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Ascomycota

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626345/fungal-dimorphism-and-virulence-molecular-mechanisms-for-temperature-adaptation-immune-evasion-and-in-vivo-survival
#1
REVIEW
Gregory M Gauthier
The thermally dimorphic fungi are a unique group of fungi within the Ascomycota phylum that respond to shifts in temperature by converting between hyphae (22-25°C) and yeast (37°C). This morphologic switch, known as the phase transition, defines the biology and lifestyle of these fungi. The conversion to yeast within healthy and immunocompromised mammalian hosts is essential for virulence. In the yeast phase, the thermally dimorphic fungi upregulate genes involved with subverting host immune defenses. This review highlights the molecular mechanisms governing the phase transition and recent advances in how the phase transition promotes infection...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619814/genome-sequence-of-the-saprophytic-ascomycete-epicoccumnigrum-strain-icmp-19927-isolated-from-new-zealand
#2
Mikhail Fokin, Damien Fleetwood, Bevan S Weir, Silas Villas-Boas
Epicoccum nigrum is a common mitosporic fungus of the Didymellaceae (Ascomycota) family known for the production of numerous secondary metabolites. Here, we present the 34.7-Mbp draft genome sequence of strain ICMP 19927 assembled from a range of short-insert and long-insert Illumina libraries.
June 15, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613244/five-unprecedented-secondary-metabolites-from-the-spider-parasitic-fungus-akanthomyces-novoguineensis
#3
Soleiman E Helaly, Wilawan Kuephadungphan, Souwalak Phongpaichit, Janet Jennifer Luangsa-Ard, Vatcharin Rukachaisirikul, Marc Stadler
Five new compounds including the glycosylated β-naphthol (1, akanthol), a glycosylated pyrazine (2, akanthozine), and three amide derivatives including a hydroxamic acid derivative (3-5) were isolated from the spider-associated fungus Akanthomyces novoguineensis (Cordycipitaceae, Ascomycota). Their structures were elucidated by using high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) and NMR spectroscopy. In this study, the antimicrobial, cytotoxic, anti-biofilm, and nematicidal activities of the new compounds were evaluated...
June 14, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610229/a-new-east-african-genus-of-spirostreptid-millipedes-diplopoda-spirostreptida-spirostreptidae-with-notes-on-their-fungal-ectoparasite-i-rickia-gigas-i
#4
Henrik Enghoff
The new genus Tropostreptus is erected to accommodate seven species which are all endemic in Tanzania: T. hamatus (Demange, 1977) (type species, = Spirostreptus hamatus Demange, 1977), T. sigmatospinus sp. nov., T. microcephalus sp. nov., T. droides sp. nov., T. kipunji spec. nov., T. austerus (Attems, 1950) (= Epistreptus austerus Attems, 1950) and T. severus sp. nov. All but one (T. sigmatospinus) of the species are restricted to the Eastern Arc Mts. in a wide sense, i.e., including Mt. Rungwe. Notes are included on Rickia gigas Santamaria et al...
June 7, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607843/ecophylogeny-of-the-endospheric-root-fungal-microbiome-of-co-occurring-agrostis-stolonifera
#5
Amandine Lê Van, Achim Quaiser, Marie Duhamel, Sophie Michon-Coudouel, Alexis Dufresne, Philippe Vandenkoornhuyse
BACKGROUND: Within the root endosphere, fungi are known to be important for plant nutrition and resistance to stresses. However, description and understanding of the rules governing community assembly in the fungal fraction of the plant microbiome remains scarce. METHODS: We used an innovative DNA- and RNA-based analysis of co-extracted nucleic acids to reveal the complexity of the fungal community colonizing the roots of an Agrostis stolonifera population. The normalized RNA/DNA ratio, designated the 'mean expression ratio', was used as a functional trait proxy...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597823/made-for-each-other-ascomycete-yeasts-and-insects
#6
Meredith Blackwell
Fungi and insects live together in the same habitats, and many species of both groups rely on each other for success. Insects, the most successful animals on Earth, cannot produce sterols, essential vitamins, and many enzymes; fungi, often yeast-like in growth form, make up for these deficits. Fungi, however, require constantly replenished substrates because they consume the previous ones, and insects, sometimes lured by volatile fungal compounds, carry fungi directly to a similar, but fresh, habitat. Yeasts associated with insects include Ascomycota (Saccharomycotina, Pezizomycotina) and a few Basidiomycota...
June 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597822/fungi-that-infect-humans
#7
Julia R Köhler, Bernhard Hube, Rosana Puccia, Arturo Casadevall, John R Perfect
Fungi must meet four criteria to infect humans: growth at human body temperatures, circumvention or penetration of surface barriers, lysis and absorption of tissue, and resistance to immune defenses, including elevated body temperatures. Morphogenesis between small round, detachable cells and long, connected cells is the mechanism by which fungi solve problems of locomotion around or through host barriers. Secretion of lytic enzymes, and uptake systems for the released nutrients, are necessary if a fungus is to nutritionally utilize human tissue...
