consisting of dextroamphetamine, transcranial direct current stimulation, and speech and language therapy in subjects with nonfluent aphasia. Ten subjects with chronic nonfluent aphasia underwent two experiments where they received dextroamphetamine or placebo along with transcranial direct current stimulation and speech and language therapy on two separate days...
October 2017: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593504/an-algorithm-to-identify-generic-drugs-in-the-fda-adverse-event-reporting-system
#8
Geetha Iyer, Sathiya Priya Marimuthu, Jodi B Segal, Sonal Singh
INTRODUCTION: Although generic drugs constitute approximately 88% of drugs prescribed in the US, there are no reliable methods to identify generic drugs in the US FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop an algorithm for identifying generic drugs in the FAERS. DATA SOURCE: We used 1237 adverse event reports for tamsulosin, levothyroxine, and amphetamine/dextroamphetamine from the publicly available FAERS from 2011-2013, and 277 source case narratives obtained from the FDA...
June 7, 2017: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590365/the-efficacy-of-psychostimulants-in-major-depressive-episodes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
Roger S McIntyre, Yena Lee, Aileen J Zhou, Joshua D Rosenblat, Evyn M Peters, Raymond W Lam, Sidney H Kennedy, Carola Rong, Jeanette M Jerrell
BACKGROUND: Psychostimulants are frequently prescribed off-label for adults with major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder. The frequent and increasing usage of stimulants in mood disorders warrants a careful appraisal of the efficacy of this class of agents. Herein, we aim to estimate the efficacy of psychostimulants in adults with unipolar or bipolar depression. METHODS: The PubMed/Medline database was searched from inception to January 16, 2016 for randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials investigating the antidepressant efficacy of psychostimulants in the treatment of adults with unipolar or bipolar depression...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507321/pet-imaging-of-dopamine-d2-receptor-internalization-in-schizophrenia
#10
J J Weinstein, E van de Giessen, R J Rosengard, X Xu, N Ojeil, G Brucato, R B Gil, L S Kegeles, M Laruelle, M Slifstein, A Abi-Dargham
Recent genetic, molecular and post-mortem studies suggest impaired dopamine (DA)-D2 receptor (D2R) trafficking in patients with schizophrenia (SZ). Imaging and preclinical studies have shown agonist-induced D2R internalization can be imaged with positron emission tomography (PET) using D2R radiotracers combined with psychostimulant challenge. This is feasible if radiotracer binding is measured when postchallenge DA levels have returned to baseline, following the initial competition phase between DA and radiotracer for binding to D2R...
May 16, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258180/rare-case-of-severe-serotonin-syndrome-leading-to-bilateral-compartment-syndrome
#11
Verena Clarissa Samara, Judith Warner
The term 'serotonin syndrome' describes a constellation of symptoms caused by serotonergic overstimulation. Its characteristic clinical presentation consists of encephalopathy, neuromuscular signs and autonomic hyperactivity. After removal of the offending agent, the clinical course is usually self-limited but can occasionally lead to severe symptoms. We report the case of a 68-year-old woman who presented emergently with encephalopathy. Home medications included paroxetine and dextroamphetamine/amphetamine...
March 3, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168425/the-effects-of-histone-deacetylase-inhibition-on-the-levels-of-cerebral-cytokines-in-an-animal-model-of-mania-induced-by-dextroamphetamine
#12
Samira S Valvassori, Wilson R Resende, Roger B Varela, Camila O Arent, Fernanda F Gava, Bruna R Peterle, Gustavo C Dal-Pont, André F Carvalho, Monica L Andersen, João Quevedo
Studies have suggested the involvement of inflammatory processes in the physiopathology of bipolar disorder. Preclinical evidences have shown that histone deacetylase inhibitors may act as mood-stabilizing agents and protect the brain in models of mania and depression. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of sodium butyrate (SB) and valproate (VPA) on behavioral changes, histone deacetylase activity, and the levels of cytokines in an animal model of mania induced by dextroamphetamine (d-AMPH)...
February 6, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979580/a-case-report-of-reversible-takotsubo-cardiomyopathy-after-amphetamine-dextroamphetamine-ingestion-in-a-15-year-old-adolescent-girl
#13
REVIEW
Michael S Toce, Michael Farias, Rebecca Bruccoleri, David W Brown, Michele M Burns
Stimulant medications are used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and serious cardiac complications can occur when these medications are abused. We present a 15-year-old adolescent girl who was found to have a Takotsubo cardiomyopathy after acute amphetamine/dextroamphetamine ingestion.
