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Cutaneous innervation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339718/injury-activated-glial-cells-promote-wound-healing-of-the-adult-skin-in-mice
#1
Vadims Parfejevs, Julien Debbache, Olga Shakhova, Simon M Schaefer, Mareen Glausch, Michael Wegner, Ueli Suter, Una Riekstina, Sabine Werner, Lukas Sommer
Cutaneous wound healing is a complex process that aims to re-establish the original structure of the skin and its functions. Among other disorders, peripheral neuropathies are known to severely impair wound healing capabilities of the skin, revealing the importance of skin innervation for proper repair. Here, we report that peripheral glia are crucially involved in this process. Using a mouse model of wound healing, combined with in vivo fate mapping, we show that injury activates peripheral glia by promoting de-differentiation, cell-cycle re-entry and dissemination of the cells into the wound bed...
January 16, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206768/inhibition-of-group-ia-afferents-between-brachioradialis-and-flexor-carpi-radialis-in-humans-a-study-using-an-electromyogram-averaging-method
#2
Mitsuhiro Nito, Wataru Hashizume, Katsuhiko Suzuki, Toshiaki Sato, Hiromi Fujii, Takuji Miyasaka, Masaomi Shindo, Akira Naito
PURPOSE: Our previous studies using a poststimulus time histogram method demonstrated inhibitory spinal reflex arcs (inhibition) between the brachioradialis (BR) and flexor carpi radialis (FCR) in humans. Group I afferents mediated the inhibition through an oligosynaptic path. In this study, effects of the inhibition on excitability of the motoneuron pools were examined, and we tried to clarify which afferents of group Ia or Ib are responsible for the inhibition. METHODS: We evaluated the effects of low-threshold afferents between BR and FCR on FCR and BR motoneuron pools, respectively, using an electromyogram-averaging method in 14 healthy human subjects...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180190/patterns-of-sural-nerve-innervation-of-the-sural-artery-with-implication-for-reconstructive-surgery
#3
Fang Fang, Wenxuan Zou, Zhiming Zhang, Qi Zhang, Yun Xie
BACKGROUND: Most of the literature concerning the neurocutaneous flap is related to its anatomic investigation and clinical application, and the more in-depth physiological problem such as whether the cutaneous nerve contains sympathetic fibers that innervate its accompanying vessels has never been explored. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dissection was first performed on three rabbits. In another 22 rabbits, two rabbits undergoing no surgery were used as the normal control group...
December 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148009/preoperative-ultrasound-for-runoff-venous-decompression-of-peripheral-nerves-for-arteriovenous-access-related-pain-in-the-upper-limb
#4
Hiroaki Matsuda, Yoshinari Oka, Ryuichi Yoshida, Yuki Katsura, Hidemi Takeuchi, Yasuo Fujimoto, Shigeko Takatsu, Masashi Miyazaki
INTRODUCTION: Arteriovenous access (AVA)-related pain treated successfully with runoff-venous decompression of the causative nerve, following ultrasound (US)-assisted preoperative evaluation, has never been reported. CASE PRESENTATION: A 57-year-old man suffering from constant exhausting pains along the outflow cephalic vein of the radiocephalic arteriovenous fistula at the wrist and the antecubital fossa, was treated surgically after the diagnosis of AVA-related pain derived from cephalic vein compression on two peripheral cutaneous nerves, the superficial radial nerve (SRN) and the lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve (LACN)...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Vascular Access
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135783/beyond-the-bottom-of-the-foot-topographic-organization-of-the-foot-dorsum-in-walking
#5
Taryn Klarner, Gregory E P Pearcey, Yao Sun, Trevor S Barss, Chelsea Kaupp, Bridget Munro, Nick Frank, E Paul Zehr
INTRODUCTION: Sensory feedback from the foot dorsum during walking has only been studied globally by whole nerve stimulation. Stimulating the main nerve innervating the dorsal surface produces a functional stumble corrective response that is phase-dependently modulated. We speculated that effects evoked by activation of discrete skin regions on the foot dorsum would be topographically organized, as with the foot sole. METHODS: Nonnoxious electrical stimulation was delivered to five discrete locations on the dorsal surface of the foot during treadmill walking...
