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Cutaneous innervation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521269/a-new-technique-for-dorsal-sural-nerve-conduction-study-with-surface-strip-electrodes
#1
Shoji Hemmi, Katsumi Kurokawa, Taiji Nagai, Ryutaro Kushida, Toshio Okamoto, Tatsufumi Murakami, Yoshihide Sunada
OBJECTIVE: To obtain higher amplitude of dorsal sural sensory nerve action potentials (SNAPs), we used a new method for dorsal sural nerve conduction study with surface strip electrodes (SSEs). METHODS: Dorsal sural SNAPs were recorded orthodromically. The recording electrodes were placed behind the lateral malleolus. SSEs were attached to the laterodorsal aspect of the foot for stimulation of the dorsal sural nerve (DSN). We also used a conventional method with a standard bipolar stimulator and compared the findings...
April 19, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476948/hierarchical-specification-of-pruriceptors-by-runt-domain-transcription-factor-runx1
#2
Lu Qi, Chengcheng Huang, Xiaohua Wu, Yeqi Tao, Jingjing Yan, Tianyong Shi, Cheng Cao, Lu Han, Mengsheng Qiu, Qiufu Ma, Zijing Liu, Yang Liu
The somatic sensory neurons in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) detect and transmit a diverse array of sensory modalities, such as pain, itch, cold, warm, touch and others. Recent genetic and single-cell RNA sequencing studies have revealed a group of DRG neurons that could be particularly relevant for acute and chronic itch information transmission. They express the natriuretic peptide type B (NPPB), as well as a cohort of receptors and neuropeptides that have been implicated in chronic itch manifestation, including the interleukin-31 receptor IL31ra and its co-receptor Osmr, the leuktriene receptor Cysltr2, somatostatin and neurotensin...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468842/novel-mutations-in-dystonin-provide-clues-to-the-pathomechanisms-of-hsan-vi
#3
Fiore Manganelli, Silvia Parisi, Maria Nolano, Feifei Tao, Simona Paladino, Chiara Pisciotta, Stefano Tozza, Claudia Nesti, Adriana P Rebelo, Vincenzo Provitera, Filippo M Santorelli, Michael E Shy, Tommaso Russo, Stephan Zuchner, Lucio Santoro
OBJECTIVE: To describe a second hereditary sensory autonomic neuropathy type VI (HSAN-VI) family harboring 2 novel heterozygous mutations in the dystonin (DST) gene and to evaluate their effect on neurons derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC). METHODS: The family consisted of 3 affected siblings from nonconsanguineous healthy parents. All members underwent clinical and electrophysiologic evaluation and genetic analysis. Two patients underwent quantitative sensory testing (QST), cardiovascular reflexes, dynamic sweat test, and skin biopsy to evaluate somatic and autonomic cutaneous innervation and to get fibroblast cultures for developing iPSC-derived neurons...
May 3, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446581/cl-channel-is-required-for-cxcl10-induced-neuronal-activation-and-itch-response-in-a-murine-model-of-allergic-contact-dermatitis
#4
Lintao Qu, Kai Fu, Steven G Shimada, Robert H LaMotte
Persistent itch often accompanies allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unexplored. We previously demonstrated that CXCL10/ CXCR3 signaling activated a subpopulation of cutaneous primary sensory neurons and mediated itch response after contact hypersensitivity (CHS), a murine model of ACD, induced by squaric acid dibutylester. The purpose of this study was to determine the ionic mechanisms underlying CXCL10-induced neuronal activation and allergic itch. In whole-cell recordings, CXCL10 triggered a current in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons innervating the area of CHS...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436279/treatment-of-painful-radiculopathies-with-capsaicin-8-cutaneous-patch
#5
R Baron, R D Treede, F Birklein, T Cegla, R Freynhagen, M L Heskamp, K U Kern, C Maier, R Rolke, S Seddigh, C Sommer, S Ständer, C Maihöfner
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The treatment of neuropathic pain due to low-back (lumbosacral) radiculopathies, a common source of neuropathic pain, is challenging and often requires a multimodal therapeutic approach. The capsaicin 8% patch is the first topical analgesic licensed for peripheral neuropathic pain. To evaluate this treatment, a subset of patients with painful radiculopathy (lumbar and cervical, including ventral and dorsal rami) enrolled into the multicenter, non-interventional QUEPP study (Qutenza (2) - safety and effectiveness in peripheral neuropathic pain) was analyzed...