March 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791160/optogenetic-activation-of-dopamine-neurons-in-the-ventral-tegmental-area-induces-reanimation-from-general-anesthesia
#14
Norman E Taylor, Christa J Van Dort, Jonathan D Kenny, JunZhu Pei, Jennifer A Guidera, Ksenia Y Vlasov, Justin T Lee, Edward S Boyden, Emery N Brown, Ken Solt
Dopamine (DA) promotes wakefulness, and DA transporter inhibitors such as dextroamphetamine and methylphenidate are effective for increasing arousal and inducing reanimation, or active emergence from general anesthesia. DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) are involved in reward processing, motivation, emotion, reinforcement, and cognition, but their role in regulating wakefulness is less clear. The current study was performed to test the hypothesis that selective optogenetic activation of VTA DA neurons is sufficient to induce arousal from an unconscious, anesthetized state...
October 24, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690507/prescription-stimulant-medication-misuse-where-are-we-and-where-do-we-go-from-here
#15
REVIEW
Lisa L Weyandt, Danielle R Oster, Marisa E Marraccini, Bergljot Gyda Gudmundsdottir, Bailey A Munro, Emma S Rathkey, Alison McCallum
Prescription stimulants, including methylphenidate (e.g., Ritalin) and amphetamine compounds (e.g., dextroamphetamine; Adderall), have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and are classified by the United States Drug Enforcement Administration as Schedule II medications because of their high potential for abuse and dependence (Drug Enforcement Administration, U.S. Department of Justice, 2015). Despite the potential health and judicial consequences, misuse of prescription stimulants, typically defined as taking stimulants without a valid prescription, or use of stimulants other than as prescribed, has become a serious problem in the United States and abroad, especially on college campuses...
October 2016: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667864/dextroamphetamine-and-pramipexole-combination-for-treatment-resistant-unipolar-depression
#16
Maju Mathew Koola, Jan Fawcett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Psychiatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598968/longitudinal-magnetic-resonance-imaging-reveals-striatal-hypertrophy-in-a-rat-model-of-long-term-stimulant-treatment
#17
D Biezonski, R Shah, A Krivko, J Cha, D N Guilfoyle, J Hrabe, S Gerum, S Xie, Y Duan, R Bansal, B L Leventhal, B S Peterson, C Kellendonk, J Posner
Stimulant treatment is highly effective in mitigating symptoms associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), though the neurobiological underpinnings of this effect have not been established. Studies using anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in children with ADHD have suggested that long-term stimulant treatment may improve symptoms of ADHD in part by stimulating striatal hypertrophy. This conclusion is limited, however, as these studies have either used cross-sectional sampling or did not assess the impact of treatment length on their dependent measures...
September 6, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27562198/the-effects-of-mdma-on-socio-emotional-processing-does-mdma-differ-from-other-stimulants
#18
REVIEW
Anya K Bershad, Melissa A Miller, Matthew J Baggott, Harriet de Wit
±3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a popular recreational drug that enhances sociability and feelings of closeness with others. These "prosocial" effects appear to motivate the recreational use of MDMA and may also form the basis of its potential as an adjunct to psychotherapy. However, the extent to which MDMA differs from prototypic stimulant drugs, such as dextroamphetamine, methamphetamine, and methylphenidate, in either its behavioral effects or mechanisms of action, is not fully known. The purpose of this review is to evaluate human laboratory findings of the social effects of MDMA compared to other stimulants, ranging from simple subjective ratings of sociability to more complex elements of social processing and behavior...
December 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27517475/hypofunction-of-the-sympathetic-nervous-system-as-a-possible-etiologic-cause-of-recurrent-aphthous-stomatitis
#19
Steven I Present, Jerome H Check
Recurrent aphthous stomatitis is a common disorder of the oral mucosa. The symptoms can range from a minor nuisance to severe forms that can be extremely debilitating. Two cases of chronic aphthous stomatitis are described. The patients sought help to ameliorate vasomotor symptoms. A diagnosis of sympathetic nervous system hypofunction was established. Treatment was aimed at restoring normal sympathetic function by the administration of dextroamphetamine sulfate. Since the patients have been on the amphetamine salts, neither their vasomotor symptoms nor their aphthous lesions have returned...
June 2016: Compendium of Continuing Education in Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27490831/efficacy-of-stimulants-for-psychiatric-symptoms-in-individuals-with-traumatic-brain-injury
#20
Michael B Maksimowski, Rajesh R Tampi
BACKGROUND: The objective of this systematic review is to summarize data from published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the efficacy of stimulants for psychiatric symptoms in individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: A literature search was conducted of 5 major databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Embase, and Cochrane Collaboration) that identified RCTs on the use of stimulants for human patients with a diagnosis of TBI. RESULTS: A total of 176 articles were identified, of which 18 matched the inclusion criteria and were reviewed in their entirety...
August 2016: Annals of Clinical Psychiatry: Official Journal of the American Academy of Clinical Psychiatrists
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