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Lucie Vančurová, Lucia Muggia, Ondřej Peksa, Tereza Řídká, Pavel Škaloud
Symbiosis plays a fundamental role in nature. Lichens are among the best known, globally distributed symbiotic systems whose ecology is shaped by the requirements of all symbionts forming the holobiont. The widespread lichen-forming fungal genus Stereocaulon provides a suitable model to study the ecology of microscopic green algal symbionts (i.e., phycobionts) within the lichen symbiosis. We analyzed 282 Stereocaulon specimens, collected in diverse habitats worldwide, using the algal ITS rDNA and actin gene sequences and fungal ITS rDNA sequences...
June 13, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Jing Zhou, Xiaoping Diao, Tao Wang, Guangying Chen, Qiang Lin, Xiaobo Yang, Jing Xu
Mangrove endophytic fungi can produce impressive quantities of metabolites with promising antioxidant activities that may be useful to humans as novel physiological agents. In this study, we investigated the phylogenetic diversity and antioxidant potential of 46 fungal endophytes derived from the mangrove species Rhizophora stylosa and R. mucronata from the South China Sea. The fungal isolates were identified using a combination of morphological characteristics and phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences...
2018: PloS One
Bosheng Chen, Kaiqian Du, Chao Sun, Arunprasanna Vimalanathan, Xili Liang, Yong Li, Baohong Wang, Xingmeng Lu, Lanjuan Li, Yongqi Shao
Bombyx mori, the domesticated silkworm, is of great importance as a silk producer and as a powerful experimental model for the basic and applied research. Similar to other animals, abundant microorganisms live inside the silkworm gut; however, surprisingly, the microbiota of this model insect has not been well characterized to date. Here, we comprehensively characterized the gut microbiota of the domesticated silkworm and its wild relatives. Comparative analyses with the mulberry-feeding moths Acronicta major and Diaphania pyloalis revealed a highly diverse but distinctive silkworm gut microbiota despite thousands of years of domestication, and stage-specific signatures in both total (DNA-based) and active (RNA-based) bacterial populations, dominated by the phyla Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes...
June 12, 2018: ISME Journal
Marcelo Sandoval-Denis, Wijnand J Swart, Pedro W Crous
Three new Fusarium species, F. convolutans , F. fredkrugeri , and F. transvaalense (Ascomycota, Hypocreales, Nectriaceae) are described from soils collected in a catena landscape on a research supersite in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. The new taxa, isolated from the rhizosphere of three African herbaceous plants, Kyphocarpa angustifolia , Melhania acuminata , and Sida cordifolia , are described and illustrated by means of morphological and multilocus molecular analyses based on sequences from five DNA loci (CAL, EF-1 α, RPB1, RPB2 and TUB)...
2018: MycoKeys
Binoy Ambika Manirajan, Corinna Maisinger, Stefan Ratering, Volker Rusch, Andreas Schwiertz, Massimiliano Cardinale, Sylvia Schnell
Flower pollen represents a unique microbial habitat, however the factors driving microbial assemblages and microbe-microbe interactions remain largely unexplored. Here we compared the structure and diversity of the bacterial-fungal microbiome between eight different pollen species (four wind-pollinated and four insect-pollinated) from close geographical locations, using high-throughput sequencing of a 16S the rRNA gene fragment (bacteria) and the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2, fungi). Proteobacteria and Ascomycota were the most abundant bacterial and fungal phyla, respectively...
June 6, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Karen E Fisher, Isobel Romberger, David Lowry, Phakade Shange, Robert W Roberson
Characteristics of hyphal structure and growth can provide insights into the mechanisms of polarized growth and support investigations of fungal phylogeny. To assist with the resolution of evolutionary relationships of the zygomycetes, the authors used comparative bioimaging methods (light [LM] and transmission electron [TEM] microscopy) to describe selected subcellular characters of hyphal tips of Conidiobolus coronatus. Growing hyphae of C. coronatus contain Spitzenkörper (Spk). Spk are most commonly present in hyphae of Dikarya (Ascomycota and Basidiomycota) and are rarely reported in zygomycete hyphae, which possess an apical vesicle crescent (AVC)...
