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Cutaneous innervation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281304/variations-in-sural-nerve-formation-pattern-and-distribution-on-the-dorsum-of-the-foot
#1
Su Kyoung Jeon, Doo-Jin Paik, Young-Il Hwang
The sural nerve, a cutaneous nerve, is clinically important because it is frequently for nerve conduction testing, biopsy, and harvesting for nerve grafts. This nerve exhibits a wide variety of variation in formation, distribution on the dorsum of the foot, and so on, depending on the population observed. In this study, we examined the variation in the sural nerve in 110 Korean cadavers. Of these cadavers, 86.1% of the sural nerves corresponded to type A, where tibial and peroneal components were united to form the sural nerve...
March 9, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274075/herpes-zoster-with-post-herpetic-neuralgia-involving-the-right-maxillary-branch-of-trigeminal-nerve-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#2
Massillamani Francis, Kailasam Subramanian, S Leena Sankari, Venkata Lakshmi Aparna Potluri, Akila Prabakaran
Herpes Zoster (HZ) is an acute, self-limiting, neuro cutaneous viral infection caused by the reactivation of the Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) that remains latent in the dorsal root ganglion. About 50% of occurrence is seen in older age groups and immunocompromised patients. Less than 5% occur in children. HZ is characterized by the unilateral pain, burning and tingling sensation followed by the vesicular eruptions limited to the single dermatome that are innervated by the single cranial ganglion, sometimes it leads to Post Herpetic Neuralgia (PHN)...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268673/development-of-a-closed-loop-system-for-tremor-suppression-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#3
F L Xu, M Z Hao, S Q Xu, Z X Hu, Q Xiao, N Lan
More than 70% of patients suffering Parkinson's disease (PD) exhibit resting tremor in their extremities, hampering their ability to perform daily activities. Based on our earlier studies on corticospinal transmission of tremor signals [10,11], we hypothesize that cutaneous afferents evoked by surface stimulation can produce an inhibitory effect on propriospinal neurons (PN), which in turn will suppress tremor signals passing through the PN. This paper presents the development of a closed-loop system for tremor suppression by transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) of sensory fibers beneath the skin...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267068/sensory-distribution-of-the-lateral-cutaneous-nerve-of-forearm-after-ultrasound-guided-block-potential-implications-for-thumb-base-surgery
#4
Christopher S Hasenkam, Gregory A Hoy, Paul F Soeding
Surgery of the wrist and hand commonly involves regional anesthesia of the median nerve and superficial radial nerve within the forearm. In this sonographic study, the contribution of the lateral cutaneous nerve of forearm (LCNF) to thumb cutaneous sensation was studied. Patients scheduled for thumb suspension arthroplasty (n = 35) were examined by ultrasound, with LCNF, median nerve, and superficial radial nerve identified. A single nerve was then injected with local anesthetic, and the area of cutaneous sensory loss mapped at 15 minutes...
March 6, 2017: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255253/a-case-report-of-complex-auricular-neuralgia-treated-with-the-great-auricular-nerve-and-facet-blocks
#5
Marzieh Eghtesadi, Elizabeth Leroux, Grisell Vargas-Schaffer
BACKGROUND: The great auricular nerve is a cutaneous branch of the cervical plexus originating from the C2 and C3 spinal nerves. It innervates the skin over the external ear, the angle of the mandible and the parotid gland. It communicates with the ansa cervicalis. Great auricular neuralgia is rarely diagnosed in clinical practice and can be refractory. We present a new approach using ultrasound-guided nerve blocks. CASE: We present a case of a 41-year-old female with paroxysmal ear pain accompanied by dysautonomia, tingling in the tongue, dysphagia, dysarthria and abdominal symptoms...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236130/entrapment-of-the-posterior-femoral-cutaneous-nerve-and-its-inferior-cluneal-branches-anatomical-basis-of-surgery-for-inferior-cluneal-neuralgia
#6
Stéphane Ploteau, Céline Salaud, Antoine Hamel, Roger Robert
PURPOSE: The apparent failure of pudendal nerve surgery in some patients has led us to suggest the possibility of entrapment of other adjacent nerve structures, leading to the concept of inferior cluneal neuralgia. Via its numerous collateral branches, the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve innervates a very extensive territory including the posterior surface of the thigh, the infragluteal fold, the skin over the ischial tuberosity, but also the lateral anal region, scrotum or labium majus via its perineal branch...
February 24, 2017: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235444/efficient-healing-takes-some-nerve-electrical-stimulation-enhances-innervation-in-cutaneous-human%C3%A2-wounds
#7
Elaine Emmerson
Cutaneous nerves extend throughout the dermis and epidermis and control both the functional and reparative capacity of the skin. Denervation of the skin impairs cutaneous healing, presenting evidence that nerves provide cues essential for timely wound repair. Sebastian et al. demonstrate that electrical stimulation promotes reinnervation and neural differentiation in human acute wounds, thus accelerating wound repair.