December 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123119/acupuncture-points-can-be-identified-as-cutaneous-neurogenic-inflammatory-spots
#6
Do-Hee Kim, Yeonhee Ryu, Dae Hyun Hahm, Boo Yong Sohn, Insop Shim, O Sang Kwon, Suchan Chang, Young Seob Gwak, Min Sun Kim, Jae Hyo Kim, Bong Hyo Lee, Eun Young Jang, Rongjie Zhao, Jin Mo Chung, Chae Ha Yang, Hee Young Kim
Acupuncture, a traditional medical procedure practised for over 2000 years in Asia, stimulates specific but poorly defined sites called acupoints. To date, no unique anatomical acupoint structures have been found. However, noxious sensory signals from visceral organs produce hypersensitive spots on the skin (neurogenic spots), caused by cutaneous neurogenic inflammation, in the dermatome that overlaps with visceral afferent innervations. Here, we show that an acupoint is one form of neurogenic inflammation on the skin...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981186/the-use-of-singapore-flaps-for-vaginal-reconstruction-in-women-with-vaginal-stenosis-with-obstetric-fistula-a-surgical-technique
#7
Rachel J Pope, Rodger H Brown, Ennet Chipungu, Larry H Hollier, Jeffrey P Wilkinson
Gynecologic and plastic surgeons collaborate to improve vaginal reconstruction for women with vaginal stenosis and obstetric fistula. As these cases are typically in low-resource settings, the Singapore flap is a useful technique given its reliability, safety, ease of dissection, and minimal need for additional supplies. The fasciocutaneous flap maintains cutaneous innervation and vasculature and does not require stenting. The surgical collaboration has made it possible to provide functional vaginal reconstruction as a part of the overall care of obstetric fistula patients...
October 5, 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868961/serotonin-gated-inward-currents-are-three-times-more-frequent-in-rat-hairy-skin-sensory-afferents-than-in-those-innervating-the-skeletal-muscle
#8
Leonardo Fierro
Tight whole-cell patch clamp was performed in 191 DiI (1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3'3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate) retrogradely labeled rat sensory afferents from skin shoulders ( n = 93) and biceps femoris muscles ( n = 98). 5-HT-gated inward currents were evoked with 50-µM serotonin (5-HT; 5-hydroxytryptamine), and their frequency and current densities were compared between skin and skeletal muscle sensory afferents. To evaluate if 5-HT-gated inward currents coexist with other ligand-gated currents, the skin and skeletal muscle sensory afferents were also sequentially exposed to external solution at pH 6...
January 2017: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817806/specialized-mechanosensory-nociceptors-mediating-rapid-responses-to-hair-pull
#9
Nima Ghitani, Arnab Barik, Marcin Szczot, James H Thompson, Chia Li, Claire E Le Pichon, Michael J Krashes, Alexander T Chesler
The somatosensory system provides animals with the ability to detect, distinguish, and respond to diverse thermal, mechanical, and irritating stimuli. While there has been progress in defining classes of neurons underlying temperature sensation and gentle touch, less is known about the neurons specific for mechanical pain. Here, we use in vivo functional imaging to identify a class of cutaneous sensory neurons that are selectively activated by high-threshold mechanical stimulation (HTMRs). We show that their optogenetic excitation evokes rapid protective and avoidance behaviors...
August 16, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799442/the-use-of-innervated-radial-artery-superficial-palmar-branch-perforator-free-flap-for-complex-digital-injuries-reconstruction
#10
Zhenglin Chi, Georgios Pafitanis, Luis Eduardo Parra Pont, Roshan Vijayan, Stefano Marcelli, Weiyang Gao, Zan Li, Xiao Zhou, Dajiang Song, Peng Yang
Loco-regional flaps have been widely used for the reconstruction of digital injuries without requiring microvascular anastomosis, however, they result in scarring and compromised functional outcomes. This study demonstrates our experience utilizing the innervated radial artery superficial palmar branch (RASPB) perforator free flap for complex digital injury reconstruction. From May 2007 to March 2014, the innervated RASPB perforator free flap was used to reconstruct 79 distal complex hand and digital soft tissue defects of which 14 were used to re-vascularise the distal digit in a flow-through fashion...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Plastic Surgery and Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760966/neuronal-cytoskeletal-gene-dysregulation-and-mechanical-hypersensitivity-in-a-rat-model-of-rett-syndrome
#11
Aritra Bhattacherjee, Ying Mu, Michelle K Winter, Jennifer R Knapp, Linda S Eggimann, Sumedha S Gunewardena, Kazuto Kobayashi, Shigeki Kato, Dora Krizsan-Agbas, Peter G Smith
Children with Rett syndrome show abnormal cutaneous sensitivity. The precise nature of sensory abnormalities and underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. Rats with methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) mutation, characteristic of Rett syndrome, show hypersensitivity to pressure and cold, but hyposensitivity to heat. They also show cutaneous hyperinnervation by nonpeptidergic sensory axons, which include subpopulations encoding noxious mechanical and cold stimuli, whereas peptidergic thermosensory innervation is reduced...
