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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438013/characterization-of-newly-bred-cordyceps-militaris-strains-for-higher-production-of-cordycepin-through-hplc-and-urp-pcr-analysis
#1
Hyun-Hee Lee, Naru Kang, Inmyoung Park, Jungwook Park, Inyoung Kim, Jieun Kim, Namgyu Kim, Jae-Yun Lee, Young-Su Seo
Cordyceps militaris, a member of Ascomycota, a mushroom referred to as caterpillar Dong-chung-ha-cho, is commercially valuable because of its high content of bioactive substances including cordycepin and its potential for artificial cultivation. Cordycepin (3'-deoxyadenosine) is highly associated with the pharmacological effects of C. militaris. C. militaris is heterothallic in that two mating type loci, idiomorph MAT1-1 and MAT1-2, exist discretely in two different spores. In this study, nine C. militaris strains were mated with each other to prepare new strains that produced a larger amount of cordycepin than the parent strains...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436942/diversity-and-ecological-adaptations-in-palaeogene-lichens
#2
Ulla Kaasalainen, Alexander R Schmidt, Jouko Rikkinen
Lichens are highly specialized symbioses between heterotrophic fungi and photoautotrophic green algae or cyanobacteria. The mycobionts of many lichens produce morphologically complex thalli to house their photobionts. Lichens play important roles in ecosystems and have been used as indicators of environmental change. Here we report the finding of 152 new fossil lichens from European Palaeogene amber, and hence increase the total number of known fossil lichens from 15 to 167. Most of the fossils represent extant lineages of the Lecanoromycetes, an almost exclusively lichen-symbiotic class of Ascomycota...
April 24, 2017: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435347/five-new-records-of-soil-derived-trichoderma-in-korea-t-albolutescens-t-asperelloides-t-orientale-t-spirale-and-t-tomentosum
#3
Seokyoon Jang, Yeongseon Jang, Chul-Whan Kim, Hanbyul Lee, Joo-Hyun Hong, Young Mok Heo, Young Min Lee, Dong Wan Lee, Hyang Burm Lee, Jae-Jin Kim
Despite the huge worldwide diversity of Trichoderma (Hypocreaceae, Ascomycota), only about 22 species have been reported in Korea. Thus, between 2013 and 2015, soil-derived Trichoderma spp. were isolated to reveal the diversity of Korean Trichoderma. Phylogenetic analysis of translation elongation factor 1 alpha gene was used for identification. Among the soil-derived Trichoderma, Trichoderma albolutescens, T. asperelloides, T. orientale, T. spirale, and T. tomentosum have not been previously reported in Korea...
March 2017: Mycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426712/the-culturable-mycobiota-of-flabellia-petiolata-first-survey-of-marine-fungi-associated-to-a-mediterranean-green-alga
#4
Giorgio Gnavi, Laura Garzoli, Anna Poli, Valeria Prigione, Gaëtan Burgaud, Giovanna Cristina Varese
Algae-inhabiting marine fungi represent a taxonomically and ecologically interesting group of microorganisms still largely neglected, especially in temperate regions. The aim of this study was to isolate and to identify the culturable mycobiota associated with Flabellia petiolata, a green alga frequently retrieved in the Mediterranean basin. Twenty algal thalli were collected from two different sampling sites in the Mediterranean Sea (Elba Island, Italy). A polyphasic approach showed the presence of a relevant alga-associated mycobiota with 64 taxa identified...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423427/influence-of-temperature-and-relative-humidity-on-the-insecticidal-efficacy-of-metarhizium-anisopliae-against-larvae-of-ephestia-kuehniella-lepidoptera-pyralidae-on-wheat
#5
Christos G Athanassiou, Nickolas G Kavallieratos, Christos I Rumbos, Demetrius C Kontodimas
A series of laboratory bioassays were conducted for the evaluation of the insecticidal efficacy of an isolate of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) against larvae of the Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), under various temperature-relative humidity (r.h.) conditions. The fungus was applied at four doses (0, 8 × 106, 8 × 108, and 8 × 1010 conidia ml-1) on wheat and insect mortality was assessed after exposure of 1, 2, 7, and 14 d...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423416/beauveria-bassiana-ascomycota-hypocreales-introduced-as-an-endophyte-in-corn-plants-and-its-effects-on-consumption-reproductive-capacity-and-food-preference-of-dichroplus-maculipennis-orthoptera-acrididae-melanoplinae
#6
Sebastian A Pelizza, Yanina Mariottini, Leticia M Russo, M Florencia Vianna, Ana C Scorsetti, Carlos E Lange
