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A Giustina, G Arnaldi, F Bogazzi, S Cannavò, A Colao, L De Marinis, E De Menis, E Degli Uberti, F Giorgino, S Grottoli, A G Lania, P Maffei, R Pivonello, E Ghigo
BACKGROUND: In 2007, we published an opinion document to review the role of pegvisomant (PEG) in the treatment of acromegaly. Since then, new evidence emerged on the biochemical and clinical effects of PEG and on its long-term efficacy and safety. AIM: We here reviewed the emerging aspects of the use of PEG in clinical practice in the light of the most recent literature. RESULTS: The clinical use of PEG is still suboptimal, considering that it remains the most powerful tool to control IGF-I in acromegaly allowing to obtain, with a pharmacological treatment, the most important clinical effects in terms of signs and symptoms, quality of life and comorbidities...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
Francesco Barsotti, Giovanni Ghigo, Silvia Berto, Davide Vione
The photophysics and photochemistry of 4-hydroxybenzophenone (4HOBP) are interesting because they can give some insight into the behavior of humic material. Here we show that 4HOBP has a number of fluorescence peaks: (i) an intense one at excitation/emission wavelengths Ex/Em ∼ 200-230/280-370 nm, likely due to an excitation transition from S0 to S5 or S6, followed by S2 → S0 in emission (Sn denotes the singlet states of 4HOBP); (ii) a minor peak at Ex/Em ∼ 270-300/320-360 nm (S0 → S2 in absorption and S2 → S0 in emission), and (iii) very interesting signals in the typical emission region of humic substances, most notably at Ex/Em ∼ 200-220/400-500 nm and Ex/Em ∼ 260-280/400-470 nm (in both cases the emission corresponded to an S1 → S0 transition)...
January 19, 2017: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
Landry Laure Tsoumtsa, Cedric Torre, Virginie Trouplin, Benjamin Coiffard, Gregory Gimenez, Jean-Louis Mege, Eric Ghigo
Planarians, which are non-parasitic flatworms, are highly resistant to bacterial infections. To better understand the mechanisms underlying this resistance, we investigated the role of the circadian machinery in the anti-bacterial response of the freshwater planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. We identified Smed-Tim from S. mediterranea as a homolog of the mammalian clock gene Tim. We showed via RNA interference that Smed-Tim is required for the anti-microbial activities of Schmidtea mediterranea against Staphylococcus aureus infection during the light/dark cycle...
January 4, 2017: Virulence
Carlo Cosimo Campa, Giulia Germena, Elisa Ciraolo, Francesca Copperi, Anna Sapienza, Irene Franco, Alessandra Ghigo, Annalisa Camporeale, Augusta Di Savino, Miriam Martini, Alessia Perino, Remco T A Megens, Angela R M Kurz, Christoph Scheiermann, Markus Sperandio, Andrea Gamba, Emilio Hirsch
Mobilization of neutrophils from the bone marrow determines neutrophil blood counts and thus is medically important. Balanced neutrophil mobilization from the bone marrow depends on the retention-promoting chemokine CXCL12 and its receptor CXCR4 and the egression-promoting chemokine CXCL2 and its receptor CXCR2. Both pathways activate the small guanosine triphosphatase Rac, leaving the role of this signaling event in neutrophil retention and egression ambiguous. On the assumption that active Rac determines persistent directional cell migration, we generated a mathematical model to link chemokine-mediated Rac modulation to neutrophil egression time...
December 20, 2016: Science Signaling
Carmen de Keijzer, David Agis, Albert Ambrós, Gustavo Arévalo, Jose M Baldasano, Stefano Bande, Jose Barrera-Gómez, Joan Benach, Marta Cirach, Payam Dadvand, Stefania Ghigo, Èrica Martinez-Solanas, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen, Ennio Cadum, Xavier Basagaña
BACKGROUND: Air pollution exposure has been associated with an increase in mortality rates, but few studies have focused on life expectancy, and most studies had restricted spatial coverage. A limited body of evidence is also suggestive for a beneficial association between residential exposure to greenness and mortality, but the evidence for such an association with life expectancy is still very scarce. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of exposure to air pollution and greenness with mortality and life expectancy in Spain...
November 18, 2016: Environment International
Carole Eldin, Cléa Mélenotte, Oleg Mediannikov, Eric Ghigo, Matthieu Million, Sophie Edouard, Jean-Louis Mege, Max Maurin, Didier Raoult
Coxiella burnetii is the agent of Q fever, or "query fever," a zoonosis first described in Australia in 1937. Since this first description, knowledge about this pathogen and its associated infections has increased dramatically. We review here all the progress made over the last 20 years on this topic. C. burnetii is classically a strict intracellular, Gram-negative bacterium. However, a major step in the characterization of this pathogen was achieved by the establishment of its axenic culture. C. burnetii infects a wide range of animals, from arthropods to humans...