May 4, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428928/origin-branching-and-communications-of-the-intercostobrachial-nerve-a-meta-analysis-with-implications-for-mastectomy-and-axillary-lymph-node-dissection-in-breast-cancer
#6
REVIEW
Brandon Michael Henry, Matthew J Graves, Jakub R Pękala, Beatrice Sanna, Wan Chin Hsieh, R Shane Tubbs, Jerzy A Walocha, Krzysztof A Tomaszewski
The intercostobrachial nerve (ICBN), which usually originates from the lateral cutaneous branch of the second intercostal nerve, innervates areas of the axilla, lateral chest, and medial arm. It is at risk for injury during operative procedures that are often used in the management of breast cancer and such injury has been associated with postoperative sensory loss and neuropathic pain, decreasing the quality of life. PubMed, Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), Biosciences Information Service (BIOSIS), and Web of Science were searched comprehensively...
March 17, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417038/anomalous-innervation-of-the-median-nerve-in-the-arm-in-the-absence-of-the-musculocutaneous-nerve
#7
Khursheed Raza, Seema Singh, Neerja Rani, Raghav Mishra, Kamakshi Mehta, Saroj Kaler
The brachial plexus innervates the upper extremities. While variations in the formation of the brachial plexus and its terminal branches are quite common, it is uncommon for the median nerve to innervate the muscles of the arm. During the dissection of an elderly male cadaver at the Department of Anatomy, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India, in 2016, the coracobrachialis muscle was found to be supplied by a direct branch from the lateral root of the median nerve and the musculocutaneous nerve was absent...
February 2017: Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398686/oligosynaptic-inhibition-of-group-ia-afferents-from-brachioradialis-to-triceps-brachii-motor-neurons-in-humans
#8
Toshiaki Sato, Mitsuhiro Nito, Katsuhiko Suzuki, Hiromi Fujii, Wataru Hashizume, Takuji Miyasaka, Masaomi Shindo, Akira Naito
INTRODUCTION: Effects of low-threshold afferents from the brachioradialis (BR) on excitabilities of triceps brachii (TB) motor neurons in humans were examined. METHODS: We evaluated the effects using a post-stimulus time-histogram (PSTH) and electromyogram-averaging (EMG-A) methods in thirteen healthy human subjects. Electrical conditioning stimulation to the radial nerve branch innervating BR with the intensity below the motor threshold was delivered. RESULTS: In the PSTH study, the stimulation produced a trough (inhibition) in 36/69 TB motor units for all the subjects...
April 11, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381446/cutaneous-trpm8-expressing-sensory-afferents-are-a-small-population-of-neurons-with-unique-firing-properties
#9
Michael P Jankowski, Kristofer K Rau, H Richard Koerber
It has been well documented that the transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) receptor is involved in environmental cold detection. The role that this receptor plays in nociception however, has been somewhat controversial since conflicting reports have shown different neurochemical identities and responsiveness of TRPM8 neurons. In order to functionally characterize cutaneous TRMP8 fibers, we used two ex vivo somatosensory recording preparations to functionally characterize TRPM8 neurons that innervate the hairy skin in mice genetically engineered to express GFP from the TRPM8 locus...
