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Cutaneous innervation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069928/functional-organization-of-cutaneous-and-muscle-afferent-synapses-onto-immature-spinal-lamina-i-projection-neurons
#1
Jie Li, Mark L Baccei
: It is well-established that sensory afferents innervating muscle are more effective at inducing hyperexcitability within spinal cord circuits compared to skin afferents, which likely contributes to the higher prevalence of chronic musculoskeletal pain compared to pain of cutaneous origin. However, the mechanisms underlying these differences in central nociceptive signaling remain incompletely understood, as nothing is known about how superficial dorsal horn (SDH) neurons process sensory input from muscle vs...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027174/anatomy-of-the-platysma-muscle
#2
Kun Hwang, Ji Yeon Kim, Jae Hyun Lim
The aim of this paper was to review the anatomy the platysma systematically.The term "platysma AND anatomy" was used to search PubMed and Scopus, producing 394 and 214 papers, respectively. After excluding 95 duplicate titles, 513 abstracts and 98 full papers were reviewed. Among these 98 papers, 83 were excluded and 5 were added. Ultimately, 20 papers were analyzed.The most common aging-related change of the platysma was shortening (70.7%), followed by thinning (25.2%). The platysma most commonly originated from the upper portion of thorax anterior to clavicle (67...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939323/anatomical-and-ultrasonic-study-based-on-selective-tibial-neurotomy
#3
Sheng Zhong, Guihong Li, Liu Yang, Qi Yan, Yufa Wang, Gang Zhao, Youqiong Li
BACKGROUND: Selective tibial neurotomy (STN) was considered as an effective procedure for the treatment of spastic feet. It's also widely used for treating obese calves in some Asian countries currently. This study aimed to provide morphological measurement data and theoretical support for the operation and intraoperative localization. METHODS: Fifty lower legs from 20 embalmed cadavers and five fresh corpses were dissected to observe and record the relationship of four branches given off from the tibial nerve, as well as the length, width and thickness of the triceps surae...
December 8, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833358/anatomic-considerations-when-performing-the-modified-henry-approach-for-exposure-of-distal-radius-fractures
#4
Megan A Conti Mica, Randy Bindra, Steven L Moran
BACKGROUND: Identify the proximity of anatomic structures during the modified Henry approach (MHA). METHODS: Distances between median nerve (MN), palmar cutaneous branch (PCB), radial artery (RA) and the flexor carpi radialis (FCR) were measured at the wrist crease (WC), 5 and 10 cm proximal in 16 fresh frozen cadavers. The FPL origin and innervation was measured. RESULTS: Most at risk was the MN proximally and the PCB distally while the RA was safe...
March 2017: Journal of Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789772/blunted-increases-in-skin-sympathetic-nerve-activity-are-related-to-attenuated-reflex-vasodilation-in-aged-human-skin
#5
Anna E Stanhewicz, Jody L Greaney, Lacy M Alexander, W Larry Kenney
Reflex cutaneous vasodilation in response to passive heating is attenuated in human aging. This diminished response is mediated, in part, by age-associated reductions in endothelial function; however, the contribution of altered skin sympathetic nervous system activity (SSNA) is unknown. We hypothesized that 1) healthy older adults would demonstrate blunted SSNA responses to increased core temperature compared with young adults and 2) the decreased SSNA response would be associated with attenuated cutaneous vasodilation...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770192/reconstruction-of-totally-degloved-fingers-a-novel-application-of-the-bilobed-spiraled-innervated-radial-artery-superficial-palmar-branch-perforator-flap-design-provides-for-primary-donor-site-closure
#6
Zhenglin Chi, Peng Yang, Dajiang Song, Zan Li, Liang Tang, Weiyang Gao, Yonghuan Song, Tingang Chu
INTRODUCTION: To investigate the results of resurfacing completely degloved digits using bilobed innervated radial artery superficial palmar branch (RASPB) perforator flap in a spiral fashion. METHODS: A detailed anatomic study on 30 adult fresh frozen cadavers preinjected with silicone rubber compound to demarcate arterial anatomy documented locations, numbers, and diameters of arteries and skin perforators with surrounding nerves. The flap-raising procedure was performed using four fresh cadaver specimen...
October 21, 2016: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743736/effects-of-small-fiber-neuropathy-induced-by-resiniferatoxin-on-skin-healing-and-axonal-regrowth-after-burn
#7
Betty Laverdet, Dorothée Girard, Audrey Bayout, Nelly Bordeau, Claire Demiot, Alexis Desmoulière
BACKGROUND: Damage to the peripheral nervous system influences wound healing and, after a deep burn, imperfect cutaneous nerve regeneration occurs. A third-degree burn model was developed in rats combined with the use of resiniferatoxin (RTX), known to promote sensory neuropathy. METHODS: Rats were injected intraperitoneally either with RTX or vehicle. A mechanical sensory assay and the hot plate thermal sensory test were performed. The structural integrity of the sciatic nerve was assessed using transmission electron microcopy...
