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Cutaneous innervation

Betty Laverdet, Dorothée Girard, Audrey Bayout, Nelly Bordeau, Claire Demiot, Alexis Desmoulière
BACKGROUND: Damage to the peripheral nervous system influences wound healing and, after a deep burn, imperfect cutaneous nerve regeneration occurs. A third-degree burn model was developed in rats combined with the use of resiniferatoxin (RTX), known to promote sensory neuropathy. METHODS: Rats were injected intraperitoneally either with RTX or vehicle. A mechanical sensory assay and the hot plate thermal sensory test were performed. The structural integrity of the sciatic nerve was assessed using transmission electron microcopy...
October 12, 2016: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
Zichao Xue, Hui Qin, Haoliang Ding, Zhiquan An
BACKGROUND There is no single approach that provides adequate exposure for treatment of all types of acetabular fractures. We describe our experience with an easier, relatively less invasive pubic symphysis approach (PSA) for the treatment of acetabular fractures. MATERIAL AND METHODS Between March 2011 and March 2012, fifteen patients with acetabular fracture underwent surgery using the PSA technique. Fracture reduction and treatment outcomes were assessed by clinical and radiological examination. Operation time, intraoperative blood loss and postoperative complications were documented...
October 13, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Hiroshi Yamada, Hiroaki Yaguchi, Saeka Tomatsu, Tomohiko Takei, Tomomichi Oya, Kazuhiko Seki
Proprioception is one's overall sense of the relative positions and movements of the various parts of one's body. The primary somatosensory cortex (SI) is involved in generating the proprioception by receiving peripheral sensory inputs from both cutaneous and muscle afferents. In particular, area 3a receives input from muscle afferents and areas 3b and 1 from cutaneous afferents. However, segregation of two sensory inputs to these cortical areas has not been evaluated quantitatively because of methodological difficulties in distinguishing the incoming signals...
2016: PloS One
Koichi Watanabe, Tsuyoshi Saga, Joe Iwanaga, Yoko Tabira, Koh-Ichi Yamaki
INTRODUCTION: The transversus nuchae muscle appears inconsistently in the occipital region. It has gained attention as one of the muscles composing the superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS). The purpose of this study was to clarify its detailed anatomical features. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined 124 sides of 62 cadavers. The transversus nuchae muscle was identified when present and examined after it had been completely exposed. We also examined its relationship to the occipital cutaneous nerves...
September 29, 2016: Clinical Anatomy
Marisa M Clifton, Raffi Gurunluoglu, Javier Pizarro-Berdichevsky, Todd Baker, Sandip P Vasavada
INTRODUCTION: Vaginal stenosis is an unfortunate complication that can occur after pelvic radiation therapy for gynecologic or colorectal malignancies. Treatment is challenging and can require significant reconstructive surgery. The objective of this video is to present a case of vaginal stenosis after radiation and describe vaginal reconstruction with a fasciocutaneous Singapore flap. METHODS: We describe the case of a 42-year-old woman with a history of stage 3 colorectal cancer who underwent partial colectomy, chemotherapy, and pelvic radiation...
September 28, 2016: International Urogynecology Journal
Mark A Ferrante, Asa J Wilbourn
INTRODUCTION: The muscles commonly affected by neuralgic amyotrophy (NA) are well known, but the location of the responsible lesions is less clear (plexus versus extraplexus). METHODS: We report the lesion locations in 281 NA patients as determined by extensive electrodiagnostic (EDX) testing. RESULTS: Our 281 patients had 322 bouts of NA, 57 of which were bilateral, for a total of 379 assessable events. A single nerve was involved in 174 (46%), and 205 (54%) were multifocal...
September 28, 2016: Muscle & Nerve
Greg Dussor, Yu-Qing Cao
Migraine is among the most common diseases on earth and one of the most disabling, the latter due in large part to poor treatment efficacy. Development of new therapeutics is dependent on the identification of mechanisms contributing to migraine and discovery of targets for new drugs. Numerous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have implicated the transient receptor-potential M8 (TRPM8) channel in migraine. This channel is predominantly expressed on peripheral sensory neurons and is known as the sensor for cold temperature in cutaneous tissue but is also expressed on deep visceral afferents where cold is not likely a stimulus...