April 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369282/recessive-dystrophic-epidermolysis-bullosa-results-in-painful-small-fibre-neuropathy
#10
Sofia von Bischhoffshausen, Dinka Ivulic, Paola Alvarez, Victor C Schuffeneger, Juan Idiaquez, Constanza Fuentes, Pilar Morande, Ignacia Fuentes, Francis Palisson, David L H Bennett, Margarita Calvo
Small fibres in the skin are vulnerable to damage in metabolic or toxic conditions such as diabetes mellitus or chemotherapy resulting in small fibre neuropathy and associated neuropathic pain. Whether injury to the most distal portion of sensory small fibres due to a primary dermatological disorder can cause neuropathic pain is still unclear. Recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB) is a rare condition in which mutations of proteins of the dermo-epidermal junction lead to cycles of blistering followed by regeneration of the skin...
March 28, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358935/comparison-of-neurovascular-characteristics-of-facial-skin-in-patients-after-primary-and-revision-rhytidectomies
#11
Farhad Ardeshirpour, Elisabeth Hurliman, Gwen Wendelschafer-Crabb, Brian McAdams, Peter A Hilger, William R Kennedy, Amy Anne D Lassig, Michael J Brenner
Importance: Wound healing influences both the cosmetic and functional outcomes of facial surgery. Study of cutaneous innervation may afford insight into patients' preoperative wound healing potential and aid in their selection of appropriate surgical procedures. Objective: To present the quantitative and qualitative differences of epidermal nerve fibers (ENFs), neurotransmitters, vasculature, and mast cells in facial skin among patients after primary and revision rhytidectomies...
March 30, 2017: JAMA Facial Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333372/characterisation-and-functional-mapping-of-surface-potentials-in-the-rat-dorsal-column-nuclei
#12
Alastair J Loutit, Ted Maddess, Stephen J Redmond, John W Morley, Greg J Stuart, Jason R Potas
The brainstem dorsal column nuclei (DCN) play a role in early processing of somatosensory information arising from a variety of functionally distinct peripheral structures, before being transmitted to the cortex via the thalamus. To improve our understanding of how sensory information is represented by the DCN, we characterised and mapped low- (<200 Hz) and high-frequency (550-3300 Hz) components of nerve-evoked DCN surface potentials. DCN surface potentials were evoked by electrical stimulation of the left and right nerves innervating cutaneous (sural nerve), or a mix of cutaneous and deep structures (peroneal nerve), in 8 week-old urethane anaesthetised male Wistar rats...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326307/p75-neurotrophin-receptor-in-the-skin-beyond-its-neurotrophic-function
#13
REVIEW
Carlo Pincelli
p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR)), also known as CD271, is the low-affinity receptor that, together with the tyrosine kinase receptor tropomyosin-receptor kinase (Trk), mediate neurotrophin (NT) functions. Beside their classic role in skin innervation, NT and their receptors constitute a complex cutaneous network associated with a number of autocrine and paracrine activities. In this context, the role of p75(NTR) is becoming more and more important. This review will focus on the intriguing functions of p75(NTR) in healthy and diseased skin...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281304/variations-in-sural-nerve-formation-pattern-and-distribution-on-the-dorsum-of-the-foot
#14
Su Kyoung Jeon, Doo-Jin Paik, Young-Il Hwang
The sural nerve, a cutaneous nerve, is clinically important because it is frequently for nerve conduction testing, biopsy, and harvesting for nerve grafts. This nerve exhibits a wide variety of variation in formation, distribution on the dorsum of the foot, and so on, depending on the population observed. In this study, we examined the variation in the sural nerve in 110 Korean cadavers. Of these cadavers, 86.1% of the sural nerves corresponded to type A, where tibial and peroneal components were united to form the sural nerve...