January 2018: Mycologia
Walter P Pfliegler, Ferenc Báthori, Tristan W Wang, András Tartally, Danny Haelewaters
The introduction of non-native animals occasionally results in the co-introduction of their microbial symbionts or parasites. The trade of exotic pets and zoo animals has inadvertently introduced several parasitic species to countries where they are non-native. Both the presence of suitable native hosts and opportunity for dispersal determine whether these non-native species become naturalized. During our studies dealing with species of Herpomyces (Ascomycota, Laboulbeniomycetes), fungi that are exclusively ectoparasitic on cockroaches (Hexapoda, Blattodea), we make use of artificial colonies...
January 2018: Mycologia
Patricia Kaishian, Alex Weir
Four new species of Prolixandromyces (Laboulbeniales, Ascomycota) found on Veliidae (Heteroptera) from Bolivia, Brazil, Peru, and Venezuela are described and illustrated. These four species, Prolixandromyces anseris, P. tritici, P. blackwelliae, and P. bromelicola, represent the first records of this genus from South America, and their discovery requires emendation of the original generic circumscription. The newly described fungi are compared with known species, and a new key to identification is provided.
January 2018: Mycologia
L S Lobo, J R Girotti, S J Mijailovsky, É K K Fernandes, C Luz, N Pedrini
Physically disturbed Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) adults, as well as adults of other Chagas' disease vectors, secrete a mix of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with alarm and possible sexual and defence functions. The aim of the present research was to test whether infection with the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) has an effect on VOC secretion in disturbed T. infestans and on the expression of two genes (Ti-brnq and Ti-bckdc) potentially involved in VOC biosynthesis...
June 2, 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
Celso Almeida, Cristina Silva Pereira, Victor Gonzalez-Menendez, Gerald Bills, Javier Pascual, Marina Sánchez-Hidalgo, Stefan Kehraus, Olga Genilloud
Amongst the plethora of unusual secondary metabolites isolated from Stachylidium bicolor are the tetrapeptidic endolides A and B. Both tetrapeptides contain 3-(3-furyl)-alanine residues, previously proposed to originate from bacterial metabolism. Inspired by this observation, we aimed to identify the presence of endosymbiotic bacteria in S. bicolor and to discover the true producer of the endolides. The endobacterium Burkholderia contaminans was initially detected by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing from the fungal metagenome and was subsequently isolated...
June 1, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Cintia Faria da Silva, Luciana Cristina Vitorino, Marcos Antônio Soares, Edson Luiz Souchie
The functional diversity of endophytic and rhizospheric microorganisms associated with the promotion of plant growth includes increased availability of plant nutrients, phytohormone synthesis and phytopathogen suppression. We used the hypothesis that the unknown root and rhizospheric community associated with the Butia purpurascens palm, an endemic species of the Cerrado, could be composed of microbiota with great functional diversity. Thus, the potential of the isolates of this community for four functional traits was evaluated: solubilization of calcium phosphate (CaHPO4 ) and iron phosphate (FePO4 ), synthesis of indoleacetic acid (IAA) and suppression of seed- and fruit-spoilage fungi of B...
May 30, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Elvira E Ziganshina, Waleed S Mohammed, Elena I Shagimardanova, Petr Y Vankov, Natalia E Gogoleva, Ayrat M Ziganshin
Interpretation of how partnerships between fungi, bacteria, archaea, and insects are maintained through the life of the hosts is a big challenge within the framework of symbiosis research. The main goal of this work was to characterize the gut microbiota in larvae of several Coleoptera species using sequencing of the bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes and fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Thus, larvae with various food preferences, including Amphimallon solstitiale , Oryctes nasicornis , Cucujus cinnaberinus , Schizotus pectinicornis , Rhagium mordax , and Rhagium inquisitor , were thoroughly investigated in this work...
2018: BioMed Research International
Ryosuke Shigemoto, Takara Matsumoto, Shunsuke Masuo, Naoki Takaya
Sirtuin is an NAD+ -dependent histone deacetylase that is highly conserved among prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Sirtuin deacetylates histones and non-histone proteins, and it is involved in fungal growth and secondary metabolite production. Here, we screened 579 fungal culture extracts that inhibited the histone deacetylase activity of Sirtuin A (SirA), produced by the fungus Aspergillus nidulans. Eight fungal strains containing three Ascomycota, two Basidiomycota and three Deuteromycetes produced SirA inhibitors...
