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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456423/staphylococcus-aureus-promotes-smed-pgrp-2-smed-setd8-1-methyltransferase-signalling-in-planarian-neoblasts-to-sensitize-anti-bacterial-gene-responses-during-re-infection
#1
Cedric Torre, Prasad Abnave, Landry Laure Tsoumtsa, Giovanna Mottola, Catherine Lepolard, Virginie Trouplin, Gregory Gimenez, Julie Desrousseaux, Stephanie Gempp, Anthony Levasseur, Laetitia Padovani, Emmanuel Lemichez, Eric Ghigo
Little is known about how organisms exposed to recurrent infections adapt their innate immune responses. Here, we report that planarians display a form of instructed immunity to primo-infection by Staphylococcus aureus that consists of a transient state of heightened resistance to re-infection that persists for approximately 30days after primo-infection. We established the involvement of stem cell-like neoblasts in this instructed immunity using the complementary approaches of RNA-interference-mediated cell depletion and tissue grafting-mediated gain of function...
April 24, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455708/macrophages-in-invertebrates-from-insects-and-crustaceans-to-marine-bivalves
#2
Prasad Abnave, Xavier Muracciole, Eric Ghigo
Macrophages are critical components of the antimicrobial response. The recent explosion of knowledge on the evolutionary, genetic, and biochemical aspects of the interaction between macrophages and microbes has renewed scientific interest in macrophages. The conservation of immune components or mechanisms between organisms during the evolutionary process allows us to elucidate antimicrobial mechanisms or discover new immune functions through the study of basal-branching organisms, such as invertebrates. As a result, immunity in non-vertebrates has attracted the attention of researchers in the last few decades...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451983/therapeutic-targeting-of-pdes-and-pi3k-in-heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction-hfpef
#3
REVIEW
Valentina Sala, Jean Piero Margaria, Alessandra Murabito, Fulvio Morello, Alessandra Ghigo, Emilio Hirsch
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Heart Failure with preserved Ejection Fraction (HFpEF) is a prevalent disease with considerable individual and societal burden. HFpEF patients often suffer from multiple pathological conditions thatcomplicate management and adversely affect outcome, including pulmonary hypertension and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). To date, no treatment proved to be fully effective in reducing morbidity and mortality in HFpEF, possibly due to an incomplete understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms...
April 27, 2017: Current Heart Failure Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419317/high-dose-and-high-frequency-lanreotide-autogel-in-acromegaly-a-randomized-multicenter-study
#4
Andrea Giustina, Gherardo Mazziotti, Salvatore Cannavò, Roberto Castello, Giorgio Arnaldi, Giovanna Bugari, Renato Cozzi, Diego Ferone, Anna Maria Formenti, Enza Gatti, Silvia Grottoli, Pietro Maffei, Filippo Maffezzoni, Marcella Montini, Massimo Terzolo, Ezio Ghigo
Context: The increase in drug frequency or dose is recommended for acromegaly patients with partial response to long-acting somatostatin receptor ligands (SRLs). However, the efficacy and safety data with lanreotide autogel (LAN-ATG) at high-dose (HD) or high-frequency (HF) are still scanty and anecdotal. Objective: To evaluate the biochemical efficacy and safety of HF- and HD LAN-ATG in patients with active acromegaly. Design: 24-week prospective, multicentre, randomized, open-label trial...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400318/hemopexin-counteracts-systolic-dysfunction-induced-by-heme-driven-oxidative-stress
#5
Giada Ingoglia, Can Martin Sag, Nikolai Rex, Lucia De Franceschi, Francesca Vinchi, James Cimino, Sara Petrillo, Stefan Wagner, Klaus Kreitmeier, Lorenzo Silengo, Fiorella Altruda, Lars S Maier, Emilio Hirsch, Alessandra Ghigo, Emanuela Tolosano
Heart failure is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients affected by different disorders associated to intravascular hemolysis. The leading factor is the presence of pathologic amount of pro-oxidant free heme in the bloodstream, due to the exhaustion of the natural heme scavenger Hemopexin (Hx). Here, we evaluated whether free heme directly affects cardiac function, and tested the therapeutic potential of replenishing serum Hx for increasing serum heme buffering capacity. The effect of heme on cardiac function was assessed in vitro, on primary cardiomyocytes and H9c2 myoblast cell line, and in vivo, in Hx(-/-) mice and in genetic and acquired mouse models of intravascular hemolysis...
