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Nuzzi Raffaele, Alessandro Marchese, Dario Ghigo
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to determine if dexamethasone, prednisolone and triamcinolone acetonide (TA), three anti-inflammatory drugs commonly used for ocular treatments, could affect the oxidative status of cultured human cells of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and protect them against oxidative injury. METHODS: ARPE-19 cells were used as an in vitro model of RPE. Glutathione (GSH) levels were assessed to evaluate the effects of dexamethasone, prednisolone and triamcinolone on cellular antioxidant status...
October 14, 2016: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Valentina Zamboni, Maria Armentano, Gabriella Sarò, Elisa Ciraolo, Alessandra Ghigo, Giulia Germena, Alessandro Umbach, Pamela Valnegri, Maria Passafaro, Valentina Carabelli, Daniela Gavello, Veronica Bianchi, Patrizia D'Adamo, Ivan de Curtis, Nadia El-Assawi, Alessandro Mauro, Lorenzo Priano, Nicola Ferri, Emilio Hirsch, Giorgio R Merlo
During brain development, the small GTPases Rac1/Rac3 play key roles in neuronal migration, neuritogenesis, synaptic formation and plasticity, via control of actin cytoskeleton dynamic. Their activity is positively and negatively regulated by GEFs and GAPs molecules, respectively. However their in vivo roles are poorly known. The ArhGAP15 gene, coding for a Rac-specific GAP protein, is expressed in both excitatory and inhibitory neurons of the adult hippocampus, and its loss results in the hyperactivation of Rac1/Rac3...
October 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
Fanny Larsonneur, Fernando A Martin, Adeline Mallet, Marta Martinez-Gil, Vincent Semetey, Jean-Marc Ghigo, Christophe Beloin
Initial adhesion of bacterial cells to surfaces or host tissues is a key step in colonisation and biofilm formation processes, and is mediated by cell surface appendages. We previously demonstrated that Escherichia coli K-12 possesses an arsenal of silenced chaperone-usher fimbriae that are functional when constitutively expressed. Among them, production of prevalent Yad fimbriae induces adhesion to abiotic surfaces. We undertook functional characterisation of Yad fimbriae, and identified YadN as the most abundant and potential major pilin, and YadC as the potential tip-protein of Yad fimbriae...
October 3, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
Arthur R Ghigo, Xiao-Fei Wang, Ricardo Armentano, Jose Maria Fullana, Pierre-Yves Lagrée
This work deals with the viscoelasticity of the arterial wall and its influence on the pulse waves. We describe the viscoelasticity by a nonlinear Kelvin-Voigt model in which the coefficients are fitted using experimental time series of pressure and radius measured on a sheep's arterial network. We obtained a good agreement between the results of the nonlinear Kelvin-Voigt model and the experimental measurements. We found that the viscoelastic relaxation time - defined by the ratio between the viscoelastic coefficient and the Young's modulus - is nearly constant throughout the network...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
Mignane B Ka, Soraya Mezouar, Amira Ben Amara, Didier Raoult, Eric Ghigo, Daniel Olive, Jean-Louis Mege
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) play a major role in antiviral immunity via the production of type I interferons (IFNs). There is some evidence that pDCs interact with bacteria but it is not yet clear whether they are protective or contribute to bacterial pathogenicity. We wished to investigate whether Coxiella burnetii, the agent of Q fever, interacts with pDCs. The stimulation of pDCs with C. burnetii increased the expression of activation and migratory markers (CD86 and CCR7) as determined by flow cytometry and modulated gene expression program as revealed by a microarray approach...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Aart Jan van der Lely, Peter Jönsson, Patrick Wilton, Ann-Charlotte Åkerblad, José Cara, Ezio Ghigo
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the characteristics of patients who need more or less pegvisomant (PEGV) to normalize serum IGF-I. DESIGN: ACROSTUDY is a global noninterventional safety surveillance study of long-term treatment outcomes in patients treated with PEGV. As of June, 2014, ACROSTUDY included data on 2016 patients. All patients treated for at least 6weeks at a dose above 30mg/day and who had two consecutive normal serum IGF-I values were included in the 'high'-dose group (H; n=56; mean daily dose 44±12...