March 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228418/folic-acid-supplementation-increases-cutaneous-vasodilator-sensitivity-to-sympathetic-nerve-activity-in-older-adults
#8
Anna E Stanhewicz, Jody L Greaney, Lacy M Alexander, W Larry Kenney
During heat stress, blunted increases in skin sympathetic nervous system activity (SSNA) and reductions in end-organ vascular responsiveness contribute to the age-related reduction in reflex cutaneous vasodilation. In older adults, folic acid supplementation improves the cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) response to passive heating; however, the influence of folic acid supplementation on SSNA:CVC transduction is unknown. Fourteen older adults (66±1yrs, 8M/6F) ingested folic acid (5mg·day(-1)) or placebo for 6 weeks in a randomized, double-blind, crossover design...
February 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226857/development-of-a-closed-loop-system-for-tremor-suppression-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#9
F L Xu, M Z Hao, S Q Xu, Z X Hu, Q Xiao, N Lan, F L Xu, M Z Hao, S Q Xu, Z X Hu, Q Xiao, N Lan, S Q Xu, Z X Hu, Q Xiao, M Z Hao, N Lan, F L Xu
More than 70% of patients suffering Parkinson's disease (PD) exhibit resting tremor in their extremities, hampering their ability to perform daily activities. Based on our earlier studies on corticospinal transmission of tremor signals [10,11], we hypothesize that cutaneous afferents evoked by surface stimulation can produce an inhibitory effect on propriospinal neurons (PN), which in turn will suppress tremor signals passing through the PN. This paper presents the development of a closed-loop system for tremor suppression by transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) of sensory fibers beneath the skin...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222563/afferent-electrical-stimulation-during-cycling-improves-spinal-processing-of-sensorimotor-function-after-incomplete-spinal-cord-injury
#10
Stefano Piazza, Diego Serrano-Muñoz, Julio Gómez-Soriano, Diego Torricelli, Antonio Segura-Fragosa, José Luis Pons, Julian Taylor
OBJECTIVE: Appropriate afferent feedback delivery during the execution of motor tasks is important for rehabilitation after incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI). However, during leg-cycling therapy, the plantar afferent feedback is minimal. We hypothesize that the augmentation of sensory input by combining cycling with a locomotor-like stimulation of plantar cutaneous innervations (ES-cycling), might help to restore proper spinal processing of sensorimotor function. METHODS: 13 non-injured subjects and 10 subjects with iSCI performed 10 minutes of cycling and, on another session, of ES-cycling...
February 10, 2017: NeuroRehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217069/can-ultrasound-guided-subcostal-transverse-abdominis-plane-block-be-used-as-sole-anesthetic-technique
#11
Pooja Bihani, Pradeep Bhatia, Swati Chhabra, Pradeepika Gangwar
Subcostal transverse abdominis plane (TAP) block anesthetizes area of the abdomen with cutaneous innervation of T6-T10 dermatomes. These abdominal field blocks become very advantageous when cardiac patient presents for noncardiac surgeries as sole anesthetic or as a part of multimodal anesthesia. A 58-year-male came for open surgical repair of subxiphoid incisional hernia developed post coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Echocardiography showed hypokinesia of left ventricle (LV) in the left anterior descending (LAD) artery territory, dilated LV, and ejection fraction of 30%, and coronary angiography after 6 months of CABG showed 70% stenosis of LAD...
January 2017: Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069928/functional-organization-of-cutaneous-and-muscle-afferent-synapses-onto-immature-spinal-lamina-i-projection-neurons
#12
Jie Li, Mark L Baccei
It is well established that sensory afferents innervating muscle are more effective at inducing hyperexcitability within spinal cord circuits compared with skin afferents, which likely contributes to the higher prevalence of chronic musculoskeletal pain compared with pain of cutaneous origin. However, the mechanisms underlying these differences in central nociceptive signaling remain incompletely understood, as nothing is known about how superficial dorsal horn neurons process sensory input from muscle versus skin at the synaptic level...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027174/anatomy-of-the-platysma-muscle
#13
Kun Hwang, Ji Yeon Kim, Jae Hyun Lim
The aim of this paper was to review the anatomy the platysma systematically.The term "platysma AND anatomy" was used to search PubMed and Scopus, producing 394 and 214 papers, respectively. After excluding 95 duplicate titles, 513 abstracts and 98 full papers were reviewed. Among these 98 papers, 83 were excluded and 5 were added. Ultimately, 20 papers were analyzed.The most common aging-related change of the platysma was shortening (70.7%), followed by thinning (25.2%). The platysma most commonly originated from the upper portion of thorax anterior to clavicle (67...
