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Tianxiang Liu, Huiru Li, Yatong Ding, Yuancheng Qi, Yuqian Gao, Andong Song, Jinwen Shen, Liyou Qiu
Dikarya is a subkingdom of fungi that includes Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. The gene expression patterns of dikaryon are poorly understood. In this study, we bred a dikaryon DK13×3 by mating monokaryons MK13 and MK3, which were from the basidiospores of Pleurotus ostreatus TD300. Using RNA-Seq, we obtained the transcriptomes of the three strains. We found that the total transcript numbers in the transcriptomes of the three strains were all more than ten thousand, and the expression profile in DK13×3 was more similar to MK13 than MK3...
January 3, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
Peter Hufendiek, Simon Stephan Martin Stölben, Stefan Kehraus, Nicole Merten, Henrik Harms, Max Crüsemann, Idris Arslan, Michael Gütschow, Tanja Schneider, Gabriele Maria König
Natural products from fungi, especially Ascomycota, play a major role in therapy and drug discovery. Fungal strains originating from marine habitats offer a new avenue for finding unusual molecular skeletons. Here, the marine-derived fungus Epicoccum nigrum (strain 749) was found to produce the azaphilonoid compounds acetosellin and 5',6'-dihydroxyacetosellin. The latter is a new natural product. The biosynthesis of these polyketide-type compounds is intriguing, since two polyketide chains are assembled to the final product...
January 12, 2017: Planta Medica
Hema Priyamvada, M Akila, Raj Kamal Singh, R Ravikrishna, R S Verma, Ligy Philip, R R Marathe, L K Sahu, K P Sudheer, S S Gunthe
Macrofungi have long been investigated for various scientific purposes including their food and medicinal characteristics. Their role in aerobiology as a fraction of the primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs), however, has been poorly studied. In this study, we present a source of macrofungi with two different but interdependent objectives: (i) to characterize the macrofungi from a tropical dry evergreen biome in southern India using advanced molecular techniques to enrich the database from this region, and (ii) to assess whether identified species of macrofungi are a potential source of atmospheric PBAPs...
2017: PloS One
A Gomba, L Chidamba, L Korsten
AIMS: To investigate the effect of commercial citrus packhouse processing steps on the fruit surface microbiome of Clementines and Palmer navel oranges. METHODS AND RESULTS: Viable bacteria, yeasts and fungi counts, and pyrosequencing analysis of the 16S rRNA and ITS were used to evaluate the community structure and population dynamics of phylloepiphytic bacteria and fungi associated with commercial postharvest processing. Drenching significantly reduced microbial counts in all cases except for yeasts on navels, while the extend of degreening effects varied between the citrus varieties...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Ramya Narendrula-Kotha, Kabwe K Nkongolo
AIMS: To assess the effects of dolomitic limestone applications on soil microbial communities' dynamics and bacterial and fungal biomass, relative abundance, and diversity in metal reclaimed regions. METHODS AND RESULTS: The study was conducted in reclaimed mining sites and metal uncontaminated areas. The limestone applications were performed over 35 years ago. Total microbial biomass was determined by Phospholipid fatty acids. Bacterial and fungal relative abundance and diversity were assessed using 454 pyrosequencing...
2017: PloS One
Xubing Liu, Minxia Liang, Rampal S Etienne, Gregory S Gilbert, Shixiao Yu
Recent studies have detected phylogenetic signals in pathogen-host networks for both soil-borne and leaf-infecting fungi, suggesting that pathogenic fungi may track or coevolve with their preferred hosts. However, a phylogenetically concordant relationship between multiple hosts and multiple fungi in has rarely been investigated. Using next-generation high-throughput DNA sequencing techniques, we analyzed fungal taxa associated with diseased leaves, rotten seeds, and infected seedlings of subtropical trees...
December 2016: Ecology and Evolution
Chang-Hong Liu, Xin Huang, Tian-Ning Xie, Ning Duan, Ya-Rong Xue, Tan-Xi Zhao, Mark A Lever, Kai-Uwe Hinrichs, Fumio Inagaki
Although subseafloor sediments are known to harbour a vast number of microbial cells, the distribution, diversity, and origins of fungal populations remain largely unexplored. In this study, we cultivated fungi from 34 of 47 deep coal-associated sediment samples collected at depths ranging from 1,289 to 2,457 meters below the seafloor (mbsf) off the Shimokita Peninsula, Japan (1,118 m water depth). We obtained a total of 69 fungal isolates under strict contamination controls, representing 61 Ascomycota (14 genera, 23 species) and 8 Basidiomycota (4 genera, 4 species)...
