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Ahmed Abdelfattah, Michael Wisniewski, Samir Droby, Leonardo Schena
The fungal diversity in harvested apples from organic or conventional management practices was analyzed in different fruit locations (stem end, calyx end, peel, and wounded flesh) shortly after fruit purchase (T1) and after 2 weeks of storage (T5). A total of 5,760,162 high-quality fungal sequences were recovered and assigned to 8,504 Operational Taxonomic Units. Members of the phylum Ascomycota were dominant in all samples and accounted for 91.6% of the total number of detected sequences. This was followed by Basidiomycota (8%), Chytridiomycota (0...
2016: Horticulture Research
Richard J Bennett, B Gillian Turgeon
This article provides an overview of sexual reproduction in the ascomycetes, a phylum of fungi that is named after the specialized sacs or "asci" that hold the sexual spores. They have therefore also been referred to as the Sac Fungi due to these characteristic structures that typically contain four to eight ascospores. Ascomycetes are morphologically diverse and include single-celled yeasts, filamentous fungi, and more complex cup fungi. The sexual cycles of many species, including those of the model yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe and the filamentous saprobes Neurospora crassa, Aspergillus nidulans, and Podospora anserina, have been examined in depth...
October 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Ahmed Abdelfattah, Santa O Cacciola, Saveria Mosca, Rocco Zappia, Leonardo Schena
Citrus greasy spot (CGS) is a disease of citrus with worldwide distribution and recent surveys have revealed a high level of incidence and severity of symptoms of the disease in Sicily, southern Italy. Although Mycosphaerel la citri (anamorph Zasmidium citri-griseum) and other related species are generally considered as causal agents, the etiology of CGS is still unclear. Here, we report the use of an amplicon metagenomic approach to investigate the fungal communities on citrus leaves symptomatic or asymptomatic for CGS from an orchard in Sicily showing typical CGS symptoms...
October 18, 2016: Microbial Ecology
Asma Asemaninejad, R Greg Thorn, Zoë Lindo
Peatlands play an important role in global climate change through sequestration of atmospheric CO2. Climate-driven changes in the structure of fungal communities in boreal peatlands that favor saprotrophic fungi can substantially impact carbon dynamics and nutrient cycling in these crucial ecosystems. In a mesocosm study using a full factorial design, 100 intact peat monoliths, complete with living Sphagnum and above-ground vascular vegetation, were subjected to three climate change variables (increased temperature, reduced water table, and elevated CO2 concentrations)...
October 15, 2016: Microbial Ecology
Steven D Leavitt, Theodore L Esslinger, Pradeep K Divakar, Ana Crespo, H Thorsten Lumbsch
Molecular data provide unprecedented insight into diversity of lichenized fungi, although morphologically cryptic species-level lineages circumscribed from sequence data often remain undescribed even in well-studies groups. Using diagnostic characters from DNA sequence data and support from the multispecies coalescent model, we formally describe a total of eleven new species and resurrect two others in the hyperdiverse lichen-forming fungal family Parmeliaceae. These include: four in the genus Melanelixia - M...
November 2016: Fungal Biology
Martina Réblová, Vit Hubka, Olle Thureborn, Johannes Lundberg, Therese Sallstedt, Mats Wedin, Magnus Ivarsson
Rock-inhabiting fungi harbour species-rich, poorly differentiated, extremophilic taxa of polyphyletic origin. Their closest relatives are often well-known species from various biotopes with significant pathogenic potential. Speleothems represent a unique rock-dwelling habitat, whose mycobiota are largely unexplored. Isolation of fungi from speleothem biofilm covering bare granite walls in the Kungsträdgården metro station in Stockholm yielded axenic cultures of two distinct black yeast morphotypes. Phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequences from six nuclear loci, ITS, nuc18S and nuc28S rDNA, rpb1, rpb2 and β-tubulin, support their placement in the Chaetothyriales (Ascomycota)...
2016: PloS One
Sean X Zhang, Nathan P Wiederhold
Yeasts are unicellular organisms that reproduce mostly by budding and less often by fission. Most medically important yeasts originate from Ascomycota or Basidiomycota. Here, we review taxonomy, epidemiology, disease spectrum, antifungal drug susceptibility patterns of medically important yeast, laboratory diagnosis, and diagnostic strategies.