October 12, 2016: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734825/a-novel-approach-for-treatment-of-acetabular-fractures
#8
Zichao Xue, Hui Qin, Haoliang Ding, Zhiquan An
BACKGROUND There is no single approach that provides adequate exposure for treatment of all types of acetabular fractures. We describe our experience with an easier, relatively less invasive pubic symphysis approach (PSA) for the treatment of acetabular fractures. MATERIAL AND METHODS Between March 2011 and March 2012, fifteen patients with acetabular fracture underwent surgery using the PSA technique. Fracture reduction and treatment outcomes were assessed by clinical and radiological examination. Operation time, intraoperative blood loss and postoperative complications were documented...
October 13, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701434/representation-of-afferent-signals-from-forearm-muscle-and-cutaneous-nerves-in-the-primary-somatosensory-cortex-of-the-macaque-monkey
#9
Hiroshi Yamada, Hiroaki Yaguchi, Saeka Tomatsu, Tomohiko Takei, Tomomichi Oya, Kazuhiko Seki
Proprioception is one's overall sense of the relative positions and movements of the various parts of one's body. The primary somatosensory cortex (SI) is involved in generating the proprioception by receiving peripheral sensory inputs from both cutaneous and muscle afferents. In particular, area 3a receives input from muscle afferents and areas 3b and 1 from cutaneous afferents. However, segregation of two sensory inputs to these cortical areas has not been evaluated quantitatively because of methodological difficulties in distinguishing the incoming signals...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685778/an-anatomical-study-of-the-transversus-nuchae-muscle-application-to-better-understanding-occipital-neuralgia
#10
Koichi Watanabe, Tsuyoshi Saga, Joe Iwanaga, Yoko Tabira, Koh-Ichi Yamaki
The transversus nuchae muscle appears inconsistently in the occipital region. It has gained attention as one of the muscles composing the superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS). The purpose of this study was to clarify its detailed anatomical features. We examined 124 sides of 62 cadavers. The transversus nuchae muscle was identified when present and examined after it had been completely exposed. We also examined its relationship to the occipital cutaneous nerves.The transversus nuchae muscle was detected in 40 sides (40/124, 32...
January 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27682131/treatment-of-vaginal-stenosis-with-fasciocutaneous-singapore-flap
#11
Marisa M Clifton, Raffi Gurunluoglu, Javier Pizarro-Berdichevsky, Todd Baker, Sandip P Vasavada
INTRODUCTION: Vaginal stenosis is an unfortunate complication that can occur after pelvic radiation therapy for gynecologic or colorectal malignancies. Treatment is challenging and can require significant reconstructive surgery. The objective of this video is to present a case of vaginal stenosis after radiation and describe vaginal reconstruction with a fasciocutaneous Singapore flap. METHODS: We describe the case of a 42-year-old woman with a history of stage 3 colorectal cancer who underwent partial colectomy, chemotherapy, and pelvic radiation...
September 28, 2016: International Urogynecology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27680713/the-lesion-distribution-among-281-patients-with-sporadic-neuralgic-amyotrophy
#12
Mark A Ferrante, Asa J Wilbourn
INTRODUCTION: The muscles commonly affected by neuralgic amyotrophy (NA) are well known, but the location of the responsible lesions is less clear (plexus versus extraplexus). METHODS: We report the lesion locations in 281 NA patients as determined by extensive electrodiagnostic (EDX) testing. RESULTS: Our 281 patients had 322 bouts of NA, 57 of which were bilateral, for a total of 379 assessable events. A single nerve was involved in 174 (46%), and 205 (54%) were multifocal...
September 28, 2016: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27634619/trpm8-and-migraine
#13
Greg Dussor, Yu-Qing Cao
Migraine is among the most common diseases on earth and one of the most disabling, the latter due in large part to poor treatment efficacy. Development of new therapeutics is dependent on the identification of mechanisms contributing to migraine and discovery of targets for new drugs. Numerous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have implicated the transient receptor-potential M8 (TRPM8) channel in migraine. This channel is predominantly expressed on peripheral sensory neurons and is known as the sensor for cold temperature in cutaneous tissue but is also expressed on deep visceral afferents where cold is not likely a stimulus...
October 2016: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621264/preemptive-local-anesthesia-in-ankle-arthroscopy
#14
Henryk Liszka, Artur Gądek
BACKGROUND: Complex anesthesia is increasingly used in order to reduce postoperative pain and accelerate rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of preemptive local anesthesia combined with general or spinal anesthesia in ankle arthroscopy. METHODS: From January 2014 to February 2016, 80 ankle anterior arthroscopies were performed. Patients were randomly assigned to one of 4 groups, depending on the type of anesthesia: A, general and local preemptive; B, spinal and local preemptive; C, general and placebo; D, spinal and placebo...
