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Cutaneous innervation

Milene R Malheiros-Lima, Washington Pires, Ivana A T Fonseca, Julliane V Joviano-Santos, Anderson J Ferreira, Cândido C Coimbra, Nilo R V Lima, Samuel P Wanner
This study aimed to investigate the chronic effects of caudal artery denervation on morphometric parameters of the tail vascular smooth muscle and on physical exercise-induced thermoregulatory and cardiovascular adjustments in rats. Male Wistar rats were subjected to caudal artery denervation or the sham procedure. Approximately 26-28 days after these procedures, their thermoregulatory and cardiovascular parameters were evaluated at rest and during or following a fatiguing treadmill run. At the end of the experiments, the rats were euthanized, and samples of their tails were removed to evaluate morphometric parameters of the vascular smooth muscle surrounding the caudal artery...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Busra Candan, Soner Albay
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to determine of cutaneous innervation of dorsum of the foot on fetal cadavers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study 200 limbs from 100 embalmed fetuses (54 males and 46 females) were studied in Anatomy Laboratory. Contributions of medial, lateral and intermediate dorsal cutaneous nerves (MDCN, LDCN and IDCN) of the foot were identified. FINDINGS: Cutaneous innervation of dorsum of the foot was classified into five Types...
March 3, 2018: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
Tetsuro Watase, Kohei Shimizu, Hiroki Komiya, Kinuyo Ohara, Koichi Iwata, Bunnai Ogiso
A study was conducted to evaluate the mechanisms underlying ectopic orofacial pain associated with tooth pulp inflammation in rats. We observed a significant decrease in the head withdrawal threshold (HWT) response to mechanical and heat stimuli applied to the ipsilateral facial skin upon application of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) to the upper first molar (M1TP) in comparison to application of vehicle. A large number of trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons showed transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) immunoreactivity (IR), and some of them were retrogradely labeled with fluorogold injected into the facial skin...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Oral Science
Akira Matsumoto, Hiroyuki Murota, Mika Terao, Ichiro Katayama
Intense chronic itch significantly reduces quality of life for atopic dermatitis (AD) patients, impairing daily activity. While abnormal itch sensation can be induced by innocuous stimuli, known as alloknesis, the mechanisms driving this process remain obscure. Psychological and environmental stimuli are known to aggravate AD symptoms. Recently, the enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-1 (HSD11β1), which is expressed in keratinocytes, has been implicated in maintaining homeostasis against environmental stimuli by activating endogenous glucocorticoids (GCs)...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Christopher M Gibbs, Alexander D Ginsburg, Thomas J Wilson, Nirusha Lachman, Mario Hevesi, Robert J Spinner, Aaron J Krych
INTRODUCTION: A "perineal" branch of the sciatic nerve has been visualized during surgery, but there is currently no description of this nerve branch in the literature. Our study investigates the presence and frequency of occurrence of perineal innervation by the sciatic nerve and characterizes its anatomy in the posterior thigh. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen cadavers were obtained for dissection. Descriptive results were recorded.Statistical analysis was performed and analyzed statistically...
February 7, 2018: Clinical Anatomy
Thomas D Nielsen, Bernhard Moriggl, Jeppe Barckman, Jens A Kølsen-Petersen, Kjeld Søballe, Jens Børglum, Thomas F Bendtsen
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Nerve blockade of the lateral femoral cutaneous (LFC) nerve provides some analgesia after hip surgery. However, knowledge is lacking about the extent of the cutaneous area anesthetized by established LFC nerve block techniques, as well as the success rate of anesthetic coverage of various surgical incisions. Nerve block techniques that rely on ultrasonographic identification of the LFC nerve distal to the inguinal ligament can be technically challenging. Furthermore, the branching of the LFC nerve is variable, and it is unknown if proximal LFC nerve branches are anesthetized using the current techniques...
January 29, 2018: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Sandra R Hundza, Amit Gaur, Ryan Brodie, Drew Commandeur, Marc D Klimstra
In young healthy adults, characteristic obstacle avoidance reflexes have been demonstrated in response to electrical stimulation of cutaneous afferents of the foot during walking. It is unknown whether there is an age-related reflex erosion of this obstacle avoidance reflex with stimulation to the tibial nerve (Tibn) innervating the sole of the foot. The purpose of this study was to identify age-dependent differences in obstacle avoidance reflexes evoked with electrical stimulation of the Tibn at the ankle during walking in healthy young and older (70 years and older) adults with no history of falls...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
Vadims Parfejevs, Julien Debbache, Olga Shakhova, Simon M Schaefer, Mareen Glausch, Michael Wegner, Ueli Suter, Una Riekstina, Sabine Werner, Lukas Sommer
Cutaneous wound healing is a complex process that aims to re-establish the original structure of the skin and its functions. Among other disorders, peripheral neuropathies are known to severely impair wound healing capabilities of the skin, revealing the importance of skin innervation for proper repair. Here, we report that peripheral glia are crucially involved in this process. Using a mouse model of wound healing, combined with in vivo fate mapping, we show that injury activates peripheral glia by promoting de-differentiation, cell-cycle re-entry and dissemination of the cells into the wound bed...