March 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939323/anatomic-and-ultrasonic-study-based-on-selective-tibial-neurotomy
#14
Sheng Zhong, Guihong Li, Liu Yang, Qi Yan, Yufa Wang, Gang Zhao, Youqiong Li
BACKGROUND: Selective tibial neurotomy (STN) was considered as an effective procedure for the treatment of spastic feet. It is also widely used for treating obese calves in some Asian countries. This study aimed to provide morphologic measurement data and theoretical support for the operation and intraoperative localization. METHODS: Fifty lower legs from 20 embalmed cadavers and 5 fresh corpses were dissected to observe and record the relationship of 4 branches of the tibial nerve, as well as the length, width, and thickness of the triceps surae...
March 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833358/anatomic-considerations-when-performing-the-modified-henry-approach-for-exposure-of-distal-radius-fractures
#15
Megan A Conti Mica, Randy Bindra, Steven L Moran
BACKGROUND: Identify the proximity of anatomic structures during the modified Henry approach (MHA). METHODS: Distances between median nerve (MN), palmar cutaneous branch (PCB), radial artery (RA) and the flexor carpi radialis (FCR) were measured at the wrist crease (WC), 5 and 10 cm proximal in 16 fresh frozen cadavers. The FPL origin and innervation was measured. RESULTS: Most at risk was the MN proximally and the PCB distally while the RA was safe...
March 2017: Journal of Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789772/blunted-increases-in-skin-sympathetic-nerve-activity-are-related-to-attenuated-reflex-vasodilation-in-aged-human-skin
#16
Anna E Stanhewicz, Jody L Greaney, Lacy M Alexander, W Larry Kenney
Reflex cutaneous vasodilation in response to passive heating is attenuated in human aging. This diminished response is mediated, in part, by age-associated reductions in endothelial function; however, the contribution of altered skin sympathetic nervous system activity (SSNA) is unknown. We hypothesized that 1) healthy older adults would demonstrate blunted SSNA responses to increased core temperature compared with young adults and 2) the decreased SSNA response would be associated with attenuated cutaneous vasodilation...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770192/reconstruction-of-totally-degloved-fingers-a-novel-application-of-the-bilobed-spiraled-innervated-radial-artery-superficial-palmar-branch-perforator-flap-design-provides-for-primary-donor-site-closure
#17
Zhenglin Chi, Peng Yang, Dajiang Song, Zan Li, Liang Tang, Weiyang Gao, Yonghuan Song, Tingang Chu
INTRODUCTION: To investigate the results of resurfacing completely degloved digits using bilobed innervated radial artery superficial palmar branch (RASPB) perforator flap in a spiral fashion. METHODS: A detailed anatomic study on 30 adult fresh frozen cadavers preinjected with silicone rubber compound to demarcate arterial anatomy documented locations, numbers, and diameters of arteries and skin perforators with surrounding nerves. The flap-raising procedure was performed using four fresh cadaver specimen...
October 21, 2016: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743736/effects-of-small-fiber-neuropathy-induced-by-resiniferatoxin-on-skin-healing-and-axonal-regrowth-after-burn
#18
Betty Laverdet, Dorothée Girard, Audrey Bayout, Nelly Bordeau, Claire Demiot, Alexis Desmoulière
BACKGROUND: Damage to the peripheral nervous system influences wound healing and, after a deep burn, imperfect cutaneous nerve regeneration occurs. A third-degree burn model was developed in rats combined with the use of resiniferatoxin (RTX), known to promote sensory neuropathy. METHODS: Rats were injected intraperitoneally either with RTX or vehicle. A mechanical sensory assay and the hot plate thermal sensory test were performed. The structural integrity of the sciatic nerve was assessed using transmission electron microcopy...
October 12, 2016: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734825/a-novel-approach-for-treatment-of-acetabular-fractures
#19
Zichao Xue, Hui Qin, Haoliang Ding, Zhiquan An
BACKGROUND There is no single approach that provides adequate exposure for treatment of all types of acetabular fractures. We describe our experience with an easier, relatively less invasive pubic symphysis approach (PSA) for the treatment of acetabular fractures. MATERIAL AND METHODS Between March 2011 and March 2012, fifteen patients with acetabular fracture underwent surgery using the PSA technique. Fracture reduction and treatment outcomes were assessed by clinical and radiological examination. Operation time, intraoperative blood loss and postoperative complications were documented...
October 13, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701434/representation-of-afferent-signals-from-forearm-muscle-and-cutaneous-nerves-in-the-primary-somatosensory-cortex-of-the-macaque-monkey
#20
Hiroshi Yamada, Hiroaki Yaguchi, Saeka Tomatsu, Tomohiko Takei, Tomomichi Oya, Kazuhiko Seki
Proprioception is one's overall sense of the relative positions and movements of the various parts of one's body. The primary somatosensory cortex (SI) is involved in generating the proprioception by receiving peripheral sensory inputs from both cutaneous and muscle afferents. In particular, area 3a receives input from muscle afferents and areas 3b and 1 from cutaneous afferents. However, segregation of two sensory inputs to these cortical areas has not been evaluated quantitatively because of methodological difficulties in distinguishing the incoming signals...
2016: PloS One
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