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Susanne Kramer, Dörte Dibbern, Julia Moll, Maike Huenninghaus, Robert Koller, Dirk Krueger, Sven Marhan, Tim Urich, Tesfaye Wubet, Michael Bonkowski, François Buscot, Tillmann Lueders, Ellen Kandeler
The flow of plant-derived carbon in soil is a key component of global carbon cycling. Conceptual models of trophic carbon fluxes in soil have assumed separate bacterial and fungal energy channels in the detritusphere, controlled by both substrate complexity and recalcitrance. However, detailed understanding of the key populations involved and niche-partitioning between them is limited. Here, a microcosm experiment was performed to trace the flow of detritusphere C from substrate analogs (glucose, cellulose) and plant biomass amendments (maize leaves, roots) in an agricultural soil...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Sheetal Ambardar, Heikham Russiachand Singh, Malali Gowda, Jyoti Vakhlu
Plant-fungal associations have been explored by routine cultivation based approaches and cultivation based approaches cannot catalogue more than 5% of fungal diversity associated with any niche. In the present study, an attempt has been made to catalogue fungal diversity associated with belowground parts i.e. rhizosphere and cormosphere, of Crocus sativus (an economically important herb) during two growth stages, using cultivation independent ITS gene targeted approach, taking bulk soil as reference. The 454 pyrosequencing sequence data analysis suggests that the fungal diversity was niche and growth stage specific...
2016: PloS One
Angelica Marsberg, Martin Kemler, Fahimeh Jami, Jan H Nagel, Alisa Postma-Smidt, Sanushka Naidoo, Michael J Wingfield, Pedro W Crous, Joseph Spatafora, Cedar N Hesse, Barbara Robbertse, Bernard Slippers
: Botryosphaeria dothidea is the type species of Botryosphaeria (Botryosphaeriaceae, Botryosphaeriales). Fungi residing in this order are amongst the most widespread and important canker and dieback pathogens of trees worldwide, with B. dothidea one of the most common species on a large number of hosts. Its taxonomic circumscription has undergone substantial change in the past decade, making it difficult to interpret the large volume of literature linked to the name B. dothidea. This pathogen profile synthesises the current understanding of B...
September 28, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
Tetiana Lutsak, Fernando Fernández-Mendoza, Bastian Greshake, Francesco Dal Grande, Ingo Ebersberger, Sieglinde Ott, Christian Printzen
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed for the lichen species Cetraria aculeata (Parmeliaceae) to study fine-scale population diversity and phylogeographic structure. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using Illumina HiSeq and MiSeq, 15 fungus-specific microsatellite markers were developed and tested on 81 specimens from four populations from Spain. The number of alleles ranged from four to 13 alleles per locus with a mean of 7.9, and average gene diversities varied from 0...
September 2016: Applications in Plant Sciences
P Maza-Márquez, R Vilchez-Vargas, F M Kerckhof, E Aranda, J González-López, B Rodelas
Community structure, population dynamics and diversity of fungi were monitored in a full-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) operated throughout four experimental phases (Summer 2009, Autumn 2009, Summer 2010 and Winter, 2012) under different conditions, using the 18S-rRNA gene and the intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS2-region) as molecular markers, and a combination of temperature-gradient gel electrophoresis and 454-pyrosequencing. Both total and metabolically-active fungal populations were fingerprinted, by amplification of molecular markers from community DNA and retrotranscribed RNA, respectively...
November 15, 2016: Water Research
Runa Antony, Aritri Sanyal, Neelam Kapse, Prashant K Dhakephalkar, Meloth Thamban, Shanta Nair
Snow ecosystems represent a large part of the Earth's biosphere and harbour diverse microbial communities. Despite our increased knowledge of snow microbial communities, the question remains as to their functional potential, particularly with respect to their role in adapting to and modifying the specific snow environment. In this work, we investigated the diversity and functional capabilities of microorganisms from 3 regions of East Antarctica, with respect to compounds present in snow and tested whether their functional signature reflected the snow environment...
