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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29885017/a-pain-in-the-skin-regenerating-nerve-sprouts-are-distinctly-associated-with-ongoing-burning-pain-in-patients-with-diabetes
#1
E Galosi, S La Cesa, G Di Stefano, P Karlsson, A Fasolino, C Leone, A Biasiotta, G Cruccu, A Truini
BACKGROUNDS: Patients with diabetic polyneuropathy commonly suffer from ongoing burning pain and dynamic mechanical allodynia. In this clinical and skin biopsy study, we aimed at assessing how intraepidermal regenerating nerve sprouts are associated with these two types of pain. METHODS: We consecutively enrolled 85 patients with diabetic polyneuropathy. All patients underwent skin biopsy at the distal leg. Intraepidermal nerve fibres were immunostained with the anti-protein gene product 9...
June 8, 2018: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29813107/glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-glp-1r-expression-by-nerve-fibres-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-functional-effects-in-cultured-neurons
#2
Uma Anand, Yiangos Yiangou, Ayesha Akbar, Tom Quick, Anthony MacQuillan, Mike Fox, Marco Sinisi, Yuri E Korchev, Ben Jones, Steve R Bloom, Praveen Anand
INTRODUCTION: Glucagon like-peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists diminish appetite and may contribute to the weight loss in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine, for the first time, the expression of GLP-1R by colon nerve fibres in patients with IBD, and functional effects of its agonists in cultured rat and human sensory neurons. METHODS: GLP-1R and other nerve markers were studied by immunohistochemistry in colon biopsies from patients with IBD (n = 16) and controls (n = 8), human dorsal root ganglia (DRG) tissue, and in GLP-1R transfected HEK293 cells...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29794612/delayed-onset-of-persistent-discogenic-axial-and-radiating-pain-following-a-single-level-lumbar-intervertebral-disc-injury-in-mice
#3
Magali Millecamps, Laura S Stone
Low back pain is associated with both axial discomfort and radiating leg pain. While intervertebral discs are suspected as the source of pain in some individuals, the relationship between disc degeneration and back pain remains controversial. The goals of this study were to investigate the long-term impact of L4/L5 disc puncture on disc degeneration and the subsequent emergence, persistence and underlying mechanisms of axial and radiating LBP in mice. L4-L5 discs were punctured on the ventral aspect with a 30 gauge needle in 3-month old female CD1 mice and the development of behavioral signs of axial discomfort (tail suspension and grip force), radiating hypersensitivity (von Frey and acetone), and motor impairment (rotarod) were monitored...
May 22, 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768039/loss-of-sonic-hedgehog-gene-leads-to-muscle-development-disorder-and-megaesophagus-in-mice
#4
Xueting Jia, Li Min, Shengtao Zhu, Shutian Zhang, Xiaofeng Huang
Sonic hedgehog ( Shh) is crucial for organogenesis in the foregut. This study investigated the function of Shh at the late-gestational stage; during which, the esophagus continues to differentiate. We established cytokeratin 14 ( CK14)-Cre;Shhfl/fl mice in which the down-regulation of Shh in the epithelium occurred at approximately the same time as esophageal muscle conversion. Hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemical staining, with antibodies against keratin 14, Shh, patched 1 (Ptch1), Gli1, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA), high-molecular-weight caldesmon (hCD), myogenin, paired box 7 (Pax7), β3-tubulin, and protein gene product 9...
May 16, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758594/phox2b-is-a-reliable-immunomarker-in-distinguishing-peripheral-neuroblastic-tumors-from-cns-embryonal-tumors
#5
Sanda Alexandrescu, Vera Paulson, Adrian Dubuc, Azra Ligon, Hart G Lidov
INTRODUCTION: The PHOX2B gene regulates neuronal maturation in the brain stem nuclei associated with cardiorespiratory function, and in the autonomic sympathetic and enteric nervous system. PHOX2B expression is a reliable immunomarker for peripheral neuroblastic tumors, however no systematic evaluation of CNS embryonal tumors was included in the studies. We encountered two cases in which the differential diagnosis included neuroblastoma and CNS embryonal tumor, and we hypothesized that PHOX2B immunostain would be helpful establishing the diagnosis...