June 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585444/artificial-cultivation-of-true-morels-current-state-issues-and-perspectives
#8
Qizheng Liu, Husheng Ma, Ya Zhang, Caihong Dong
Morels (Morchella, Ascomycota), which are some of the most highly prized edible and medicinal mushrooms, are of great economic and scientific value. Morel cultivation has been a research focus worldwide for more than 100 years, and the outdoor cultivation of morels has succeeded and expanded to a large scale in China in recent years. In this study, we review the progress in recent research regarding the life cycle and reproductive systems in the genus Morchella and the current state of outdoor cultivation...
June 6, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585165/biodiversity-in-targeted-metabolomics-analysis-of-filamentous-fungal-pathogens-by-1-h-nmr-based-studies
#9
Adam Ząbek, Magdalena Klimek-Ochab, Ewa Jawień, Piotr Młynarz
The taxonomical classification among fungi kingdom in the last decades was evolved. In this work the targeted metabolomics study based on (1)H NMR spectroscopy combined with chemometrics tools was reported to be useful for differentiation of three model of fungal strains, which represent various genus of Ascomycota (Aspergillus pallidofulvus, Fusarium oxysporum, Geotrichum candidum) were selected in order to perform metabolomics studies. Each tested species, revealed specific metabolic profile of primary endo-metabolites...
July 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578629/chaetomiaceae-fungi-novel-pathogens-of-equine-neurotropic-phaeohyphomycosis
#10
Quinci Plumlee, Courtney Meason-Smith, Alexandra Dieterly, Gabriel Gomez, Brian F Porter, Aline Rodrigues Hoffmann
Many previously unrecognized fungi are emerging as potential pathogens. One such group is dematiaceous fungi of the Chaetomiaceae family (phylum Ascomycota, class Sordariomycetes). These fungi are rare causes of opportunistic, neurotropic phaeohyphomycosis in humans but are not known to cause similar infections in animals. The aims of this study were to investigate equine hyphal mycotic encephalitis, characterize key histopathologic features, and classify causative organisms with molecular diagnostic techniques...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578302/fungal-dysbiosis-in-cirrhosis
#11
Jasmohan S Bajaj, Eric J Liu, Raffi Kheradman, Andrew Fagan, Douglas M Heuman, Melanie White, Edith A Gavis, Phillip Hylemon, Masoumeh Sikaroodi, Patrick M Gillevet
OBJECTIVE: Cirrhotics have a high rate of infections, which are increasingly fungal or culture-negative in nature. While infected cirrhotics have bacterial dysbiosis, the role of fungi is unclear. We aimed to evaluate gut bacterial and fungal dysbiosis in cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of outpatient and inpatient cirrhotics and prediction of hospitalisations. METHODS: Cross-sectional: Age-matched controls, outpatients (with/without antibiotics) and hospitalised uninfected, culture-negative and culture-positive cirrhotics were included and followed for 90 days...
June 3, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578278/fungal-community-and-cellulose-degrading-genes-in-the-composting-process-of-chinese-medicinal-herbal-residues
#12
Xueping Tian, Tao Yang, Jingzhong He, Qian Chu, Xiaojun Jia, Jun Huang
The fungal community and the population of 16S rRNA, 18S rRNA and cellulose-degrading genes during the 30-day composting process of Chinese medicinal herbal residues were investigated using Illumina MiSeq and quantitative real-time PCR. An obvious succession of fungal communities occurred during the composting process. Unidentified fungi predominated in the raw materials. As composting progressed, Ascomycota became the most dominant phylum, with Aspergillus being the most dominant genus, and Aspergillus fumigatus making up 99...
May 21, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542495/dna-barcoding-and-lc-ms-metabolite-profiling-of-the-lichen-forming-genus-melanelia-specimen-identification-and-discrimination-focusing-on-icelandic-taxa
#13
Maonian Xu, Starri Heidmarsson, Margret Thorsteinsdottir, Finnur F Eiriksson, Sesselja Omarsdottir, Elin S Olafsdottir
Taxa in the genus Melanelia (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) belong to a group of saxicolous lichens with brown to black foliose thalli, which have recently undergone extensive changes in circumscription. Taxa belonging to Parmeliaceae are prolific producers of bioactive compounds, which have also been traditionally used for chemotaxonomic purposes. However, the chemical diversity of the genus Melanelia and the use of chemical data for species discrimination in this genus are largely unexplored. In addition, identification based on morphological characters is challenging due to few taxonomically informative characters...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540357/data-on-microsatellite-markers-in-colletotrichum-gloeosporioides-s-l-polymorphism-levels-and-diversity-range
#14
Laurent Penet, Sophie Briand, Dalila Petro, François Bussière, Sébastien Guyader
Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is a species complex of fungi belonging to the Glomerellaceae family (Ascomycota). It has a global worldwide occurrence and while sometimes described as a plant endophytic commensal, it also often demonstrates pathogenicity on crops and is responsible for anthracnose disease in many cultivated species. Thirty-nine polymorphic microsatellites were isolated and their polymorphism levels were determined in 95 strains from Guadeloupe (Lesser Antilles), mostly isolated from Water Yam (Dioscorea alata)...