April 8, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343317/do-glucocorticoids-induce-addiction-in-humans
#6
R Giordano, F Guaraldi, M Mazzoli, E Ghigo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 25, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292655/a-one-dimensional-arterial-network-model-for-bypass-graft-assessment
#7
A R Ghigo, S Abou Taam, X Wang, P-Y Lagrée, J-M Fullana
We propose an arterial network model based on one-dimensional hemodynamic equations to study the behavior of different vascular surgical bypass grafts in the case of an arterial occlusive pathology: a stenosis of the Right Iliac artery. We investigate the performances of three different bypass grafts (Aorto-Femoral, Axillo-Femoral and cross-over Femoral) depending on the degree of obstruction of the stenosis. Numerical simulations show that all bypass grafts are efficient since we retrieve in each case the healthy hemodynamics downstream of the stenosed region while ensuring at the same time a global healthy circulation...
March 11, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245458/endocrine-autoimmunity-in-down-s-syndrome
#8
Federica Guaraldi, Ruth Rossetto Giaccherino, Fabio Lanfranco, Giovanna Motta, Davide Gori, Emanuela Arvat, Enzio Ghigo, Roberta Giordano
Since the mid 1900s, a significant increase of infectious, hematological, and autoimmune diseases has been reported in patients with Down's syndrome (DS), independent of sex, age, family history, and exposure to other risk factors, suggesting an intrinsic alteration of the immune system. Several in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated alterations of both cellular and humoral immunological response mainly, although not exclusively, secondary to alterations of the expression of autoimmune regulator gene (located on chromosome 21), leading to thymic structural and functional impairments...
2017: Frontiers of Hormone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245451/pituitary-autoimmunity
#9
Federica Guaraldi, Roberta Giordano, Silvia Grottoli, Lucia Ghizzoni, Emanuela Arvat, Ezio Ghigo
Pituitary autoimmunity, considered a synonym of autoimmune hypophysitis, defines a wide spectrum of conditions (neoplastic, functional, and iatrogenic pituitary disorders; and extra-pituitary autoimmune and non-autoimmune diseases), and is characterized by the presence of antipituitary antibodies (APAs) at various titer and prevalence. These conditions have been increasingly recognized not only in adults, but also in children. The autoimmune pathogenesis, histological features of the primary (i.e. lymphocytic, granulomatous, xanthomatous, IgG-4 related lymphoplasmacytic, and necrotizing) forms, and the pathognomonic association of lymphocytic hypophysitis with pregnancy and CTLA-4 antibody therapy, have been clearly demonstrated...
2017: Frontiers of Hormone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176221/pegvisomant-in-acromegaly-an-update
#10
REVIEW
A Giustina, G Arnaldi, F Bogazzi, S Cannavò, A Colao, L De Marinis, E De Menis, E Degli Uberti, F Giorgino, S Grottoli, A G Lania, P Maffei, R Pivonello, E Ghigo
BACKGROUND: In 2007, we published an opinion document to review the role of pegvisomant (PEG) in the treatment of acromegaly. Since then, new evidence emerged on the biochemical and clinical effects of PEG and on its long-term efficacy and safety. AIM: We here reviewed the emerging aspects of the use of PEG in clinical practice in the light of the most recent literature. RESULTS: The clinical use of PEG is still suboptimal, considering that it remains the most powerful tool to control IGF-I in acromegaly allowing to obtain, with a pharmacological treatment, the most important clinical effects in terms of signs and symptoms, quality of life and comorbidities...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102421/the-nature-of-the-light-absorption-and-emission-transitions-of-4-hydroxybenzophenone-in-different-solvents-a-combined-computational-and-experimental-study
#11
Francesco Barsotti, Giovanni Ghigo, Silvia Berto, Davide Vione
The photophysics and photochemistry of 4-hydroxybenzophenone (4HOBP) are interesting because they can give some insight into the behavior of humic material. Here we show that 4HOBP has a number of fluorescence peaks: (i) an intense one at excitation/emission wavelengths Ex/Em ∼ 200-230/280-370 nm, likely due to an excitation transition from S0 to S5 or S6, followed by S2 → S0 in emission (Sn denotes the singlet states of 4HOBP); (ii) a minor peak at Ex/Em ∼ 270-300/320-360 nm (S0 → S2 in absorption and S2 → S0 in emission), and (iii) very interesting signals in the typical emission region of humic substances, most notably at Ex/Em ∼ 200-220/400-500 nm and Ex/Em ∼ 260-280/400-470 nm (in both cases the emission corresponded to an S1 → S0 transition)...