August 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747449/loss-of-cutaneous-large-and-small-fibers-in-naive-and-l-dopa-treated-pd-patients
#12
Maria Nolano, Vincenzo Provitera, Fiore Manganelli, Rosa Iodice, Annamaria Stancanelli, Giuseppe Caporaso, Annamaria Saltalamacchia, Francesca Califano, Bernardo Lanzillo, Marina Picillo, Paolo Barone, Lucio Santoro
OBJECTIVE: To study small and large fiber pathology in drug-naive and l-dopa-treated patients affected by Parkinson disease (PD) in early phases, before the occurrence of neuropathic electrophysiologic abnormalities. METHODS: We enrolled 85 patients with idiopathic PD (male/female 49/36, age 61.3 ± 9.7 years) without electrophysiologic signs of neuropathy, including 48 participants naive to l-dopa treatment. All patients underwent clinical, functional, and morphologic assessment of sensory and autonomic nerves through dedicated questionnaires, quantitative sensory testing, sympathetic skin response, dynamic sweat test, and punch biopsies from glabrous and hairy skin...
August 22, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705167/inhibition-of-parkinsonian-tremor-with-cutaneous-afferent-evoked-by-transcutaneous-electrical-nerve-stimulation
#13
Man-Zhao Hao, Shao-Qin Xu, Zi-Xiang Hu, Fu-Liang Xu, Chuan-Xin M Niu, Qin Xiao, Ning Lan
BACKGROUND: Recent study suggests that tremor signals are transmitted by way of multi-synaptic corticospinal pathway. Neurophysiological studies have also demonstrated that cutaneous afferents exert potent inhibition to descending motor commands by way of spinal interneurons. We hypothesize in this study that cutaneous afferents could also affect the transmission of tremor signals, thus, inhibit tremor in patients with PD. METHODS: We tested this hypothesis by activating cutaneous afferents in the dorsal hand skin innervated by superficial radial nerve using transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS)...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687815/postoperative-long-term-morbidity-of-extended-endoscopic-maxillectomy-for-inverted-papilloma
#14
G Bertazzoni, R Accorona, A Schreiber, G Pietrobon, A Karligkiotis, E Fazio, P Castelnuovo, P Nicolai
BACKGROUND: Extended endoscopic maxillectomy (Sturmann-Canfield procedure) allows full visualization of the maxillary sinus by sectioning the lacrimal duct and removing the medial part of the anterior maxillary wall. The aim of this study is to evaluate the morbidity of Sturmann-Canfield procedure in patients treated for inverted papilloma. METHODOLOGY: The clinical records of all patients treated with a Sturmann-Canfield procedure for inverted papilloma from October 2000 to September 2015 at two teaching hospitals were reviewed...
December 1, 2017: Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633742/cutaneous-varicella-zoster-virus-infection-following-zoster-vaccination-report-of-post-vaccination-herpes-zoster-skin-infection-and-literature-review-of-zoster-vaccination-efficacy-and-guidelines
#15
Katherine M Stiff, Philip R Cohen
BackgroundHerpes zoster vaccine is currently recommended in the United States for immune competent individuals ≥60 years. The efficacy of the herpes zoster vaccine decreases with age and with time following vaccination.PurposeAn elderly man with herpes zoster following vaccination is described. The guidelines for vaccination and issues regarding re-vaccination are reviewed. METHODS: PubMed was used to search the following terms: efficacy, elderly, herpes zoster, herpes zoster incidence, herpes zoster recurrence, and vaccination...