June 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539923/analysis-on-fungal-diversity-in-rhizosphere-soil-of-continuous-cropping-potato-subjected-to-different-furrow-ridge-mulching-managements
#15
Shuhao Qin, Stephen Yeboah, Xuexue Xu, Yuhui Liu, Bin Yu
Knowledge about fungi diversity following different planting patterns could improve our understanding of soil processes and thus help us to develop sustainable management strategies. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of different furrow-ridge mulching techniques on fungal diversity in rhizosphere soil under continuous cropping system. The investigated treatments were: flat plot without mulch (CK); flat plot with mulch (T1); on-ridge planting with full mulch (T2); on-furrow planting with full mulch (T3); on-ridge planting with half mulch (T4); and on-furrow planting with half mulch (T5)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538200/fungi-diversity-from-different-depths-and-times-in-chicken-manure-waste-static-aerobic-composting
#16
Wenjie Gu, Yusheng Lu, Zhiyuan Tan, Peizhi Xu, Kaizhi Xie, Xia Li, Lili Sun
The Dirichlet multinomial mixtures mode was used to analyse illumina sequencing data to reveal both temporal and spatial variations of the fungi community present in the aerobic composting. Results showed that 670 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were detected, and the dominant phylum was Ascomycota. There were four types of samples fungi communities during the composting process. Samples from the early composting stage were mainly grouped into type I and Saccharomycetales sp. was dominant. Fungi community in the medium composting stage were fallen into type II and III, Sordariales sp...
September 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527917/spatial-distribution-of-vanadium-and-microbial-community-responses-in-surface-soil-of-panzhihua-mining-and-smelting-area-china
#17
Xuelong Cao, Muhe Diao, Baogang Zhang, Hui Liu, Song Wang, Meng Yang
Spatial distribution of vanadium in surface soils from different processing stages of vanadium-bearing titanomagnetite in Panzhihua mining and smelting area (China) as well as responses of microbial communities including bacteria and fungi to vanadium were investigated by fieldwork and laboratory incubation experiment. The vanadium contents in this region ranged from 149.3 to 4793.6 mg kg(-1), exceeding the soil background value of vanadium in China (82 mg kg(-1)) largely. High-throughput DNA sequencing results showed bacterial communities from different manufacturing locations were quite diverse, but Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria were abundant in all samples...
May 17, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499155/simple-screening-protocol-for-identification-of-potential-mycoremediation-tools-for-the-elimination-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-and-phenols-from-hyperalkalophile-industrial-effluents
#18
Ramón Alberto Batista-García, Vaidyanathan Vinoth Kumar, Arielle Ariste, Omar Eduardo Tovar-Herrera, Olivier Savary, Heidy Peidro-Guzmán, Deborah González-Abradelo, Stephen A Jackson, Alan D W Dobson, María Del Rayo Sánchez-Carbente, Jorge Luis Folch-Mallol, Roland Leduc, Hubert Cabana
A number of fungal strains belonging to the ascomycota, basidiomycota and zygomycota genera were subjected to an in vitro screening regime to assess their ligninolytic activity potential, with a view to their potential use in mycoremediation-based strategies to remove phenolic compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from industrial wastewaters. All six basidiomycetes completely decolorized remazol brilliant blue R (RBBR), while also testing positive in both the guaiacol and gallic acid tests indicating good levels of lignolytic activity...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491137/boosting-lpmo-driven-lignocellulose-degradation-by-polyphenol-oxidase-activated-lignin-building-blocks
#19
Matthias Frommhagen, Sumanth Kumar Mutte, Adrie H Westphal, Martijn J Koetsier, Sandra W A Hinz, Jaap Visser, Jean-Paul Vincken, Dolf Weijers, Willem J H van Berkel, Harry Gruppen, Mirjam A Kabel
BACKGROUND: Many fungi boost the deconstruction of lignocellulosic plant biomass via oxidation using lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs). The application of LPMOs is expected to contribute to ecologically friendly conversion of biomass into fuels and chemicals. Moreover, applications of LPMO-modified cellulose-based products may be envisaged within the food or material industry. RESULTS: Here, we show an up to 75-fold improvement in LPMO-driven cellulose degradation using polyphenol oxidase-activated lignin building blocks...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481894/the-role-of-vosa-velb-activated-developmental-gene-vada-in-aspergillus-nidulans
#20
Hee-Soo Park, Mi-Kyung Lee, Sun Chang Kim, Jae-Hyuk Yu
The filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans primarily reproduces by forming asexual spores called conidia, the integrity of which is governed by the NF-κB type velvet regulators VosA and VelB. The VosA-VelB hetero-complex regulates the expression of spore-specific structural and regulatory genes during conidiogenesis. Here, we characterize one of the VosA/VelB-activated developmental genes, called vadA, the expression of which in conidia requires activity of both VosA and VelB. VadA (AN5709) is predicted to be a 532-amino acid length fungal-specific protein with a highly conserved domain of unknown function (DUF) at the N-terminus...
2017: PloS One
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