December 2016: Foot & Ankle International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27609352/biotechnological-management-of-skin-burn-injuries-challenges-and-perspectives-in-wound-healing-and-sensory-recovery
#15
Dorothée Girard, Betty Laverdet, Virginie Buhé, Marina Trouillas, Kamélia Ghazi, Maïa M Alexaline, Christophe Egles, Laurent Misery, Bernard Coulomb, Jean-Jacques Lataillade, François Berthod, Alexis Desmoulière
Many wound management protocols have been developed to improve wound healing after burn with the primordial aim to restore the barrier function of the skin and also provide a better esthetic outcome. Autologous skin grafts remain the gold standard in the treatment of skin burn, but this treatment has its limitation especially for patients presenting limited donor sites due to extensive burn areas. Deep burn injuries also alter the integrity of skin-sensitive innervation and have an impact on patient's quality of life by compromising perceptions of touch, temperature, and pain...
October 7, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27553707/monosynaptic-facilitation-of-group-i-afferents-between-brachioradialis-and-extensor-carpi-radialis-in-humans
#16
Katsuhiro Shinozaki, Mitsuhiro Nito, Shinji Kobayashi, Masahiro Hayashi, Takuji Miyasaka, Wataru Hashizume, Masaomi Shindo, Akira Naito
Spinal reflex arcs mediated by low-threshold (group I) afferents from muscle spindles and Golgi tendon organs modulate motoneuron excitabilities to coordinate smooth movements. In this study, the reflex arcs between the brachioradialis (BR) and extensor carpi radialis muscles (ECR) were examined in nine healthy human subjects using a post-stimulus time-histogram method. Electrical conditioning stimuli (ES) to the radial nerve branches innervating BR (BR nerve) and ECR (ECR nerve) with the intensity just below the motor threshold were delivered and firings of the ECR and BR motor units were recorded in 6 and 7 of the nine subjects, respectively...
August 20, 2016: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27548731/chronic-abdominal-wall-pain-an-under-recognized-diagnosis-leading-to-unnecessary-testing
#17
Jeremy R Glissen Brown, Gregory R Bernstein, Frank K Friedenberg, Adam C Ehrlich
Chronic abdominal wall pain (CAWP) refers to a condition wherein pain originates from the abdominal wall itself rather than the underlying viscera. According to various estimates, 10% to 30% of patients with chronic abdominal pain are eventually diagnosed with CAWP, usually after expensive testing has failed to uncover another etiology. The most common cause of CAWP is anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome. The diagnosis of CAWP is made using an oft-forgotten physical examination finding known as Carnett's sign, where focal abdominal tenderness is either the same or worsened during contraction of the abdominal musculature...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27489366/losing-touch-age-related-changes-in-plantar-skin-sensitivity-lower-limb-cutaneous-reflex-strength-and-postural-stability-in-older-adults
#18
Ryan M Peters, Monica D McKeown, Mark G Carpenter, J Timothy Inglis
Age-related changes in the density, morphology, and physiology of plantar cutaneous receptors negatively impact the quality and quantity of balance-relevant information arising from the foot soles. Plantar perceptual sensitivity declines with age and may predict postural instability; however, alteration in lower limb cutaneous reflex strength may also explain greater instability in older adults and has yet to be investigated. We replicated the age-related decline in sensitivity by assessing monofilament and vibrotactile (30 and 250 Hz) detection thresholds near the first metatarsal head bilaterally in healthy young and older adults...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27454506/relation-of-lateral-antebrachial-cutaneous-nerve-to-the-volar-approach-to-distal-radius
#19
Valerie H Tan, Pei Yein Tong, Janice Liao, Han Jing Lee, Tun-Lin Foo
BACKGROUND: The anatomy of the lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve (LABCN) in relation to volar approaches to the distal radius is not well visited. With the increasing popularity of distal radius fracture fixation with volar locking plates, it is prudent to study the innervation pattern of the LABCN to minimize the risk of nerve injury. METHODS: Ten cadaveric distal radial forearms were dissected to study the relationship between the LABCN, flexor carpi radialis (FCR), superficial branch of radial nerve (SBRN), and scaphoid tubercle (ST)...
February 2016: Journal of Hand Surgery Asian-Pacific Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27385742/the-diagnostic-discrimination-of-cutaneous-%C3%AE-synuclein-deposition-in-parkinson-disease
#20
Christopher H Gibbons, Jennifer Garcia, Ningshan Wang, Ludy C Shih, Roy Freeman
OBJECTIVE: To determine the diagnostic discrimination of cutaneous α-synuclein deposition in individuals with Parkinson disease (PD) with and without autonomic dysfunction on autonomic testing, in early and late stages of the disease, and of short and long duration. METHODS: Twenty-eight participants with PD and 23 control participants were studied by skin biopsies at multiple sites, autonomic function testing, and disease-specific scales. RESULTS: Skin biopsies provide >90% sensitivity and >90% specificity to distinguish PD from control participants across all biopsies sites with quantification of either pilomotor or sudomotor α-synuclein deposition...
August 2, 2016: Neurology
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