January 2017: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
Raffaele Nuzzi, Alessandro Marchese, Dario Ghigo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Nuzzi Raffaele, Alessandro Marchese, Dario Ghigo
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to determine if dexamethasone, prednisolone and triamcinolone acetonide (TA), three anti-inflammatory drugs commonly used for ocular treatments, could affect the oxidative status of cultured human cells of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and protect them against oxidative injury. METHODS: ARPE-19 cells were used as an in vitro model of RPE. Glutathione (GSH) levels were assessed to evaluate the effects of dexamethasone, prednisolone and triamcinolone on cellular antioxidant status...
December 2016: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Valentina Zamboni, Maria Armentano, Gabriella Sarò, Elisa Ciraolo, Alessandra Ghigo, Giulia Germena, Alessandro Umbach, Pamela Valnegri, Maria Passafaro, Valentina Carabelli, Daniela Gavello, Veronica Bianchi, Patrizia D'Adamo, Ivan de Curtis, Nadia El-Assawi, Alessandro Mauro, Lorenzo Priano, Nicola Ferri, Emilio Hirsch, Giorgio R Merlo
During brain development, the small GTPases Rac1/Rac3 play key roles in neuronal migration, neuritogenesis, synaptic formation and plasticity, via control of actin cytoskeleton dynamic. Their activity is positively and negatively regulated by GEFs and GAPs molecules, respectively. However their in vivo roles are poorly known. The ArhGAP15 gene, coding for a Rac-specific GAP protein, is expressed in both excitatory and inhibitory neurons of the adult hippocampus, and its loss results in the hyperactivation of Rac1/Rac3...
October 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
Fanny Larsonneur, Fernando A Martin, Adeline Mallet, Marta Martinez-Gil, Vincent Semetey, Jean-Marc Ghigo, Christophe Beloin
Initial adhesion of bacterial cells to surfaces or host tissues is a key step in colonisation and biofilm formation processes, and is mediated by cell surface appendages. It was previously demonstrated that Escherichia coli K-12 possesses an arsenal of silenced chaperone-usher fimbriae that were functional when constitutively expressed. Among them, production of prevalent Yad fimbriae induces adhesion to abiotic surfaces. Functional characterisation of Yad fimbriae were undertook, and YadN was identified as the most abundant and potential major pilin, and YadC as the potential tip-protein of Yad fimbriae...
December 2016: Environmental Microbiology
Arthur R Ghigo, Xiao-Fei Wang, Ricardo Armentano, Jose Maria Fullana, Pierre-Yves Lagrée
This work deals with the viscoelasticity of the arterial wall and its influence on the pulse waves. We describe the viscoelasticity by a nonlinear Kelvin-Voigt model in which the coefficients are fitted using experimental time series of pressure and radius measured on a sheep's arterial network. We obtained a good agreement between the results of the nonlinear Kelvin-Voigt model and the experimental measurements. We found that the viscoelastic relaxation time - defined by the ratio between the viscoelastic coefficient and the Young's modulus - is nearly constant throughout the network...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
Mignane B Ka, Soraya Mezouar, Amira Ben Amara, Didier Raoult, Eric Ghigo, Daniel Olive, Jean-Louis Mege
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) play a major role in antiviral immunity via the production of type I interferons (IFNs). There is some evidence that pDCs interact with bacteria but it is not yet clear whether they are protective or contribute to bacterial pathogenicity. We wished to investigate whether Coxiella burnetii, the agent of Q fever, interacts with pDCs. The stimulation of pDCs with C. burnetii increased the expression of activation and migratory markers (CD86 and CCR7) as determined by flow cytometry and modulated gene expression program as revealed by a microarray approach...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Aart Jan van der Lely, Peter Jönsson, Patrick Wilton, Ann-Charlotte Åkerblad, José Cara, Ezio Ghigo
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the characteristics of patients who need more or less pegvisomant (PEGV) to normalize serum IGF-I. DESIGN: ACROSTUDY is a global noninterventional safety surveillance study of long-term treatment outcomes in patients treated with PEGV. As of June, 2014, ACROSTUDY included data on 2016 patients. All patients treated for at least 6weeks at a dose above 30mg/day and who had two consecutive normal serum IGF-I values were included in the 'high'-dose group (H; n=56; mean daily dose 44±12...