December 28, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
Lu Han, Erin Marcus, Sonia D'Silva, Eric M Phizicky
The 3-methylcytidine (m3C) modification is ubiquitous in eukaryotic tRNA, widely found at C32 in the anticodon loop of tRNAThr, tRNASer, and some tRNAArg species, as well as in the variable loop (V-loop) of certain tRNASer species. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, formation of m3C32 requires Trm140 for six tRNA substrates, including three tRNAThr species and three tRNASer species, whereas in Schizosacchomyces pombe, two Trm140 homologs are employed, one for tRNAThr and one for tRNASer. The occurrence of a single Trm140 homolog is conserved broadly among Ascomycota, whereas multiple Trm140-related homologs are found in metazoans and other fungi...
December 21, 2016: RNA
Chenyang Cai, Alfred F Newton, Margaret K Thayer, Richard A B Leschen, Diying Huang
Insects and fungi have a long history of association in shared habitats. Fungus-feeding, or mycophagy, is remarkably widespread in beetles (Coleoptera) and appears to be a primitive feeding habit that preceded feeding on plant tissues. Numerous Mesozoic beetles belonging to extant fungus-associated families are known, but direct fossil evidence elucidating mycophagy in insects has remained elusive. Here, we report a remarkable genus and species, Vetuproteinus cretaceus gen. et sp. nov., belonging to a new tribe (Vetuproteinini trib...
December 28, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Ignazio Carbone, James B White, Jolanta Miadlikowska, A Elizabeth Arnold, Mark A Miller, Frank Kauff, Jana M U'Ren, Georgiana May, François Lutzoni
MOTIVATION: High-quality phylogenetic placement of sequence data has the potential to greatly accelerate studies of the diversity, systematics, ecology and functional biology of diverse groups. We developed the Tree-Based Alignment Selector (T-BAS) toolkit to allow evolutionary placement and visualization of diverse DNA sequences representing unknown taxa within a robust phylogenetic context, and to permit the downloading of highly curated, single- and multi-locus alignments for specific clades...
December 21, 2016: Bioinformatics
Jana M U'Ren, A Elizabeth Arnold
BACKGROUND: Fungal endophytes inhabit symptomless, living tissues of all major plant lineages to form one of earth's most prevalent groups of symbionts. Many reproduce from senesced and/or decomposing leaves and can produce extracellular leaf-degrading enzymes, blurring the line between symbiotrophy and saprotrophy. To better understand the endophyte-saprotroph continuum we compared fungal communities and functional traits of focal strains isolated from living leaves to those isolated from leaves after senescence and decomposition, with a focus on foliage of woody plants in five biogeographic provinces ranging from tundra to subtropical scrub forest...
2016: PeerJ
Lin Yang, Hui-Lin Yang, Zong-Cai Tu, Xiao-Lan Wang
Douchi is a type of Chinese traditional fermented food that is an important source of protein and is used in flavouring ingredients. The end product is affected by the microbial community present during fermentation, but exactly how microbes influence the fermentation process remains poorly understood. We used an Illumina MiSeq approach to investigate bacterial and fungal community diversity during both douchi-koji making and fermentation. A total of 181,443 high quality bacterial 16S rRNA sequences and 221,059 high quality fungal internal transcribed spacer reads were used for taxonomic classification, revealing eight bacterial and three fungal phyla...
2016: PloS One
Amy Y Rossman, W Cavan Allen, Uwe Braun, Lisa A Castlebury, Priscila Chaverri, Pedro W Crous, David L Hawksworth, Kevin D Hyde, Peter Johnston, Lorenzo Lombard, Megan Romberg, Rob A Samson, Keith A Seifert, Jeffrey K Stone, Dhanushka Udayanga, James F White
With the change to one scientific name for fungal species, numerous papers have been published with recommendations for use or protection of competing generic names in major groups of ascomycetes. Although genera in each group of fungi were carefully considered, some competing generic names were overlooked. This paper makes recommendations for additional competing genera not considered in previous papers. Chairs of relevant Working Groups of the ICTF were consulted in the development of these recommendations...