In this study, the effects of strain Beauveria bassiana (LPSC 1067) as an endophyte in corn plants on consumption, fecundity, and food preference of Dichroplus maculipennis were examined. We observed that the daily consumption by grasshoppers fed with control plants was almost twice that of those that were fed treated plants. Significant differences in fecundity of grasshoppers that were fed with treated plants compared with those that only fed on control plants were also observed. The number of eggs laid per female fed with control plants was 27...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421041/metagenome-wide-association-study-and-machine-learning-prediction-of-bulk-soil-microbiome-and-crop-productivity
#7
Hao-Xun Chang, James S Haudenshield, Charles R Bowen, Glen L Hartman
Areas within an agricultural field in the same season often differ in crop productivity despite having the same cropping history, crop genotype, and management practices. One hypothesis is that abiotic or biotic factors in the soils differ between areas resulting in these productivity differences. In this study, bulk soil samples collected from a high and a low productivity area from within six agronomic fields in Illinois were quantified for abiotic and biotic characteristics. Extracted DNA from these bulk soil samples were shotgun sequenced...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417909/interactions-among-the-predatory-midge-aphidoletes-aphidimyza-diptera-cecidomyiidae-the-fungal-pathogen-metarhizium-brunneum-ascomycota-hypocreales-and-maize-infesting-aphids-in-greenhouse-mesocosms
#8
Ana Gorete Campos de Azevedo, Bernhardt Michael Steinwender, Jørgen Eilenberg, Lene Sigsgaard
The generalist entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium brunneum, has proved to have great potential as a versatile biological pest control agent. The gall midge Aphidoletes aphidimyza is a specialist predator that occurs naturally in Europe and has been successfully used for aphid suppression. However, the interaction between these two biological control organisms and how it may affect the biological control of aphids awaits further investigation. As part of the EU-supported project INBIOSOIL, this study was conducted in greenhouse conditions to assess the possible effects of combining both biological control agents...
April 12, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402787/structural-character-evolution-in-pucciniomycotina-mitosis-septa-and-hyphal-branch-initiation-in-two-helicogloea-species
#9
David J McLaughlin, T K Arun Kumar, Mahajabeen Padamsee, Merje Toome-Heller, Elizabeth M Frieders, M Catherine Aime
Early diverging taxa of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota share similarities in subcellular characters of the spindle pole body (SPB), nuclear division, and septal pore apparatus, but our understanding of character evolution is incomplete because of the limited number of structural studies within the earliest diverging subphyla of Dikarya, Taphrinomycotina and Pucciniomycotina. Two species of Helicogloea (Atractiellomycetes) were analyzed for these characters and provide data on SPB and nuclear division for an additional class of Pucciniomycotina...
2017: Mycologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402784/defining-the-pathways-of-symbiotic-epichlo%C3%A3-colonization-in-grass-embryos-with-confocal-microscopy
#10
Wei Zhang, Stuart D Card, Wade J Mace, Michael J Christensen, Craig R McGill, Cory Matthew
Asexual cool-season grass endophytes of the genus Epichloë (Ascomycota: Clavicipitaceae) are strictly vertically disseminated. The hosts of these mutualistic fungi express no symptoms during the fungal lifecycle that takes place entirely within the plant, while their hosts receive beneficial outcomes. These fungi are distributed in two major locations within the mature seeds of their hosts; namely, within the embryo (including the scutellum, coleoptile, plumule, radicle, and coleorhiza tissues) and between the aleurone and pericarp layers, with the latter hyphae playing no role in transmission of the fungus to the next plant generation...
2017: Mycologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392403/matrix-metalloproteinases-outside-vertebrates
#11
Laura Marino-Puertas, Theodoros Goulas, F Xavier Gomis-Rüth
The matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family belongs to the metzincin clan of zinc-dependent metallopeptidases. Due to their enormous implications in physiology and disease, MMPs have mainly been studied in vertebrates. They are engaged in extracellular protein processing and degradation, and present extensive paralogy, with 23 forms in humans. One characteristic of MMPs is a~165-residue catalytic domain (CD), which has been structurally studied for 14 MMPs from human, mouse, rat, pig and the oral-microbiome bacterium Tannerella forsythia...