October 2016: European Journal of Endocrinology
Iacopo Gesmundo, Tania Villanova, Eleonora Gargantini, Emanuela Arvat, Ezio Ghigo, Riccarda Granata
Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activation has been shown to reduce adult hippocampal progenitor cell proliferation and neurogenesis. By contrast, mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) signaling is associated with neuronal survival in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, and impairment of hippocampal MR has been linked to pathological conditions, such as depression or neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we aimed to further clarify the protective role of MR in adult hippocampal neurons by studying the survival and proliferative effects of the highly potent MR agonist fludrocortisone (Fludro) in adult rat hippocampal progenitor cells (AHPs), along with the associated signaling mechanisms...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Cristina Pavan, Manuela Polimeni, Maura Tomatis, Ingrid Corazzari, Francesco Turci, Dario Ghigo, Bice Fubini
New outbursts of silicosis were recently reported among workers manufacturing an engineered material known as "artificial stone," composed by high percentages of quartz (up to 98%) agglomerated with pigments and polymeric resins. Dusts released by abrasion during artificial stone polishing were characterized for particle size, morphology, and elemental composition and studied for (1) ability to catalyze free radical generation in acellular tests, (2) membranolytic potential on human erythrocytes, (3) cytotoxic activity (lactate dehydrogenase release) on murine alveolar macrophages (MH-S) and human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cell lines, (4) induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in BEAS-2B cells...
September 2016: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Landry L Tsoumtsa, Cedric Torre, Eric Ghigo
Most of the biological functions, including the immune system, are linked to circadian rhythms in living organisms. Changes occurring to biological parameters as the result of these circadian rhythms can therefore affect the outcome of a disease. For decades, model organisms have proven to be a great tool to understanding biological mechanisms such as circadian cycle and immunity. In this review, we created an inventory of the use of model organisms in order to decipher the relation between circadian rhythms and antibacterial immunity...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Federica Guaraldi, Ioannis Karamouzis, Rita Berardelli, Valentina D'Angelo, Alessia Rampino, Clizia Zichi, Ezio Ghigo, Roberta Giordano
Adrenal failure secondary to hypothalamic-pituitary disease is a common although underestimated and underdiagnosed condition, with serious consequences. Corticotropin deficiency can be isolated or more frequently occur in association with other pituitary hormones deficiencies. The most frequent endogenous cause of secondary adrenal insufficiency (SAI) is a tumor of the hypothalamic-pituitary region, usually associated with panhypopituitarism secondary to tumor growth or to its treatment with surgery or irradiation...
2016: Frontiers of Hormone Research
F Guaraldi, D Gori, G Beccuti, N Prencipe, R Giordano, Y Mints, V S Di Giacomo, A Berton, M Lorente, V Gasco, E Ghigo, R Salvatori, S Grottoli
PURPOSE: To determine the validity of a self-administered questionnaire (Acro-CQ) developed to systematically assess the presence, type and time of onset of acromegaly comorbidities. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study; 105 acromegaly patients and 147 controls with other types of pituitary adenoma, referred to a specialized Italian Center, autonomously compiled Acro-CQ in an outpatient clinical setting. To test its reliability in a different setting, Acro-CQ was administered via mail to 78 patients with acromegaly and 100 with other pituitary adenomas, referred to a specialized US Center...
November 2016: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
Maria Teresa Samà, Ruth Rossetto Giaccherino, Marco Gallo, Francesco Felicetti, Francesca Maletta, Nadia Bonelli, Alessandro Piovesan, Nicola Palestini, Ezio Ghigo, Emanuela Arvat
PURPOSE: Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a relatively uncommon malignant tumor of the parafollicular C cells of the thyroid, which distinguishing feature is the production of calcitonin (CT). CT is a well-recognized tool in the diagnosis and the postsurgical follow-up of patients with MTC with a high sensitivity and specificity, and represents a powerful prognostic indicator. Usually, there is a direct correlation between tumor size and basal CT levels. However, few cases of CT-negative MTCs have been reported in literature and criteria for diagnosis and follow-up are still controversial...
September 2016: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
Konstantin Chegaev, Barbara Rolando, Daniela Cortese, Elena Gazzano, Ilaria Buondonno, Loretta Lazzarato, Marilù Fanelli, Claudia M Hattinger, Massimo Serra, Chiara Riganti, Roberta Fruttero, Dario Ghigo, Alberto Gasco
Doxorubicin (DOXO) is one of the most effective antineoplastic agents in clinical practice. Its use is limited by acute and chronic side effects, in particular by its cardiotoxicity and by the rapid development of resistance to it. As part of a program aimed at developing new DOXO derivatives endowed with reduced cardiotoxicity, and active against DOXO-resistant tumor cells, a series of H2S-releasing DOXOs (H2S-DOXOs) were obtained by combining DOXO with appropriate H2S donor substructures. The resulting compounds were studied on H9c2 cardiomyocytes and in DOXO-sensitive U-2OS osteosarcoma cells, as well as in related cell variants with increasing degrees of DOXO-resistance...
May 26, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
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