December 2016: IMA Fungus
Elena Martinez-Klimova, Karol Rodríguez-Peña, Sergio Sánchez
Until a viable alternative can be accessible, the emergence of resistance to antimicrobials requires the constant development of new antibiotics. Recent scientific efforts have been aimed at the bioprospecting of microorganisms' secondary metabolites, with special emphasis on the search for antimicrobial natural products derived from endophytes. Endophytes are microorganisms that inhabit the internal tissues of plants without causing apparent harm to the plant. The present review article compiles recent (2006-2016) literature to provide an update on endophyte research aimed at finding metabolites with antibiotic activities...
October 27, 2016: Biochemical Pharmacology
Rachadaporn Benchawattananon
Dansai District is located in Loei Province, Northeast Thailand, rich in natural resources and composes of many kinds of forests, such as evergreen forests and mixed-deciduous forests. The objectives of the study are to determine the diversity of mushrooms and investigate the values of the forest influencing the community way of life and exploration of problems and guidelines for developing the forest along with sufficiency economy theory. The study includes compilation of data from past studies, semi-structured interview with the local communities and discussion with focus group...
November 2016: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Tamam El-Elimat, Huzefa A Raja, Cynthia S Day, Hana McFeeters, Robert L McFeeters, Nicholas H Oberlies
Eighteen (1-18) and seven (1, 4, 6-8, 17 and 18) compounds were isolated from organic extracts of axenic cultures of two freshwater fungi Clohesyomyces sp. and Clohesyomyces aquaticus (Dothideomycetes, Ascomycota), respectively. Compounds 1-12 belong to the α-pyrone class of natural products, compounds 13 and 14 were tetrahydroxanthones, compounds 15 and 16 were hexahydroxanthones, while compounds 17 and 18 were cyclodepsipeptides. The structures were elucidated using a set of spectroscopic and spectrometric techniques...
January 15, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Lihua Niu, Yi Li, Lingling Xu, Peifang Wang, Wenlong Zhang, Chao Wang, Wei Cai, Linqiong Wang
Fungi are important contributors to the various functions of activated sludge wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs); however, the diversity and geographic characteristics of fungal populations have remained vastly unexplored. Here, quantitative polymerase chain reaction and 454 pyrosequencing were combined to investigate the abundance and diversity of the activated sludge fungal communities from 18 full-scale municipal WWTPs in China. Phylogenetic taxonomy revealed that the members of the fungal communities were assigned to 7 phyla and 195 genera...
December 9, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Henry Fisgativa, Anne Tremier, Sophie Le Roux, Chrystelle Bureau, Patrick Dabert
In this study, an extensive characterisation of food waste (FW) was performed with the aim of studying the relation between FW characteristics and FW treatability through an anaerobic digestion process. In addition to the typological composition (paper, meat, fruits, vegetables contents, etc) and the physicochemical characteristics, this study provides an original characterisation of microbial populations present in FW. These intrinsic populations can actively participate to aerobic and anaerobic degradation with the presence of Proteobacteria and Firmicutes species for the bacteria and of Ascomycota phylum for the fungi...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Yong Tan, Yinshan Cui, Haoyu Li, Anxiu Kuang, Xiaoran Li, Yunlin Wei, Xiuling Ji
Rhizosphere and endophytic fungal communities are considered critically important for plant health and soil fertility. In response to continuous cropping, Panax notoginseng becomes vulnerable to attack by fungal pathogens. In the present study, culture-independent Illumina MiSeq was used to investigate the rhizospheric and root endophytic fungi in response to continuous Panax notoginseng cropping practices. The results demonstrated that fungal diversity is increased inside the roots and in rhizospheric. Ascomycota, Zygomycota, Basidiomycota and Chytridiomycota were the dominant phyla detected during the continuous cropping of Panax notoginseng...
January 2017: Microbiological Research
Sara Filippucci, Giorgia Tasselli, Alessandro Scardua, Simone Di Mauro, Maria Rita Cramarossa, Davide Perini, Benedetta Turchetti, Andrea Onofri, Luca Forti, Pietro Buzzini
BACKGROUND: The ability of some microorganisms to accumulate lipids is well known; however, only recently the number of studies on microbial lipid biosynthesis for obtaining oleochemical products, namely biofuels and some building blocks for chemistry, is rapidly and spectacularly increased. Since 1990s, some oleaginous yeasts were studied for their ability to accumulate lipids up to 60-70% of their dry weight. Due to the vast array of engineering techniques currently available, the recombinant DNA technology was the main approach followed so far for obtaining lipid-overproducing yeasts, mainly belonging to the Yarrowia lipolytica...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
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