April 6, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388929/novel-soil-inhabiting-clades-fill-gaps-in-the-fungal-tree-of-life
#12
Leho Tedersoo, Mohammad Bahram, Rasmus Puusepp, R Henrik Nilsson, Timothy Y James
BACKGROUND: Fungi are a diverse eukaryotic group of degraders, pathogens, and symbionts, with many lineages known only from DNA sequences in soil, sediments, air, and water. RESULTS: We provide rough phylogenetic placement and principal niche analysis for >40 previously unrecognized fungal groups at the order and class level from global soil samples based on combined 18S (nSSU) and 28S (nLSU) rRNA gene sequences. Especially, Rozellomycota (Cryptomycota), Zygomycota s...
April 8, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382021/an-endohyphal-bacterium-chitinophaga-bacteroidetes-alters-carbon-source-use-by-fusarium-keratoplasticum-f-solani-species-complex-nectriaceae
#13
Justin P Shaffer, Jana M U'Ren, Rachel E Gallery, David A Baltrus, A Elizabeth Arnold
Bacterial endosymbionts occur in diverse fungi, including members of many lineages of Ascomycota that inhabit living plants. These endosymbiotic bacteria (endohyphal bacteria, EHB) often can be removed from living fungi by antibiotic treatment, providing an opportunity to assess their effects on functional traits of their fungal hosts. We examined the effects of an endohyphal bacterium (Chitinophaga sp., Bacteroidetes) on substrate use by its host, a seed-associated strain of the fungus Fusarium keratoplasticum, by comparing growth between naturally infected and cured fungal strains across 95 carbon sources with a Biolog® phenotypic microarray...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381497/swainsonine-biosynthesis-genes-in-diverse-symbiotic-and-pathogenic-fungi
#14
Daniel Cook, Bruno G G Donzelli, Rebecca Creamer, Deana L Baucom, Dale R Gardner, Juan Pan, Neil Moore, Jerzy W Jaromczyk, Christopher L Schardl
Swainsonine, a cytotoxic fungal alkaloid and a potential cancer therapy drug, is produced by the insect pathogen and plant symbiont, Metarhizium robertsii, the clover pathogen Slafractonia leguminicola, locoweed symbionts belonging to Alternaria sect. Undifilum, and a recently discovered morning glory symbiont belonging to order Chaetothyriales. Genome sequence analyses revealed that these fungi shared orthologous gene clusters, designated "SWN," which included a multifunctional swnK gene comprising predicted adenylylation and acyltransferase domains with their associated thiolation domains, a β-ketoacyl synthase domain, and two reductase domains...
April 4, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369806/identification-of-microbial-profile-of-koji-using-single-molecule-real-time-sequencing-technology
#15
Wenyan Hui, Qiangchuan Hou, Chenxia Cao, Haiyan Xu, Yi Zhen, Lai-Yu Kwok, Tiansong Sun, Heping Zhang, Wenyi Zhang
Koji is a kind of Japanese traditional fermented starter that has been used for centuries. Many fermented foods are made from koji, such as sake, miso, and soy sauce. This study used the single molecule real-time sequencing technology (SMRT) to investigate the bacterial and fungal microbiota of 3 Japanese koji samples. After SMRT analysis, a total of 39121 high-quality sequences were generated, including 14354 bacterial and 24767 fungal sequence reads. The high-quality gene sequences were assigned to 5 bacterial and 2 fungal plyla, dominated by Proteobacteria and Ascomycota, respectively...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349918/land-use-types-and-soil-chemical-properties-influence-soil-microbial-communities-in-the-semiarid-loess-plateau-region-in-china
#16
Qin Tian, Takeshi Taniguchi, Wei-Yu Shi, Guoqing Li, Norikazu Yamanaka, Sheng Du
Similar land-use types usually have similar soil properties, and, most likely, similar microbial communities. Here, we assessed whether land-use types or soil chemical properties are the primary drivers of soil microbial community composition, and how changes in one part of the ecosystem affect another. We applied Ion Torrent sequencing to the bacterial and fungal communities of five different land-use (vegetation) types in the Loess Plateau of China. We found that the overall trend of soil quality was natural forest > plantation > bare land...