October 2016: European Journal of Endocrinology
Iacopo Gesmundo, Tania Villanova, Eleonora Gargantini, Emanuela Arvat, Ezio Ghigo, Riccarda Granata
Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activation has been shown to reduce adult hippocampal progenitor cell proliferation and neurogenesis. By contrast, mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) signaling is associated with neuronal survival in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, and impairment of hippocampal MR has been linked to pathological conditions, such as depression or neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we aimed to further clarify the protective role of MR in adult hippocampal neurons by studying the survival and proliferative effects of the highly potent MR agonist fludrocortisone (Fludro) in adult rat hippocampal progenitor cells (AHPs), along with the associated signaling mechanisms...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Cristina Pavan, Manuela Polimeni, Maura Tomatis, Ingrid Corazzari, Francesco Turci, Dario Ghigo, Bice Fubini
New outbursts of silicosis were recently reported among workers manufacturing an engineered material known as "artificial stone," composed by high percentages of quartz (up to 98%) agglomerated with pigments and polymeric resins. Dusts released by abrasion during artificial stone polishing were characterized for particle size, morphology, and elemental composition and studied for (1) ability to catalyze free radical generation in acellular tests, (2) membranolytic potential on human erythrocytes, (3) cytotoxic activity (lactate dehydrogenase release) on murine alveolar macrophages (MH-S) and human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cell lines, (4) induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in BEAS-2B cells...
September 2016: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Landry L Tsoumtsa, Cedric Torre, Eric Ghigo
Most of the biological functions, including the immune system, are linked to circadian rhythms in living organisms. Changes occurring to biological parameters as the result of these circadian rhythms can therefore affect the outcome of a disease. For decades, model organisms have proven to be a great tool to understanding biological mechanisms such as circadian cycle and immunity. In this review, we created an inventory of the use of model organisms in order to decipher the relation between circadian rhythms and antibacterial immunity...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Federica Guaraldi, Ioannis Karamouzis, Rita Berardelli, Valentina D'Angelo, Alessia Rampino, Clizia Zichi, Ezio Ghigo, Roberta Giordano
Adrenal failure secondary to hypothalamic-pituitary disease is a common although underestimated and underdiagnosed condition, with serious consequences. Corticotropin deficiency can be isolated or more frequently occur in association with other pituitary hormones deficiencies. The most frequent endogenous cause of secondary adrenal insufficiency (SAI) is a tumor of the hypothalamic-pituitary region, usually associated with panhypopituitarism secondary to tumor growth or to its treatment with surgery or irradiation...
2016: Frontiers of Hormone Research
F Guaraldi, D Gori, G Beccuti, N Prencipe, R Giordano, Y Mints, V S Di Giacomo, A Berton, M Lorente, V Gasco, E Ghigo, R Salvatori, S Grottoli
PURPOSE: To determine the validity of a self-administered questionnaire (Acro-CQ) developed to systematically assess the presence, type and time of onset of acromegaly comorbidities. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study; 105 acromegaly patients and 147 controls with other types of pituitary adenoma, referred to a specialized Italian Center, autonomously compiled Acro-CQ in an outpatient clinical setting. To test its reliability in a different setting, Acro-CQ was administered via mail to 78 patients with acromegaly and 100 with other pituitary adenomas, referred to a specialized US Center...
May 6, 2016: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
Maria Teresa Samà, Ruth Rossetto Giaccherino, Marco Gallo, Francesco Felicetti, Francesca Maletta, Nadia Bonelli, Alessandro Piovesan, Nicola Palestini, Ezio Ghigo, Emanuela Arvat
PURPOSE: Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a relatively uncommon malignant tumor of the parafollicular C cells of the thyroid, which distinguishing feature is the production of calcitonin (CT). CT is a well-recognized tool in the diagnosis and the postsurgical follow-up of patients with MTC with a high sensitivity and specificity, and represents a powerful prognostic indicator. Usually, there is a direct correlation between tumor size and basal CT levels. However, few cases of CT-negative MTCs have been reported in literature and criteria for diagnosis and follow-up are still controversial...
September 2016: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
Konstantin Chegaev, Barbara Rolando, Daniela Cortese, Elena Gazzano, Ilaria Buondonno, Loretta Lazzarato, Marilù Fanelli, Claudia M Hattinger, Massimo Serra, Chiara Riganti, Roberta Fruttero, Dario Ghigo, Alberto Gasco
Doxorubicin (DOXO) is one of the most effective antineoplastic agents in clinical practice. Its use is limited by acute and chronic side effects, in particular by its cardiotoxicity and by the rapid development of resistance to it. As part of a program aimed at developing new DOXO derivatives endowed with reduced cardiotoxicity, and active against DOXO-resistant tumor cells, a series of H2S-releasing DOXOs (H2S-DOXOs) were obtained by combining DOXO with appropriate H2S donor substructures. The resulting compounds were studied on H9c2 cardiomyocytes and in DOXO-sensitive U-2OS osteosarcoma cells, as well as in related cell variants with increasing degrees of DOXO-resistance...