January 16, 2018: Nature Communications
Mitsuhiro Nito, Wataru Hashizume, Katsuhiko Suzuki, Toshiaki Sato, Hiromi Fujii, Takuji Miyasaka, Masaomi Shindo, Akira Naito
PURPOSE: Our previous studies using a poststimulus time histogram method demonstrated inhibitory spinal reflex arcs (inhibition) between the brachioradialis (BR) and flexor carpi radialis (FCR) in humans. Group I afferents mediated the inhibition through an oligosynaptic path. In this study, effects of the inhibition on excitability of the motoneuron pools were examined, and we tried to clarify which afferents of group Ia or Ib are responsible for the inhibition. METHODS: We evaluated the effects of low-threshold afferents between BR and FCR on FCR and BR motoneuron pools, respectively, using an electromyogram-averaging method in 14 healthy human subjects...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
Fang Fang, Wenxuan Zou, Zhiming Zhang, Qi Zhang, Yun Xie
BACKGROUND: Most of the literature concerning the neurocutaneous flap is related to its anatomic investigation and clinical application, and the more in-depth physiological problem such as whether the cutaneous nerve contains sympathetic fibers that innervate its accompanying vessels has never been explored. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dissection was first performed on three rabbits. In another 22 rabbits, two rabbits undergoing no surgery were used as the normal control group...
December 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
Hiroaki Matsuda, Yoshinari Oka, Ryuichi Yoshida, Yuki Katsura, Hidemi Takeuchi, Yasuo Fujimoto, Shigeko Takatsu, Masashi Miyazaki
INTRODUCTION: Arteriovenous access (AVA)-related pain treated successfully with runoff-venous decompression of the causative nerve, following ultrasound (US)-assisted preoperative evaluation, has never been reported. CASE PRESENTATION: A 57-year-old man suffering from constant exhausting pains along the outflow cephalic vein of the radiocephalic arteriovenous fistula at the wrist and the antecubital fossa, was treated surgically after the diagnosis of AVA-related pain derived from cephalic vein compression on two peripheral cutaneous nerves, the superficial radial nerve (SRN) and the lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve (LACN)...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Vascular Access
Taryn Klarner, Gregory E P Pearcey, Yao Sun, Trevor S Barss, Chelsea Kaupp, Bridget Munro, Nick Frank, E Paul Zehr
INTRODUCTION: Sensory feedback from the foot dorsum during walking has only been studied globally by whole nerve stimulation. Stimulating the main nerve innervating the dorsal surface produces a functional stumble corrective response that is phase-dependently modulated. We speculated that effects evoked by activation of discrete skin regions on the foot dorsum would be topographically organized, as with the foot sole. METHODS: Nonnoxious electrical stimulation was delivered to five discrete locations on the dorsal surface of the foot during treadmill walking...
December 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Do-Hee Kim, Yeonhee Ryu, Dae Hyun Hahm, Boo Yong Sohn, Insop Shim, O Sang Kwon, Suchan Chang, Young Seob Gwak, Min Sun Kim, Jae Hyo Kim, Bong Hyo Lee, Eun Young Jang, Rongjie Zhao, Jin Mo Chung, Chae Ha Yang, Hee Young Kim
Acupuncture, a traditional medical procedure practised for over 2000 years in Asia, stimulates specific but poorly defined sites called acupoints. To date, no unique anatomical acupoint structures have been found. However, noxious sensory signals from visceral organs produce hypersensitive spots on the skin (neurogenic spots), caused by cutaneous neurogenic inflammation, in the dermatome that overlaps with visceral afferent innervations. Here, we show that an acupoint is one form of neurogenic inflammation on the skin...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
R J Pope, R H Brown, E Chipungu, L H Hollier, J P Wilkinson
Gynecologic and plastic surgeons collaborate to improve vaginal reconstruction for women with vaginal stenosis and obstetric fistula. As these cases occur typically in low-resource settings, the Singapore flap is a useful technique given its reliability, safety, ease of dissection, and minimal need for additional supplies. The fasciocutaneous flap maintains cutaneous innervation and vasculature and does not require stenting. The surgical collaboration has made it possible to provide functional vaginal reconstruction as a part of the overall care of obstetric fistula patients...