April 12, 2017: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051908/antimicrobial-capacity-of-the-freshwater-planarians-against-s-aureus-is-under-the-control-of-timeless
#12
Landry Laure Tsoumtsa, Cedric Torre, Virginie Trouplin, Benjamin Coiffard, Gregory Gimenez, Jean-Louis Mege, Eric Ghigo
Planarians, which are non-parasitic flatworms, are highly resistant to bacterial infections. To better understand the mechanisms underlying this resistance, we investigated the role of the circadian machinery in the anti-bacterial response of the freshwater planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. We identified Smed-Tim from S. mediterranea as a homolog of the mammalian clock gene Tim. We showed via RNA interference that Smed-Tim is required for the anti-microbial activities of Schmidtea mediterranea against Staphylococcus aureus infection during the light/dark cycle...
January 4, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999173/rac-signal-adaptation-controls-neutrophil-mobilization-from-the-bone-marrow
#13
Carlo Cosimo Campa, Giulia Germena, Elisa Ciraolo, Francesca Copperi, Anna Sapienza, Irene Franco, Alessandra Ghigo, Annalisa Camporeale, Augusta Di Savino, Miriam Martini, Alessia Perino, Remco T A Megens, Angela R M Kurz, Christoph Scheiermann, Markus Sperandio, Andrea Gamba, Emilio Hirsch
Mobilization of neutrophils from the bone marrow determines neutrophil blood counts and thus is medically important. Balanced neutrophil mobilization from the bone marrow depends on the retention-promoting chemokine CXCL12 and its receptor CXCR4 and the egression-promoting chemokine CXCL2 and its receptor CXCR2. Both pathways activate the small guanosine triphosphatase Rac, leaving the role of this signaling event in neutrophil retention and egression ambiguous. On the assumption that active Rac determines persistent directional cell migration, we generated a mathematical model to link chemokine-mediated Rac modulation to neutrophil egression time...
December 20, 2016: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871798/the-association-of-air-pollution-and-greenness-with-mortality-and-life-expectancy-in-spain-a-small-area-study
#14
Carmen de Keijzer, David Agis, Albert Ambrós, Gustavo Arévalo, Jose M Baldasano, Stefano Bande, Jose Barrera-Gómez, Joan Benach, Marta Cirach, Payam Dadvand, Stefania Ghigo, Èrica Martinez-Solanas, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen, Ennio Cadum, Xavier Basagaña
BACKGROUND: Air pollution exposure has been associated with an increase in mortality rates, but few studies have focused on life expectancy, and most studies had restricted spatial coverage. A limited body of evidence is also suggestive for a beneficial association between residential exposure to greenness and mortality, but the evidence for such an association with life expectancy is still very scarce. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of exposure to air pollution and greenness with mortality and life expectancy in Spain...