May 14, 2018: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740907/enteric-glial-cell-activation-protects-enteric-neurons-from-damage-due-to-diabetes-in-part-via-the-promotion-of-neurotrophic-factor-release
#6
P Luo, D Liu, C Li, W-X He, C-L Zhang, M-J Chang
BACKGROUND: Diabetes can result in pathological changes to enteric nervous system. Our aim was to test the dynamic changes of enteric neurons and identify the role of enteric glial cells (EGCs) in regulating enteric neuron expression in diabetic rats. METHODS: A single injection of streptozotocin (STZ) was used to establish diabetic rats. Animals were randomly distributed into diabetic 1-, 4-, 8-, and 16-week groups, as well as age-matched control groups. The PGP9...
May 8, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703239/allogeneic-transplantation-of-mobilized-dental-pulp-stem-cells-with-the-mismatched-dog-leukocyte-antigen-type-is-safe-and-efficacious-for-total-pulp-regeneration
#7
Koichiro Iohara, Shinji Utsunomiya, Sakae Kohara, Misako Nakashima
BACKGROUND: We recently demonstrated that autologous transplantation of mobilized dental pulp stem cells (MDPSCs) was a safe and efficacious potential therapy for total pulp regeneration in a clinical study. The autologous MDPSCs, however, have some limitations to overcome, such as limited availability of discarded teeth from older patients. In the present study, we investigated whether MDPSCs can be used for allogeneic applications to expand their therapeutic use. METHODS: Analysis of dog leukocyte antigen (DLA) was performed using polymerase chain reaction from blood...
April 27, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661827/oral-nahco-3-activates-a-splenic-anti-inflammatory-pathway-evidence-that-cholinergic-signals-are-transmitted-via-mesothelial-cells
#8
Sarah C Ray, Babak Baban, Matthew A Tucker, Alec J Seaton, Kyu Chul Chang, Elinor C Mannon, Jingping Sun, Bansari Patel, Katie Wilson, Jacqueline B Musall, Hiram Ocasio, Debra Irsik, Jessica A Filosa, Jennifer C Sullivan, Brendan Marshall, Ryan A Harris, Paul M O'Connor
We tested the hypothesis that oral NaHCO3 intake stimulates splenic anti-inflammatory pathways. Following oral NaHCO3 loading, macrophage polarization was shifted from predominantly M1 (inflammatory) to M2 (regulatory) phenotypes, and FOXP3+ CD4+ T-lymphocytes increased in the spleen, blood, and kidneys of rats. Similar anti-inflammatory changes in macrophage polarization were observed in the blood of human subjects following NaHCO3 ingestion. Surprisingly, we found that gentle manipulation to visualize the spleen at midline during surgical laparotomy (sham splenectomy) was sufficient to abolish the response in rats and resulted in hypertrophy/hyperplasia of the capsular mesothelial cells...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626276/immunohistochemistry-in-diagnostic-parathyroid-pathology
#9
REVIEW
Lori A Erickson, Ozgur Mete
Pathologists are usually readily able to diagnose parathyroid tissues and diseases, particularly when they have knowledge of the clinical information, laboratory findings, and radiographic imaging studies. However, the identification of parathyroid tissue or lesions can be difficult in small biopsies, ectopic locations, supranumerary glands, and in some oxyphil/oncocytic lesions. Widely available immunohistochemical studies such as chromogranin-A, synaptophysin, keratin, parathyroid hormone, thyroglobulin, and thyroid transcription factor-1 can help in difficult cases...