November 2016: Microbiological Research
Zhi-Jie Li, Xiao-Ye Shen, Cheng-Lin Hou
A total of 374 fungal endophyte strains were isolated from of Vaccinium dunalianum var. urophyllum (Ericaceae), a well-known cultivated blueberry in southern China. These fungal endophytes could be categorized into 25 morphotypes according to culture characteristics and molecular identification based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. All of these isolates belonged to Ascomycota. Jaccard's (Jc) and Sorenson's similarity indices indicated that the species communities from the fruits and branches were closer to each other than to those from leaves...
September 23, 2016: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Christopher J Barnes, Carla Maldonado, Tobias G Frøslev, Alexandre Antonelli, Nina Rønsted
Bolivia is one of the most biologically diverse countries on the planet. Between the Andes and the Amazon drainage basin spans the Yungas, a vast forested region shown to be extremely species rich in macro-organisms. However, it remains unclear whether this high diversity is also reflected in microbial diversity. Here we assess the genetic, taxonomic and functional diversity of root-associated fungi surrounding Cinchona calisaya trees, a typical element of the intermediate altitudes of the Bolivian Yungas. We determine the relative effects of edaphic properties, climate, and geography in regulating fungal community assembly...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Fei Xia, Xin Chen, Meng-Yuan Guo, Xiao-Hui Bai, Yan Liu, Guang-Rong Shen, Yu-Ling Li, Juan Lin, Xuan-Wei Zhou
Chinese Cordyceps, known in Chinese as "DongChong XiaCao", is a parasitic complex of a fungus (Ophiocordyceps sinensis) and a caterpillar. The current study explored the endogenetic fungal communities inhabiting Chinese Cordyceps. Samples were collected from five different geographical regions of Qinghai and Tibet, and the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer-1 sequences from each sample were obtained using Illumina high-throughput sequencing. The results showed that Ascomycota was the dominant fungal phylum in Chinese Cordyceps and its soil microhabitat from different sampling regions...
2016: Scientific Reports
M Hernández-Restrepo, J Z Groenewald, P W Crous
Based on morphology and DNA sequence data the taxonomic relationships of Microdochium, Monographella and Idriella were reassessed. Microdochium is morphologically and phylogenetically circumscribed, and the sexual genus Monographella treated as synonym on the basis that Microdochium has more species, is more commonly encountered, and more frequently used in literature. An epitype is designated for Microdochium phragmites, and several well-known species are redefined based on their morphology and DNA sequence data (LSU, ITS, BTUB and RPB2)...
June 2016: Persoonia
Lindsay Kalan, Michael Loesche, Brendan P Hodkinson, Kristopher Heilmann, Gordon Ruthel, Sue E Gardner, Elizabeth A Grice
UNLABELLED: Chronic nonhealing wounds have been heralded as a silent epidemic, causing significant morbidity and mortality especially in elderly, diabetic, and obese populations. Polymicrobial biofilms in the wound bed are hypothesized to disrupt the highly coordinated and sequential events of cutaneous healing. Both culture-dependent and -independent studies of the chronic-wound microbiome have almost exclusively focused on bacteria, omitting what we hypothesize are important fungal contributions to impaired healing and the development of complications...
2016: MBio
Fei Xia, Yan Liu, Meng-Yuan Guo, Guang-Rong Shen, Juan Lin, Xuan-Wei Zhou
BACKGROUND: Ophiocordyceps sinensis (DongChong XiaCao (DCXC) in Chinese), a fungal parasite of caterpillars, is a traditional Chinese medicine. Bioactive components isolated from natural DCXC possess a wide range of pharmacological actions. Many efforts have been directed towards isolating the fungi based on culture-dependent methods for investigation of fungal diversity in order to determine the anamorph of natural DCXC and find new medicinal fungi resources, and the results have been varied...
2016: BMC Microbiology
Aimee C McKinnon
The identification of fungal endophytes often relies on culturing isolates from surface-sterilized plant tissue. However, molecular techniques have enabled the rapid detection and identification of targeted endophyte species, and next-generation sequencing technology provides an opportunity to obtain comprehensive information on endophytic communities, directly from plant tissue. In order to achieve accurate detection from internal tissues, surface microbes and associated deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) must be eliminated, with particular consideration for the type of plant tissue and the efficacy of the surface sterilization procedure used...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
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