October 5, 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Leonardo Fierro
Tight whole-cell patch clamp was performed in 191 DiI (1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3'3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate) retrogradely labeled rat sensory afferents from skin shoulders ( n = 93) and biceps femoris muscles ( n = 98). 5-HT-gated inward currents were evoked with 50-µM serotonin (5-HT; 5-hydroxytryptamine), and their frequency and current densities were compared between skin and skeletal muscle sensory afferents. To evaluate if 5-HT-gated inward currents coexist with other ligand-gated currents, the skin and skeletal muscle sensory afferents were also sequentially exposed to external solution at pH 6...
January 2017: Molecular Pain
Nima Ghitani, Arnab Barik, Marcin Szczot, James H Thompson, Chia Li, Claire E Le Pichon, Michael J Krashes, Alexander T Chesler
The somatosensory system provides animals with the ability to detect, distinguish, and respond to diverse thermal, mechanical, and irritating stimuli. While there has been progress in defining classes of neurons underlying temperature sensation and gentle touch, less is known about the neurons specific for mechanical pain. Here, we use in vivo functional imaging to identify a class of cutaneous sensory neurons that are selectively activated by high-threshold mechanical stimulation (HTMRs). We show that their optogenetic excitation evokes rapid protective and avoidance behaviors...
August 16, 2017: Neuron
Zhenglin Chi, Georgios Pafitanis, Luis Eduardo Parra Pont, Roshan Vijayan, Stefano Marcelli, Weiyang Gao, Zan Li, Xiao Zhou, Dajiang Song, Peng Yang
Loco-regional flaps have been widely used for the reconstruction of digital injuries without requiring microvascular anastomosis, however, they result in scarring and compromised functional outcomes. This study demonstrates our experience utilizing the innervated radial artery superficial palmar branch (RASPB) perforator free flap for complex digital injury reconstruction. From May 2007 to March 2014, the innervated RASPB perforator free flap was used to reconstruct 79 distal complex hand and digital soft tissue defects of which 14 were used to re-vascularise the distal digit in a flow-through fashion...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Plastic Surgery and Hand Surgery
Aritra Bhattacherjee, Ying Mu, Michelle K Winter, Jennifer R Knapp, Linda S Eggimann, Sumedha S Gunewardena, Kazuto Kobayashi, Shigeki Kato, Dora Krizsan-Agbas, Peter G Smith
Children with Rett syndrome show abnormal cutaneous sensitivity. The precise nature of sensory abnormalities and underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. Rats with methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) mutation, characteristic of Rett syndrome, show hypersensitivity to pressure and cold, but hyposensitivity to heat. They also show cutaneous hyperinnervation by nonpeptidergic sensory axons, which include subpopulations encoding noxious mechanical and cold stimuli, whereas peptidergic thermosensory innervation is reduced...
August 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Maria Nolano, Vincenzo Provitera, Fiore Manganelli, Rosa Iodice, Annamaria Stancanelli, Giuseppe Caporaso, Annamaria Saltalamacchia, Francesca Califano, Bernardo Lanzillo, Marina Picillo, Paolo Barone, Lucio Santoro
OBJECTIVE: To study small and large fiber pathology in drug-naive and l-dopa-treated patients affected by Parkinson disease (PD) in early phases, before the occurrence of neuropathic electrophysiologic abnormalities. METHODS: We enrolled 85 patients with idiopathic PD (male/female 49/36, age 61.3 ± 9.7 years) without electrophysiologic signs of neuropathy, including 48 participants naive to l-dopa treatment. All patients underwent clinical, functional, and morphologic assessment of sensory and autonomic nerves through dedicated questionnaires, quantitative sensory testing, sympathetic skin response, dynamic sweat test, and punch biopsies from glabrous and hairy skin...
August 22, 2017: Neurology
Man-Zhao Hao, Shao-Qin Xu, Zi-Xiang Hu, Fu-Liang Xu, Chuan-Xin M Niu, Qin Xiao, Ning Lan
BACKGROUND: Recent study suggests that tremor signals are transmitted by way of multi-synaptic corticospinal pathway. Neurophysiological studies have also demonstrated that cutaneous afferents exert potent inhibition to descending motor commands by way of spinal interneurons. We hypothesize in this study that cutaneous afferents could also affect the transmission of tremor signals, thus, inhibit tremor in patients with PD. METHODS: We tested this hypothesis by activating cutaneous afferents in the dorsal hand skin innervated by superficial radial nerve using transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS)...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
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