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Lisa L Weyandt, Danielle R Oster, Marisa E Marraccini, Bergljot Gyda Gudmundsdottir, Bailey A Munro, Emma S Rathkey, Alison McCallum
Prescription stimulants, including methylphenidate (e.g., Ritalin) and amphetamine compounds (e.g., dextroamphetamine; Adderall), have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and are classified by the United States Drug Enforcement Administration as Schedule II medications because of their high potential for abuse and dependence (Drug Enforcement Administration, U.S. Department of Justice, 2015). Despite the potential health and judicial consequences, misuse of prescription stimulants, typically defined as taking stimulants without a valid prescription, or use of stimulants other than as prescribed, has become a serious problem in the United States and abroad, especially on college campuses...
October 2016: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Maju Mathew Koola, Jan Fawcett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Psychiatric Annals
D Biezonski, R Shah, A Krivko, J Cha, D N Guilfoyle, J Hrabe, S Gerum, S Xie, Y Duan, R Bansal, B L Leventhal, B S Peterson, C Kellendonk, J Posner
Stimulant treatment is highly effective in mitigating symptoms associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), though the neurobiological underpinnings of this effect have not been established. Studies using anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in children with ADHD have suggested that long-term stimulant treatment may improve symptoms of ADHD in part by stimulating striatal hypertrophy. This conclusion is limited, however, as these studies have either used cross-sectional sampling or did not assess the impact of treatment length on their dependent measures...
2016: Translational Psychiatry
Anya K Bershad, Melissa A Miller, Matthew J Baggott, Harriet de Wit
±3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a popular recreational drug that enhances sociability and feelings of closeness with others. These "prosocial" effects appear to motivate the recreational use of MDMA and may also form the basis of its potential as an adjunct to psychotherapy. However, the extent to which MDMA differs from prototypic stimulant drugs, such as dextroamphetamine, methamphetamine, and methylphenidate, in either its behavioral effects or mechanisms of action, is not fully known. The purpose of this review is to evaluate human laboratory findings of the social effects of MDMA compared to other stimulants, ranging from simple subjective ratings of sociability to more complex elements of social processing and behavior...
August 25, 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Steven I Present, Jerome H Check
Recurrent aphthous stomatitis is a common disorder of the oral mucosa. The symptoms can range from a minor nuisance to severe forms that can be extremely debilitating. Two cases of chronic aphthous stomatitis are described. The patients sought help to ameliorate vasomotor symptoms. A diagnosis of sympathetic nervous system hypofunction was established. Treatment was aimed at restoring normal sympathetic function by the administration of dextroamphetamine sulfate. Since the patients have been on the amphetamine salts, neither their vasomotor symptoms nor their aphthous lesions have returned...
June 2016: Compendium of Continuing Education in Dentistry
Michael B Maksimowski, Rajesh R Tampi
BACKGROUND: The objective of this systematic review is to summarize data from published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the efficacy of stimulants for psychiatric symptoms in individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: A literature search was conducted of 5 major databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Embase, and Cochrane Collaboration) that identified RCTs on the use of stimulants for human patients with a diagnosis of TBI. RESULTS: A total of 176 articles were identified, of which 18 matched the inclusion criteria and were reviewed in their entirety...
August 2016: Annals of Clinical Psychiatry: Official Journal of the American Academy of Clinical Psychiatrists
Tommi Cooke, Tsz-Yin So
The United States Food and Drug Administration currently states that the use of stimulants in patients with tic disorders and/or family history of tic disorders including Tourette's syndrome is contraindicated. Patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), however, are at increased risk of tics regardless of stimulants use. After evaluating the most recent literature on the incidence of tic disorders in pediatric patients treated with stimulants for ADHD, it is reasonable to say that the incidence of tics and the severity of tics are not increased by the use of these medications...
July 28, 2016: Current Pediatric Reviews
Kelly E Wood, Matthew D Krasowski
INTRODUCTION: Stimulant medications are approved to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children over the age of 6 years. Fatal ingestion of stimulants by children has been reported, although most ingestions do not result in severe toxicity. Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate, a once daily long-acting stimulant, is a prodrug requiring conversion to its active form, dextroamphetamine, in the bloodstream. Based on its unique pharmacokinetics, peak levels of d-amphetamine are delayed...
June 8, 2016: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
A James Melrose, Ursula Bailer, Christina E Wierenga, Amanda Bischoff-Grethe, Martin P Paulus, Walter H Kaye
Amphetamine, likely via action on the brain's dopaminergic systems, induces anorectic eating behavior and blunts dopaminergic midbrain activation to rewards. Past work has hypothesized that this blunted reward responsivity is a result of increasing tonic over phasic DA activity. We sought to extend past findings to sweet taste during fMRI following single-blind administration of dextroamphetamine and placebo in 11 healthy women. We hypothesized that neural response in both limbic and cognitive sweet taste circuits would mirror past work with monetary rewards by effectively blunting sweet taste reward, and 'equalizing' it's rewarding taste with receipt of water...
June 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
M Batsis, U Dagalakis, C A Stratakis, T Prodanov, G Z Papadakis, K Adams, M Lodish, K Pacak
The aim of the study is to evaluate if there is an association between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma (PHEO/PGL) in pediatric patients. A case series study of 43 patients under the age of 18 with PHEO/PGL tumors who were evaluated at the National Institute of Health between January 2006 and May 2014 is reported. Prior diagnosis of ADHD and treatment course with stimulant medications was recorded. Patient symptoms, catecholamine and metanephrine levels, tumor characteristics, and genetic analyses for syndromes associated with PHEO/PGL were evaluated...