May 26, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Valentina Mercurio, Flora Pirozzi, Edoardo Lazzarini, Giancarlo Marone, Paola Rizzo, Giulio Agnetti, Carlo G Tocchetti, Alessandra Ghigo, Pietro Ameri
Heart failure (HF) is a complication of oncological treatments that may have dramatic clinical impact. It may acutely worsen a patient's condition or it may present with delayed onset, even years after treatment, when cancer has been cured or is in stable remission. Several studies have addressed the mechanisms of cancer therapy-related HF and some have led to the definition of disease models that hold valid for other and more common types of HF. Here, we review these models of HF based on the cardiotoxicity of antineoplastic drugs and classify them in cardiomyocyte-intrinsic, paracrine, or potentially secondary to effects on cardiac progenitor cells...
June 2016: Journal of Cardiac Failure
María Teresa Politi, Arthur Ghigo, Juan Manuel Fernández, Ismaïl Khelifa, Julien Gaudric, José María Fullana, Pierre-Yves Lagrée
Divergent concepts on the origin of the dicrotic notch are widespread in medical literature and education. Since most medical textbooks explain the origin of the dicrotic notch as caused by the aortic valve closure itself, this is commonly transmitted in medical physiology courses. We present clinical data and numerical simulations to demonstrate that reflected pressure waves could participate as one of the causes of the dicrotic notch. Our experimental data from continuous arterial pressure measurements from adult patients undergoing vascular surgery suggest that isolated changes in peripheral vascular resistance using an intravenous bolus of phenylephrine (a selective alpha 1-receptor agonist and thus a potent vasoconstrictor) modify the dicrotic notch...
May 1, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Francesco Di Benedetto, Elena Gazzano, Maura Tomatis, Francesco Turci, Luca A Pardi, Simona Bronco, Gabriele Fornaciai, Massimo Innocenti, Giordano Montegrossi, Maurizio Muniz Miranda, Alfonso Zoleo, Fabio Capacci, Bice Fubini, Dario Ghigo, Maurizio Romanelli
Industrial processing of materials containing quartz induces physico-chemical modifications that contribute to the variability of quartz hazard in different plants. Here, modifications affecting a quartz-rich sand during cast iron production, have been investigated. Composition, morphology, presence of radicals associated to quartz and reactivity in free radical generation were studied on a raw sand and on a dust recovered after mould dismantling. Additionally, cytotoxicity of the processed dust and ROS and NO generation were evaluated on MH-S macrophages...
July 15, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Joanna Kopecka, Stefania Porto, Sara Lusa, Elena Gazzano, Giuseppina Salzano, Martha Leonor Pinzòn-Daza, Antonio Giordano, Vincenzo Desiderio, Dario Ghigo, Giuseppe De Rosa, Michele Caraglia, Chiara Riganti
The resistance to chemotherapy and the tumor escape from host immunosurveillance are the main causes of the failure of anthracycline-based regimens in breast cancer, where an effective chemo-immunosensitizing strategy is lacking.The clinically used aminobisphosphonate zoledronic acid (ZA) reverses chemoresistance and immunoresistance in vitro. Previously we developed a nanoparticle-based zoledronic acid-containing formulation (NZ) that allowed a higher intratumor delivery of the drug compared with free ZA in vivo...
April 12, 2016: Oncotarget
Karen L Visick, Mark A Schembri, Fitnat Yildiz, Jean-Marc Ghigo
The 7th ASM Conference on Biofilms was held in Chicago, Illinois, from 24 to 29 October 2015. The conference provided an international forum for biofilm researchers across academic and industry platforms, and from different scientific disciplines, to present and discuss new findings and ideas. The meeting covered a wide range of topics, spanning environmental sciences, applied biology, evolution, ecology, physiology, and molecular biology of the biofilm lifestyle. This report summarizes the presentations with regard to emerging biofilm-related themes...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
Giovanna Motta, Stefano Allasia, Ezio Ghigo, Fabio Lanfranco
Ghrelin, a 28 amino-acid octanoylated peptide predominantly produced by the stomach, was discovered to be the natural ligand of the type 1a GH secretagogue receptor (GHS-R1a). It was thus considered as a natural GHS additional to GHRH, although later on ghrelin has mostly been considered a major orexigenic factor. The GH-releasing action of ghrelin takes place both directly on pituitary cells and through modulation of GHRH from the hypothalamus; some functional antisomatostatin action has also been shown. However, ghrelin is much more than a natural GH secretagogue...
2016: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
Ashwini Chauhan, Jean-Marc Ghigo, Christophe Beloin
Venous access catheters used in clinics are prone to biofilm contamination, contributing to chronic and nosocomial infections. Although several animal models for studying device-associated biofilms were previously described, only a few detailed protocols are currently available. Here we provide a protocol using totally implantable venous access ports (TIVAPs) implanted in rats. This model recapitulates all phenomena observed in the clinic, and it allows bacterial biofilm development and physiology to be studied...
March 2016: Nature Protocols
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