November 18, 2016: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856520/from-q-fever-to-coxiella-burnetii-infection-a-paradigm-change
#15
REVIEW
Carole Eldin, Cléa Mélenotte, Oleg Mediannikov, Eric Ghigo, Matthieu Million, Sophie Edouard, Jean-Louis Mege, Max Maurin, Didier Raoult
Coxiella burnetii is the agent of Q fever, or "query fever," a zoonosis first described in Australia in 1937. Since this first description, knowledge about this pathogen and its associated infections has increased dramatically. We review here all the progress made over the last 20 years on this topic. C. burnetii is classically a strict intracellular, Gram-negative bacterium. However, a major step in the characterization of this pathogen was achieved by the establishment of its axenic culture. C. burnetii infects a wide range of animals, from arthropods to humans...
January 2017: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819119/erratum-to-compared-antioxidant-activity-among-corticosteroids-on-cultured-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cells
#16
Raffaele Nuzzi, Alessandro Marchese, Dario Ghigo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743160/compared-antioxidant-activity-among-corticosteroids-on-cultured-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cells
#17
Nuzzi Raffaele, Alessandro Marchese, Dario Ghigo
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to determine if dexamethasone, prednisolone and triamcinolone acetonide (TA), three anti-inflammatory drugs commonly used for ocular treatments, could affect the oxidative status of cultured human cells of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and protect them against oxidative injury. METHODS: ARPE-19 cells were used as an in vitro model of RPE. Glutathione (GSH) levels were assessed to evaluate the effects of dexamethasone, prednisolone and triamcinolone on cellular antioxidant status...
December 2016: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713499/disruption-of-arhgap15-results-in-hyperactive-rac1-affects-the-architecture-and-function-of-hippocampal-inhibitory-neurons-and-causes-cognitive-deficits
#18
Valentina Zamboni, Maria Armentano, Gabriella Sarò, Elisa Ciraolo, Alessandra Ghigo, Giulia Germena, Alessandro Umbach, Pamela Valnegri, Maria Passafaro, Valentina Carabelli, Daniela Gavello, Veronica Bianchi, Patrizia D'Adamo, Ivan de Curtis, Nadia El-Assawi, Alessandro Mauro, Lorenzo Priano, Nicola Ferri, Emilio Hirsch, Giorgio R Merlo
During brain development, the small GTPases Rac1/Rac3 play key roles in neuronal migration, neuritogenesis, synaptic formation and plasticity, via control of actin cytoskeleton dynamic. Their activity is positively and negatively regulated by GEFs and GAPs molecules, respectively. However their in vivo roles are poorly known. The ArhGAP15 gene, coding for a Rac-specific GAP protein, is expressed in both excitatory and inhibitory neurons of the adult hippocampus, and its loss results in the hyperactivation of Rac1/Rac3...
October 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696649/functional-analysis-of-escherichia-coli-yad-fimbriae-reveals-their-potential-role-in-environmental-persistence
#19
Fanny Larsonneur, Fernando A Martin, Adeline Mallet, Marta Martinez-Gil, Vincent Semetey, Jean-Marc Ghigo, Christophe Beloin
Initial adhesion of bacterial cells to surfaces or host tissues is a key step in colonisation and biofilm formation processes, and is mediated by cell surface appendages. It was previously demonstrated that Escherichia coli K-12 possesses an arsenal of silenced chaperone-usher fimbriae that were functional when constitutively expressed. Among them, production of prevalent Yad fimbriae induces adhesion to abiotic surfaces. Functional characterisation of Yad fimbriae were undertook, and YadN was identified as the most abundant and potential major pilin, and YadC as the potential tip-protein of Yad fimbriae...
December 2016: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685359/linear-and-non-linear-viscoelastic-arterial-wall-models-application-on-animals
#20
Arthur R Ghigo, Xiao-Fei Wang, Ricardo Armentano, Jose Maria Fullana, Pierre-Yves Lagrée
This work deals with the viscoelasticity of the arterial wall and its influence on the pulse waves. We describe the viscoelasticity by a nonlinear Kelvin-Voigt model in which the coefficients are fitted using experimental time series of pressure and radius measured on a sheep's arterial network. We obtained a good agreement between the results of the nonlinear Kelvin-Voigt model and the experimental measurements. We found that the viscoelastic relaxation time - defined by the ratio between the viscoelastic coefficient and the Young's modulus - is nearly constant throughout the network...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
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