March 9, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274075/herpes-zoster-with-post-herpetic-neuralgia-involving-the-right-maxillary-branch-of-trigeminal-nerve-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#15
Massillamani Francis, Kailasam Subramanian, S Leena Sankari, Venkata Lakshmi Aparna Potluri, Akila Prabakaran
Herpes Zoster (HZ) is an acute, self-limiting, neuro cutaneous viral infection caused by the reactivation of the Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) that remains latent in the dorsal root ganglion. About 50% of occurrence is seen in older age groups and immunocompromised patients. Less than 5% occur in children. HZ is characterized by the unilateral pain, burning and tingling sensation followed by the vesicular eruptions limited to the single dermatome that are innervated by the single cranial ganglion, sometimes it leads to Post Herpetic Neuralgia (PHN)...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268673/development-of-a-closed-loop-system-for-tremor-suppression-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#16
F L Xu, M Z Hao, S Q Xu, Z X Hu, Q Xiao, N Lan
More than 70% of patients suffering Parkinson's disease (PD) exhibit resting tremor in their extremities, hampering their ability to perform daily activities. Based on our earlier studies on corticospinal transmission of tremor signals [10,11], we hypothesize that cutaneous afferents evoked by surface stimulation can produce an inhibitory effect on propriospinal neurons (PN), which in turn will suppress tremor signals passing through the PN. This paper presents the development of a closed-loop system for tremor suppression by transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) of sensory fibers beneath the skin...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267068/sensory-distribution-of-the-lateral-cutaneous-nerve-of-forearm-after-ultrasound-guided-block-potential-implications-for-thumb-base-surgery
#17
Christopher S Hasenkam, Gregory A Hoy, Paul F Soeding
Surgery of the wrist and hand commonly involves regional anesthesia of the median nerve and superficial radial nerve within the forearm. In this sonographic study, the contribution of the lateral cutaneous nerve of forearm (LCNF) to thumb cutaneous sensation was studied. Patients scheduled for thumb suspension arthroplasty (n = 35) were examined by ultrasound, with LCNF, median nerve, and superficial radial nerve identified. A single nerve was then injected with local anesthetic, and the area of cutaneous sensory loss mapped at 15 minutes...
March 6, 2017: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255253/a-case-report-of-complex-auricular-neuralgia-treated-with-the-great-auricular-nerve-and-facet-blocks
#18
Marzieh Eghtesadi, Elizabeth Leroux, Grisell Vargas-Schaffer
BACKGROUND: The great auricular nerve is a cutaneous branch of the cervical plexus originating from the C2 and C3 spinal nerves. It innervates the skin over the external ear, the angle of the mandible and the parotid gland. It communicates with the ansa cervicalis. Great auricular neuralgia is rarely diagnosed in clinical practice and can be refractory. We present a new approach using ultrasound-guided nerve blocks. CASE: We present a case of a 41-year-old female with paroxysmal ear pain accompanied by dysautonomia, tingling in the tongue, dysphagia, dysarthria and abdominal symptoms...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236130/entrapment-of-the-posterior-femoral-cutaneous-nerve-and-its-inferior-cluneal-branches-anatomical-basis-of-surgery-for-inferior-cluneal-neuralgia
#19
Stéphane Ploteau, Céline Salaud, Antoine Hamel, Roger Robert
PURPOSE: The apparent failure of pudendal nerve surgery in some patients has led us to suggest the possibility of entrapment of other adjacent nerve structures, leading to the concept of inferior cluneal neuralgia. Via its numerous collateral branches, the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve innervates a very extensive territory including the posterior surface of the thigh, the infragluteal fold, the skin over the ischial tuberosity, but also the lateral anal region, scrotum or labium majus via its perineal branch...
February 24, 2017: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235444/efficient-healing-takes-some-nerve-electrical-stimulation-enhances-innervation-in-cutaneous-human%C3%A2-wounds
#20
Elaine Emmerson
Cutaneous nerves extend throughout the dermis and epidermis and control both the functional and reparative capacity of the skin. Denervation of the skin impairs cutaneous healing, presenting evidence that nerves provide cues essential for timely wound repair. Sebastian et al. demonstrate that electrical stimulation promotes reinnervation and neural differentiation in human acute wounds, thus accelerating wound repair.
March 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
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