August 2016: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
J H Check
PURPOSE: To test sympathomimetic amine therapy on another type of chronic headache syndrome--headaches from temporal mandibular joint (TMJ) syndrome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A woman with 20 years of severe daily pain from TMJ refractory to all therapies was treated with dextroamphetamine sulfate. RESULTS: The woman showed immediate 100% relief from sympathomimetic amine treatment saving her from an expensive jaw breaking operation that was only given a slight chance of helping...
2016: Clinical and Experimental Obstetrics & Gynecology
J H Check
PURPOSE: To determine if severe periovulatory diarrhea in a woman with Crohn's disease for just one day may be related to increased permeability of the large bowel related to hormonal changes that occur at this time of menstrual cycle. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dextroamphetamine sulfate was given to a woman whose Crohn's disease was markedly improved by adalimumab but who still had one day of severe diarrhea at mid-cycle. RESULTS: She did not have any diarrhea or frequent defecation for the first two periovulatory times before she achieved pregnancy...
2016: Clinical and Experimental Obstetrics & Gynecology
J H Check
PURPOSE: To describe a cause and treatment for chronic unremitting lower abdominal pain of long duration with unknown origin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 50-year-old woman with 30 years of unexplained right lower quadrant pain was treated with dextroamphetamine sulfate. RESULTS: Dramatic complete abrogation of the pain occurred within two weeks. The complete relief persisted for two years while she remains on therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Symphathetic neural hyperalgesia edema syndrome should be considered whenever there is refractory pelvic or abdominal pain...
2016: Clinical and Experimental Obstetrics & Gynecology
Lian-Yu Chen, Rosa M Crum, Eric C Strain, G Caleb Alexander, Christopher Kaufmann, Ramin Mojtabai
OBJECTIVE: Little is known regarding the temporal trends in prescriptions, nonmedical use, and emergency department (ED) visits involving prescription stimulants in the United States. Our aim was to examine these 3 national trends involving dextroamphetamine-amphetamine and methylphenidate in adults and adolescents. METHOD: Three national surveys conducted between 2006-2011 were used: National Disease and Therapeutic Index, a survey of office-based practices; National Survey on Drug Use and Health, a population survey of substance use; and Drug Abuse Warning Network, a survey of ED visits...
March 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
J H Check, R Cohen
PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of dextroamphetamine sulfate for idiopathic frozen shoulder in a woman being treated for blad- der urgency and inability to lose weight despite dieting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dextroamphetamine sulfate was initiated at 15 mg extended release capsules increasing to 25 mg extended release capsules to a 47-year-old woman. RESULTS: She lost 19 pounds in four months, her bladder urgency disappeared, and she had complete resolution of the idiopathic frozen shoulder problem...
2015: Clinical and Experimental Obstetrics & Gynecology
J H Check, A Jaffe
PURPOSE: To determine if treatment with dextroamphetamine sulfate can reduce pelvic pain that was attributed to adenomyosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dextroamphetamine sulfate was given to a 32-year-old woman who suffered on a daily basis from severe chronic pelvic pain that was not relieved by laparoscopic removal of endometriosis by oral contraceptive and ibuprofen. The adenomyosis was diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging. RESULTS: Within three months the pain was completely gone and has remained absent for six months...
2015: Clinical and Experimental Obstetrics & Gynecology
Joshua Caballero, Raymond L Ownby, Jose A Rey, Kevin A Clauson
Use of neuroenhancers has been studied in groups ranging from students to surgeons; however, use of cognitive and performance enhancing medications (CPEMs) to improve performance in poker has remained largely overlooked. To assess the use of CPEMs to improve poker performance, a survey of poker players was conducted. Participants were recruited via Internet poker forums; 198 completed the online survey. Approximately 28 % of respondents used prescription CPEMs, with the most commonly used including: amphetamine/dextroamphetamine (62 %), benzodiazepines (20 %), and methylphenidate (20 %)...
September 2016: Journal of Gambling Studies
J H Check, A Whetstone
PURPOSE: To describe a distinctive pharmacological treatment for chronic pelvic pain and sciatica after spinal surgery with a laminectomy and spinal fusion failed to provide relief. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dextroamphetamine suflate was prescribed to a woman with a history of chronic back pain which was attributed to a ruptured disc. The pain was still unbearable after surgery. RESULTS: After adjusting dosage, within three months of the correct dose, 25 mg twice a day, relief was provided and has persisted for ten months...
2015: Clinical and Experimental Obstetrics & Gynecology
J H Check, R Cohen
PURPOSE: To review treatment options for hair loss in women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Suggestions for treatment were based on a thorough literature search plus the present authors' experience. RESULTS: There are controlled studies that support the present authors' typical treatment regimen of identifying if there are increased androgens, and if so, identify the source (ovary and/or adrenal) and then suppress with drugs, e.g., oral contraceptives or glucocorticoids...
2015: Clinical and Experimental Obstetrics & Gynecology
Jessica K Roberts, Sarah F Cook, Chris Stockmann, Douglas E Rollins, Diana G Wilkins, Catherine M T Sherwin
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Hair is an attractive matrix for amphetamine drug testing; however, little is known about the rate at which amphetamines are deposited into hair. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of oral dextroamphetamine in plasma and quantify the rate of deposition into hair in healthy adults using a linked population pharmacokinetic model. METHODS: Healthy adults >18 years of age received dextroamphetamine 10 mg orally for 7 days...
October 2015: Clinical Drug Investigation
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