April 7, 2018: Endocrine Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588250/a-novel-role-for-lymphotactin-xcl1-signaling-in-the-nervous-system-xcl1-acts-via-its-receptor-xcr1-to-increase-trigeminal-neuronal-excitability
#10
Emma V Bird, Tommaso Iannitti, Claire R Christmas, Ilona Obara, Veselin I Andreev, Anne E King, Fiona M Boissonade
Chemokines are known to have a role in the nervous system, influencing a range of processes including the development of chronic pain. To date there are very few studies describing the functions of the chemokine lymphotactin (XCL1) or its receptor (XCR1) in the nervous system. We investigated the role of the XCL1-XCR1 axis in nociceptive processing, using a combination of immunohistochemical, pharmacological and electrophysiological techniques. Expression of XCR1 in the rat mental nerve was elevated 3 days following chronic constriction injury (CCI), compared with 11 days post-CCI and sham controls...
May 21, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550279/recovery-of-the-sub-basal-nerve-plexus-and-superficial-nerve-terminals-after-corneal-epithelial-injury-in-mice
#11
Laura E Downie, Cecilia Naranjo Golborne, Merry Chen, Ngoc Ho, Cam Hoac, Dasun Liyanapathirana, Carol Luo, Ruo Bing Wu, Holly R Chinnery
Our aim was to compare regeneration of the sub-basal nerve plexus (SBNP) and superficial nerve terminals (SNT) following corneal epithelial injury. We also sought to compare agreement when quantifying nerve parameters using different image analysis techniques. Anesthetized, female C57BL/6 mice received central 1-mm corneal epithelial abrasions. Four-weeks post-injury, eyes were enucleated and processed for PGP9.5 to visualize the corneal nerves using wholemount immunofluorescence staining and confocal microscopy...
June 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29488287/electro-acupuncture-at-st37-and-st25-induce-different-effects-on-colonic-motility-via-the-enteric-nervous-system-by-affecting-excitatory-and-inhibitory-neurons
#12
C Liang, K-Y Wang, M-R Gong, Q Li, Z Yu, B Xu
BACKGROUND: On the basis of the importance of the enteric nervous system (ENS) in gastrointestinal motility, we hypothesized that the ENS may mediate the therapeutic efficacy of electro-acupuncture (EA) in constipation by regulating the mechanisms underlying the effects of EA on gastrointestinal function. METHODS: Model mice with constipation were generated by gastric instillation of 0-4°C normal saline. Defecation time and stool (form and wet and dry weight) were assessed...
February 28, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453855/nerve-reinnervation-and-itch-behavior-in-a-rat-burn-wound-model
#13
Tiam M Saffari, Barthold N Schüttenhelm, Johan W van Neck, Jan C Holstege
In this study, we investigated whether postburn itch in rats, after a full thickness burn, is correlated to the nervous reinnervation of the burn wound area. For this purpose, we determined scratching duration (expressed as second/hour) at 24 hours, 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks postburn and combined this with immunohistochemistry for protein gene product 9.5 (PGP9.5) to identify all nerve fibers, calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) to identify peptidergic fibers, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) for sympathetic fibers, and growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43) for regrowing fibers...
January 2018: Wound Repair and Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436714/gch1-attenuates-cardiac-autonomic-nervous-remodeling-in-canines-with-atrial-tachypacing-via-tetrahydrobiopterin-pathway-regulated-by-microrna-206
#14
Jinqiu Wei, Yujiao Zhang, Zhan Li, Ximin Wang, Linlin Chen, Juanjuan Du, Jing Liu, Ju Liu, Yinglong Hou
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cardiac autonomic nerve remodeling (ANR) is an important mechanism of atrial fibrillation (AF). GTP cyclohydrolase I, encoded by GCH1, is the rate-limiting enzyme in de novo synthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), an essential cofactor for nitric oxide (NO) synthesis. Previous studies reported that increased BH4 and NO content negatively regulated nerve regeneration. This study investigated the effects of GCH1 on ANR via BH4 pathway, regulated by microRNA-206 (miR-206)...
February 13, 2018: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432726/co-expression-of-vasoactive-intestinal-peptide-and-protein-gene-product-9-5-surrounding-the-lumen-of-human-schlemm-s-canal
#15
Pingting Ji, Liwen Chen, Jieling Gong, Yuxiang Yuan, Mu Li, Yin Zhao, Hong Zhang
Previous studies of aqueous humor outflow have focused primarily on resistance at the trabecular meshwork (TM), and little is known about the function of Schlemm's canal (SC). Here, we aimed to investigate whether SC is innervated by the peripheral nervous system. Ten eye specimens from eight donors were processed for histological analysis. CD31 was used to identify SC, after which we used protein gene product (PGP) 9.5 as a marker to detect nerve fibers around SC. We then characterized the nerves by double staining for PGP9...