March 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349099/draft-genome-of-the-fungus-growing-termite-pathogenic-fungus-ophiocordyceps-bispora-ophiocordycipitaceae-hypocreales-ascomycota
#17
Benjamin H Conlon, Jannette Mitchell, Z Wilhelm de Beer, Christian Carøe, M Thomas P Gilbert, Jørgen Eilenberg, Michael Poulsen, Henrik H de Fine Licht
This article documents the public availability of genome sequence data and assembled contigs representing the partial draft genome of Ophiocordyceps bispora. As one of the few known pathogens of fungus-farming termites, a draft genome of O. bispora represents the opportunity to further the understanding of disease and resistance in these complex termite societies. With the ongoing attempts to resolve the taxonomy of the Hypocralaean family, more genetic data will also help to shed light on the phylogenetic relationship between sexual and asexual life stages...
April 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348879/absence-of-genome-reduction-in-diverse-facultative-endohyphal-bacteria
#18
David A Baltrus, Kevin Dougherty, Kayla R Arendt, Marcel Huntemann, Alicia Clum, Manoj Pillay, Krishnaveni Palaniappan, Neha Varghese, Natalia Mikhailova, Dimitrios Stamatis, T B K Reddy, Chew Yee Ngan, Chris Daum, Nicole Shapiro, Victor Markowitz, Natalia Ivanova, Nikos Kyrpides, Tanja Woyke, A Elizabeth Arnold
Fungi interact closely with bacteria, both on the surfaces of the hyphae and within their living tissues (i.e. endohyphal bacteria, EHB). These EHB can be obligate or facultative symbionts and can mediate diverse phenotypic traits in their hosts. Although EHB have been observed in many lineages of fungi, it remains unclear how widespread and general these associations are, and whether there are unifying ecological and genomic features can be found across EHB strains as a whole. We cultured 11 bacterial strains after they emerged from the hyphae of diverse Ascomycota that were isolated as foliar endophytes of cupressaceous trees, and generated nearly complete genome sequences for all...
February 2017: Microbial Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348446/exploring-the-genomic-diversity-of-black-yeasts-and-relatives-chaetothyriales-ascomycota
#19
M M Teixeira, L F Moreno, B J Stielow, A Muszewska, M Hainaut, L Gonzaga, A Abouelleil, J S L Patané, M Priest, R Souza, S Young, K S Ferreira, Q Zeng, M M L da Cunha, A Gladki, B Barker, V A Vicente, E M de Souza, S Almeida, B Henrissat, A T R Vasconcelos, S Deng, H Voglmayr, T A A Moussa, A Gorbushina, M S S Felipe, C A Cuomo, G Sybren de Hoog
The order Chaetothyriales (Pezizomycotina, Ascomycetes) harbours obligatorily melanised fungi and includes numerous etiologic agents of chromoblastomycosis, phaeohyphomycosis and other diseases of vertebrate hosts. Diseases range from mild cutaneous to fatal cerebral or disseminated infections and affect humans and cold-blooded animals globally. In addition, Chaetothyriales comprise species with aquatic, rock-inhabiting, ant-associated, and mycoparasitic life-styles, as well as species that tolerate toxic compounds, suggesting a high degree of versatile extremotolerance...
March 2017: Studies in Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347268/illumina-miseq-sequencing-analysis-of-fungal-diversity-in-stored-dates
#20
Ismail M Al-Bulushi, Muna S Bani-Uraba, Nejib S Guizani, Mohammed K Al-Khusaibi, Abdullah M Al-Sadi
BACKGROUND: Date palm has been a major fruit tree in the Middle East over thousands of years, especially in the Arabian Peninsula. Dates are consumed fresh (Rutab) or after partial drying and storage (Tamar) during off-season. The aim of the study was to provide in-depth analysis of fungal communities associated with the skin (outer part) and mesocarp (inner fleshy part) of stored dates (Tamar) of two cultivars (Khenizi and Burny) through the use of Illumina MiSeq sequencing. RESULTS: The study revealed the dominance of Ascomycota (94%) in both cultivars, followed by Chytridiomycota (4%) and Zygomycota (2%)...
March 27, 2017: BMC Microbiology
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