October 2016: Headache
Henryk Liszka, Artur Gądek
BACKGROUND: Complex anesthesia is increasingly used in order to reduce postoperative pain and accelerate rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of preemptive local anesthesia combined with general or spinal anesthesia in ankle arthroscopy. METHODS: From January 2014 to February 2016, 80 ankle anterior arthroscopies were performed. Patients were randomly assigned to one of 4 groups, depending on the type of anesthesia: A, general and local preemptive; B, spinal and local preemptive; C, general and placebo; D, spinal and placebo...
September 12, 2016: Foot & Ankle International
Dorothée Girard, Betty Laverdet, Virginie Buhé, Marina Trouillas, Kamélia Ghazi, Maïa M Alexaline, Christophe Egles, Laurent Misery, Bernard Coulomb, Jean-Jacques Lataillade, François Berthod, Alexis Desmoulière
Many wound management protocols have been developed to improve wound healing after burn with the primordial aim to restore the barrier function of the skin and also provide a better esthetic outcome. Autologous skin grafts remain the gold standard in the treatment of skin burn, but this treatment has its limitation especially for patients presenting limited donor sites due to extensive burn areas. Deep burn injuries also alter the integrity of skin-sensitive innervation and have an impact on patient's quality of life by compromising perceptions of touch, temperature, and pain...
October 7, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
Katsuhiro Shinozaki, Mitsuhiro Nito, Shinji Kobayashi, Masahiro Hayashi, Takuji Miyasaka, Wataru Hashizume, Masaomi Shindo, Akira Naito
Spinal reflex arcs mediated by low-threshold (group I) afferents from muscle spindles and Golgi tendon organs modulate motoneuron excitabilities to coordinate smooth movements. In this study, the reflex arcs between the brachioradialis (BR) and extensor carpi radialis muscles (ECR) were examined in nine healthy human subjects using a post-stimulus time-histogram method. Electrical conditioning stimuli (ES) to the radial nerve branches innervating BR (BR nerve) and ECR (ECR nerve) with the intensity just below the motor threshold were delivered and firings of the ECR and BR motor units were recorded in 6 and 7 of the nine subjects, respectively...
August 20, 2016: Neuroscience Research
Jeremy R Glissen Brown, Gregory R Bernstein, Frank K Friedenberg, Adam C Ehrlich
Chronic abdominal wall pain (CAWP) refers to a condition wherein pain originates from the abdominal wall itself rather than the underlying viscera. According to various estimates, 10% to 30% of patients with chronic abdominal pain are eventually diagnosed with CAWP, usually after expensive testing has failed to uncover another etiology. The most common cause of CAWP is anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome. The diagnosis of CAWP is made using an oft-forgotten physical examination finding known as Carnett's sign, where focal abdominal tenderness is either the same or worsened during contraction of the abdominal musculature...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Ryan M Peters, Monica D McKeown, Mark G Carpenter, J Timothy Inglis
Age-related changes in the density, morphology, and physiology of plantar cutaneous receptors negatively impact the quality and quantity of balance-relevant information arising from the foot soles. Plantar perceptual sensitivity declines with age and may predict postural instability; however, alteration in lower limb cutaneous reflex strength may also explain greater instability in older adults and has yet to be investigated. We replicated the age-related decline in sensitivity by assessing monofilament and vibrotactile (30 and 250 Hz) detection thresholds near the first metatarsal head bilaterally in healthy young and older adults...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Valerie H Tan, Pei Yein Tong, Janice Liao, Han Jing Lee, Tun-Lin Foo
BACKGROUND: The anatomy of the lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve (LABCN) in relation to volar approaches to the distal radius is not well visited. With the increasing popularity of distal radius fracture fixation with volar locking plates, it is prudent to study the innervation pattern of the LABCN to minimize the risk of nerve injury. METHODS: Ten cadaveric distal radial forearms were dissected to study the relationship between the LABCN, flexor carpi radialis (FCR), superficial branch of radial nerve (SBRN), and scaphoid tubercle (ST)...
February 2016: J Hand Surg Asian Pac Vol
Christopher H Gibbons, Jennifer Garcia, Ningshan Wang, Ludy C Shih, Roy Freeman
OBJECTIVE: To determine the diagnostic discrimination of cutaneous α-synuclein deposition in individuals with Parkinson disease (PD) with and without autonomic dysfunction on autonomic testing, in early and late stages of the disease, and of short and long duration. METHODS: Twenty-eight participants with PD and 23 control participants were studied by skin biopsies at multiple sites, autonomic function testing, and disease-specific scales. RESULTS: Skin biopsies provide >90% sensitivity and >90% specificity to distinguish PD from control participants across all biopsies sites with quantification of either pilomotor or sudomotor α-synuclein deposition...