June 15, 2017: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617716/hybrid-blocks-for-total-knee-arthroplasty-a-technical-description
#16
David F Johnston, Rakesh V Sondekoppam, Vishal Uppal, James L Howard, Sugantha Ganapathy
This narrative review article aims to examine current evidence of knee innervation in order to develop a technique of targeting pure sensory innervation of the knee joint without compromising motor function. A literature review of knee innervation was performed to gain an anatomic understanding of terminal sensory branches of the relevant target nerves (femoral, obturator, sciatic, and lateral femoral cutaneous). Pure sensory block of the knee joint is challenging due to important contributions from the muscular innervation close to the joint and the variability of nerves afferents contained within and around the adductor canal...
June 14, 2017: Clinical Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551063/-superior-gluteal-nerve-a-new-block-on-the-block
#17
Miguel Sá, Rita Graça, Hugo Reis, José Miguel Cardoso, José Sampaio, Célia Pinheiro, Duarte Machado
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The superior gluteal nerve is responsible for innervating the gluteus medius, gluteus minimus and tensor fascia latae muscles, all of which can be injured during surgical procedures. We describe an ultrasound-guided approach to block the superior gluteal nerve which allowed us to provide efficient analgesia and anesthesia for two orthopedic procedures, in a patient who had significant risk factors for neuraxial techniques and deep peripheral nerve blocks. CLINICAL REPORT: An 84-year-old female whose regular use of clopidogrel contraindicated neuraxial techniques or deep peripheral nerve blocks presented for urgent bipolar hemiarthroplasty in our hospital...
May 24, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521269/a-new-technique-for-dorsal-sural-nerve-conduction-study-with-surface-strip-electrodes
#18
Shoji Hemmi, Katsumi Kurokawa, Taiji Nagai, Ryutaro Kushida, Toshio Okamoto, Tatsufumi Murakami, Yoshihide Sunada
OBJECTIVE: To obtain higher amplitude of dorsal sural sensory nerve action potentials (SNAPs), we used a new method for dorsal sural nerve conduction study with surface strip electrodes (SSEs). METHODS: Dorsal sural SNAPs were recorded orthodromically. The recording electrodes were placed behind the lateral malleolus. SSEs were attached to the laterodorsal aspect of the foot for stimulation of the dorsal sural nerve (DSN). We also used a conventional method with a standard bipolar stimulator and compared the findings...
July 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476948/hierarchical-specification-of-pruriceptors-by-runt-domain-transcription-factor-runx1
#19
Lu Qi, Chengcheng Huang, Xiaohua Wu, Yeqi Tao, Jingjing Yan, Tianyong Shi, Cheng Cao, Lu Han, Mengsheng Qiu, Qiufu Ma, Zijing Liu, Yang Liu
The somatic sensory neurons in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) detect and transmit a diverse array of sensory modalities, such as pain, itch, cold, warm, touch, and others. Recent genetic and single-cell RNA sequencing studies have revealed a group of DRG neurons that could be particularly relevant for acute and chronic itch information transmission. They express the natriuretic peptide type B (NPPB), as well as a cohort of receptors and neuropeptides that have been implicated in chronic itch manifestation, including the interleukin-31 receptor A (IL-31ra) and its coreceptor oncostatin M receptor (Osmr), the cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 2 (Cysltr2), somatostatin, and neurotensin...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468842/novel-mutations-in-dystonin-provide-clues-to-the-pathomechanisms-of-hsan-vi
#20
Fiore Manganelli, Silvia Parisi, Maria Nolano, Feifei Tao, Simona Paladino, Chiara Pisciotta, Stefano Tozza, Claudia Nesti, Adriana P Rebelo, Vincenzo Provitera, Filippo M Santorelli, Michael E Shy, Tommaso Russo, Stephan Zuchner, Lucio Santoro
OBJECTIVE: To describe a second hereditary sensory autonomic neuropathy type VI (HSAN-VI) family harboring 2 novel heterozygous mutations in the dystonin (DST) gene and to evaluate their effect on neurons derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC). METHODS: The family consisted of 3 affected siblings from nonconsanguineous healthy parents. All members underwent clinical and electrophysiologic evaluation and genetic analysis. Two patients underwent quantitative sensory testing (QST), cardiovascular reflexes, dynamic sweat test, and skin biopsy to evaluate somatic and autonomic cutaneous innervation and to get fibroblast cultures for developing iPSC-derived neurons...
May 30, 2017: Neurology
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