May 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358881/increased-intestinal-mucosal-leptin-levels-in-patients-with-diarrhea-predominant-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#16
De-Rong Liu, Xiao-Juan Xu, Shu-Kun Yao
AIM: To measure the leptin levels in patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) and analyze the relationship of leptin with clinical features, visceral sensitivity, mast cells, and nerve fibers. METHODS: Forty-two patients with IBS-D fulfilling the Rome III criteria and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy controls underwent clinical and psychological evaluations using validated questionnaires (including IBS Symptom Severity Scale, IBS-specific Quality of Life, Hamilton Anxiety Scale, and Hamilton Depression Scale), along with colonoscopy, colonic mucosal biopsy, and visceral sensitivity testing...
January 7, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356386/significance-of-tumor-associated-autoantibodies-in-the-early-diagnosis-of-lung-cancer
#17
Qiang Du, Ruofei Yu, Han Wang, Dong Yan, Qi Yuan, Yixin Ma, Dennis Slamon, Dongmei Hou, Huiling Wang, Qi Wang
OBJECTIVES: Autoantibodies tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) could be a valuable tool for the diagnosis or early detection of cancer due to their relatively high specificity and stability. The purpose of this study is to detect the level of tumor-associated autoantibodies in lung cancer and assess the diagnostic potential of autoantibodies in screening strategy for early stage lung cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Levels of tumor-associated autoantibodies (AAbs) were measured against a panel of seven TAAs (p53, PGP9...
January 22, 2018: Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338902/stage-specific-expression-of-ddx4-and-c-kit-at-different-developmental-stages-of-the-porcine-testis
#18
Ran Lee, Won-Young Lee, Hyun-Jung Park, Woo-Tae Ha, Jae-Seok Woo, Hak-Jae Chung, Ji-Heon Lee, Kwonho Hong, Hyuk Song
Spermatogenesis begins with spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), which are located in the basement membrane of the adult testes. Previous studies have described specific biomarkers for undifferentiated porcine spermatogonia or SSCs; however, these markers are not sufficient to understand spermatogenesis at different developmental stages. The objective of this study was characterize the expression of DEAD-Box polypeptide 4 (DDX4, also known as VASA) and tyrosine-protein kinase kit (c-kit), as potential markers of male germ cells in the porcine testis...
March 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329562/granular-cell-tumors-of-the-tongue-fibroma-or-schwannoma
#19
Atsushi Musha, Masaru Ogawa, Satoshi Yokoo
BACKGROUND: Granular cell tumors are benign lesions that typically occur in the oral cavity, but can also be found in other sites. However, the characteristics of these tumors are unclear. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the immunohistological characteristics of these tumors of the tongue. METHODS: Seven patients were treated for granular cell tumors of the tongue at our institution during 2003-2017. Paraffin-embedded specimens were available for all cases; thus, retrospective immunohistochemical analyses were performed...
January 3, 2018: Head & Face Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190116/alarmins-in-frozen-shoulder-a-molecular-association-between-inflammation-and-pain
#20
Jonathon Z B Cher, Moeed Akbar, Susan Kitson, Lindsay A N Crowe, Emma Garcia-Melchor, Stephen C Hannah, Michael McLean, Umberto G Fazzi, Shauna C Kerr, George A C Murrell, Neal L Millar
BACKGROUND: The pathophysiological mechanisms behind proliferation of fibroblasts and deposition of dense collagen matrix in idiopathic frozen shoulder remain unclear. Alarmins (also known as danger signals) are endogenous molecules that are released into the extracellular milieu after infection or tissue injury and that signal cell and tissue damage. PURPOSE: To investigate whether the presence of alarmins is higher in patients with idiopathic frozen shoulder than in control subjects...
March 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
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