August 2, 2016: Neurology
Maroun Badwi Ghabach, Jamil Marwan Elmawieh, May Semaan Matta, May Rady Helou
BACKGROUND: Inadequate pain management of post-operative pain of patients undergoing hip surgery can result in morbidity and mortality complications. Anatomically, pain resulted from the incision site innervation (Lateral femoral cutaneous nerve) and the hip joint innervation mainly the femoral nerve. Adding femoral nerve blockade to the multimodal regimen for postoperative pain control after hip surgery has been described. METHODS: all 31 patients included in the study received preoperatively combined FN and LFCN block with Normal Saline 0, 9% (group I) or bupivacaine 0...
February 2016: Middle East Journal of Anesthesiology
Fumio Hosaka, Masahito Yamamoto, Kwang Ho Cho, Hyung Suk Jang, Gen Murakami, Shin-Ichi Abe
The frontal nerve is characterized by its great content of sympathetic nerve fibers in contrast to cutaneous branches of the maxillary and mandibular nerves. However, we needed to add information about composite fibers of cutaneous branches of the nasociliary nerve. Using cadaveric specimens from 20 donated cadavers (mean age, 85), we performed immunohistochemistry of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP). The nasocilliary nerve contained abundant nNOS-positive fibers in contrast to few TH- and VIP-positive fibers...
June 2016: Anatomy & Cell Biology
Kapetanakis Stylianos, Giatroudakis Konstantinos, Pavlidis Pavlos, Fiska Aliki
The medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve (MACN) is a branch of the brachial plexus with a great variation within its branches. Knowledge of these variations is critical to neurologists, hand surgeons, plastic surgeons, and vascular surgeons. The aim of this study was to search for variations of the MACN and to discuss their clinical significance. For this study, six arm cadavers from three fresh cadavers were dissected and examined to find and study possible anatomical variations of the MACN. The authors report a rare case of a variation of the MACN, in which there are four brachial cutaneous branches, before the separation to anterior (volar) and posterior (ulnar) branch, that provide sensory innervation to the medial, inferior half of the arm, in the area that is commonly innervated from the medial brachial cutaneous nerve...
July 2016: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
Maria E Florian-Rodriguez, Adam Hare, Kathryn Chin, John N Phelan, Christopher M Ripperda, Marlene M Corton
BACKGROUND: Reported rates of gluteal pain after sacrospinous ligament fixation range from 12-55% in the immediate postoperative period and from 4-15% 4-6 weeks postoperatively. The source of gluteal pain often is attributed to injury to the nerve to levator ani or pudendal nerve. The inferior gluteal nerve and other sacral nerve branches have not been examined thoroughly as potential sources of gluteal pain. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to further characterize anatomy of the inferior gluteal nerve and other nerves that are associated with the sacrospinous ligament from a combined gluteal and pelvic approach and to correlate findings to sacrospinous ligament fixation...
June 22, 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Krisztina Boros, Gábor Jancsó, Mária Dux, Zoltán Fekécs, Péter Bencsik, Orsolya Oszlács, Márta Katona, Péter Ferdinandy, Antal Nógrádi, Péter Sántha
Besides their deleterious action on cardiac muscle, anthracycline-type cytostatic agents exert significant neurotoxic effects on primary sensory neurons. Since cardiac sensory nerves confer protective effects on heart muscle and share common traits with cutaneous chemosensitive nerves, this study examined the effects of cardiotoxic doses of adriamycin on the function and morphology of epidermal nerves. Sensory neurogenic vasodilatation, plasma extravasation, and the neural CGRP release evoked by TRPV1 and TRPA1 agonists in vitro were examined by using laser Doppler flowmetry, the Evans blue technique, and ELISA, respectively...
September 2016: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
Gustavo A Ramírez, Francisco Rodríguez, Óscar Quesada, Pedro Herráez, Antonio Fernández, Antonio Espinosa-de-Los-Monteros
Merkel cells (MCs) are specialized cutaneous receptor cells involved with tactile sense. Although the distribution of MCs has been extensively studied in humans and rodents, their precise distribution and density throughout skin in the dog has not previously been determined. Knowledge of their distribution could facilitate understanding of their functions. By using of immunohistochemistry, density, and anatomical mapping of the MCs population in the dog skin was determined. Assessment of the MCs innervation was also achieved...
September 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
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