May 23, 2018: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Theerapat Luangsuphabool, H Thorsten Lumbsch, Jittra Piapukiew, Ek Sangvichien
Architrypethelium murisporum Luangsuphabool, Lumbsch & Sangvichien is described for a crustose lichen occurring in dry evergreen forest in Thailand. It is characterised by a green to yellow-green corticated thallus, perithecia fused in black pseudostromata with white rim surrounding the ostiole and small, hyaline and muriform ascospores. Currently, all species in the genus Architrypethelium have transversely septate ascospores, hence the discovery of this new species indicates that ascospore septation is variable within the genus, similar to numerous other groups of lichen-forming ascomycetes...
2018: MycoKeys
Yan Wang, Matt Stata, Wei Wang, Jason E Stajich, Merlin M White, Jean-Marc Moncalvo
Modern genomics has shed light on many entomopathogenic fungi and expanded our knowledge widely; however, little is known about the genomic features of the insect-commensal fungi. Harpellales are obligate commensals living in the digestive tracts of disease-bearing insects (black flies, midges, and mosquitoes). In this study, we produced and annotated whole-genome sequences of nine Harpellales taxa and conducted the first comparative analyses to infer the genomic diversity within the members of the Harpellales...
May 15, 2018: MBio
Cene Gostinčar, Jason E Stajich, Jerneja Zupančič, Polona Zalar, Nina Gunde-Cimerman
BACKGROUND: The black yeast Hortaea werneckii (Dothideomycetes, Ascomycota) is one of the most extremely halotolerant fungi, capable of growth at NaCl concentrations close to saturation. Although dothideomycetous fungi are typically haploid, the reference H. werneckii strain has a diploid genome consisting of two subgenomes with a high level of heterozygosity. RESULTS: In order to explain the origin of the H. werneckii diploid genome we here report the genome sequencing of eleven strains isolated from different habitats and geographic locations...
May 15, 2018: BMC Genomics
Stéphane Pfendler, Battle Karimi, Pierre-Alain Maron, Lisa Ciadamidaro, Benoît Valot, Faisl Bousta, Laurence Alaoui-Sosse, Badr Alaoui-Sosse, Lotfi Aleya
In recent decades, show caves have begun to suffer from microorganism proliferation due to artificial lighting installations for touristic activity. In addition to the aesthetic problem, light encourages microorganisms that are responsible for physical and chemical degradation of limestone walls, speleothems and prehistoric paintings of cultural value. Microorganisms have previously been described by microscopy or culture-dependent methods, but data provided by new generation sequencing are rare. The authors identified, for the first time, microorganisms proliferating in one Swiss and in four French show caves using three different primers...
February 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Siyuan Zhu, Yanzhou Wang, Xiaomin Xu, Touming Liu, Duanqing Wu, Xia Zheng, Shouwei Tang, Qiuzhong Dai
Ramie (Boehmeria nivea L. Gaud) fiber, one of the most important natural fibers, is extracted from stem bark. Continuous cropping is the main obstacle to ramie stem growth and a major cause of reduced yields. Root-associated microbes play crucial roles in plant growth and health. In this study, we investigated differences between microbial communities in the soil of healthy and continuously cropped ramie plants, and sought to identify potential mechanisms whereby these communities could counteract the problems posed by continuous cropping...
2018: PloS One
Rosalia Rodríguez-Martínez, Pedro Mendoza-de-Gives, Liliana Aguilar-Marcelino, María Eugenia López-Arellano, Marcela Gamboa-Angulo, Greta Hanako Rosas-Saito, Manuela Reyes-Estébanez, Virginia Guadalupe García-Rubio
This study was aimed to evaluate the in vitro lethal activity of the nematophagous fungi Clonostachys rosea against 5 nematodes species belonging to different taxa. Two groups of 35 Petri dishes (PD) each were divided into 5 series of 7 (PD). Group 1 (series 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5) contained only water agar; meanwhile group 2 plates (series 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10) contained C. rosea cultures growth on water agar. Every plate from the two groups was added with 500 nematodes corresponding to the following genera/specie: Haemonchus contortus , Caenorhabditis elegans, Rhabditis sp...
2018: BioMed Research International
Juliana Lenzi, Tania Maria Costa, Michele Debiasi Alberton, Juliane Araújo Greinert Goulart, Lorena Benathar Ballod Tavares
Regions with a tropical climate are frequently affected by endemic diseases caused by pathogenic parasites. More than one billion people worldwide are exposed directly to tropical parasites. The literature cites several antiparasitic metabolites obtained from medicinal plants or via synthetic pathways. However, fungi produce a diversity of metabolites that play important biological roles in human well-being. Thus, they are considered a potential source of novel natural agents for exploitation in the pharmaceutical industry...
May 10, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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