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Ascomycota

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907121/environmental-and-geographical-factors-structure-soil-microbial-diversity-in-new-caledonian-ultramafic-substrates-a-metagenomic-approach
#1
Véronique Gourmelon, Laurent Maggia, Jeff R Powell, Sarah Gigante, Sara Hortal, Claire Gueunier, Kelly Letellier, Fabian Carriconde
Soil microorganisms play key roles in ecosystem functioning and are known to be influenced by biotic and abiotic factors, such as plant cover or edaphic parameters. New Caledonia, a biodiversity hotspot located in the southwest Pacific, is one-third covered by ultramafic substrates. These types of soils are notably characterised by low nutrient content and high heavy metal concentrations. Ultramafic outcrops harbour diverse vegetation types and remarkable plant diversity. In this study, we aimed to assess soil bacterial and fungal diversity in New Caledonian ultramafic substrates and to determine whether floristic composition, edaphic parameters and geographical factors affect this microbial diversity...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900422/comparative-investigation-of-bacterial-fungal-and-archaeal-community-structures-in-soils-in-a-typical-oilfield-in-jianghan-china
#2
Zhi-Feng Zhou, Ming-Xia Wang, Xiao-Hu Zuo, Yan-Hong Yao
Agricultural soils in oilfields have high risk for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution. In this study, from the Jianghan Oilfield (Hubei Province, China) with a history of >50 years, 7 soil samples (OS-1 to OS-7) were collected. Subsequently, the bacterial, archaeal, and fungal community structures were investigated by Illumina MiSeq sequencing, and the relationship between microbial community structure and soil PAH content was analyzed. The results indicated that bacterial and archaeal Chao 1 indices showed a significantly negative relationship with soil PAH content, and only the bacterial Shannon index had a significantly negative relationship with soil PAH content...
November 29, 2016: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878084/effect-of-different-root-endophytic-fungi-on-plant-community-structure-in-experimental-microcosms
#3
Carlos A Aguilar-Trigueros, Matthias C Rillig
Understanding the effects of root-associated microbes in explaining plant community patterns represents a challenge in community ecology. Although typically overlooked, several lines of evidence point out that nonmycorrhizal, root endophytic fungi in the Ascomycota may have the potential to drive changes in plant community ecology given their ubiquitous presence, wide host ranges, and plant species-specific fitness effects. Thus, we experimentally manipulated the presence of root endophytic fungal species in microcosms and measured its effects on plant communities...
November 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861539/vertical-structure-of-phyllosphere-fungal-communities-in-a-tropical-forest-in-thailand-uncovered-by-high-throughput-sequencing
#4
Ayako Izuno, Mamoru Kanzaki, Taksin Artchawakom, Chongrak Wachrinrat, Yuji Isagi
Phyllosphere fungi harbor a tremendous species diversity and play important ecological roles. However, little is known about their distribution patterns within forest ecosystems. We examined how species diversity and community composition of phyllosphere fungi change along a vertical structure in a tropical forest in Thailand. Fungal communities in 144 leaf samples from 19 vertical layers (1.28-34.4 m above ground) of 73 plant individuals (27 species) were investigated by metabarcoding analysis using Ion Torrent sequencing...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828951/limitations-of-species-delimitation-based-on-phylogenetic-analyses-a-case-study-in-the-hypogymnia-hypotrypa-group-parmeliaceae-ascomycota
#5
Xinli Wei, Bruce McCune, H Thorsten Lumbsch, Hui Li, Steven Leavitt, Yoshikazu Yamamoto, Svetlana Tchabanenko, Jiangchun Wei
Delimiting species boundaries among closely related lineages often requires a range of independent data sets and analytical approaches. Similar to other organismal groups, robust species circumscriptions in fungi are increasingly investigated within an empirical framework. Here we attempt to delimit species boundaries in a closely related clade of lichen-forming fungi endemic to Asia, the Hypogymnia hypotrypa group (Parmeliaceae). In the current classification, the Hypogymnia hypotrypa group includes two species: H...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818666/comparative-analysis-of-dna-methyltransferase-gene-family-in-fungi-a-focus-on-basidiomycota
#6
Ruirui Huang, Qiangqiang Ding, Yanan Xiang, Tingting Gu, Yi Li
DNA methylation plays a crucial role in the regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes. Mushrooms belonging to the phylum Basidiomycota are highly valued for both nutritional and pharmaceutical uses. A growing number of studies have demonstrated the significance of DNA methylation in the development of plants and animals. However, our understanding of DNA methylation in mushrooms is limited. In this study, we identified and conducted comprehensive analyses on DNA methyltransferases (DNMtases) in representative species from Basidiomycota and Ascomycota, and obtained new insights into their classification and characterization in fungi...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817000/first-detection-of-endogone-ectomycorrhizas-in-natural-oak-forests
#7
Kohei Yamamoto, Naoki Endo, Yousuke Degawa, Masaki Fukuda, Akiyoshi Yamada
The order Endogonales in Mucoromycotina, an early divergent lineage of fungi, includes ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi. This order is therefore considered a key taxon for elucidation of the evolution of EM associations. Recent studies have revealed high diversity of EM lineages of Basidiomycota and Ascomycota; however, EM associations of Endogonales and its relatives remain largely unknown. In this study, EM root tips with a unique fungal sheath, with aseptate and highly branched hyphae of variable widths, were identified in Quercus acutissima and Quercus crispula forests in the temperate zone of Japan...
November 5, 2016: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811993/antioxidative-polyketones-from-the-mangrove-derived-fungus-ascomycota-sp-sk2yws-l
#8
Chunbin Tan, Zhaoming Liu, Senhua Chen, Xishan Huang, Hui Cui, Yuhua Long, Yongjun Lu, Zhigang She
Three novel 2,3-diaryl indone derivatives, ascomindones A-C (1-3), and two new isobenzofuran derivatives, ascomfurans A (4) and B (5), together with four know compounds (6-9) were isolated from the culture of a mangrove-derived fungus Ascomycota sp. SK2YWS-L. Their structures were elucidated on the interpretation of spectroscopic data. 1 and 4 were further constructed by analysis of X-ray diffraction. Antioxidant properties based on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl radical scavenging activities and the ferric reducing ability power (FRAP) of the new compounds were assayed...
November 4, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811341/the-insect-derived-antimicrobial-peptide-metchnikowin-targets-fusarium-graminearum-%C3%AE-1-3-glucanosyltransferase-gel1-which-is-required-for-the-maintenance-of-cell-wall-integrity
#9
Mohammad-Reza Bolouri Moghaddam, Andreas Vilcinskas, Mohammad Rahnamaeian
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are essential components of the insect innate immune system. Their diversity provides protection against a broad spectrum of microbes and they have several distinct modes of action. Insect-derived AMPs are currently being developed for both medical and agricultural applications, and their expression in transgenic crops confers resistance against numerous plant pathogens. The antifungal peptide metchnikowin (Mtk), which was originally discovered in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, is of particular interest because it has potent activity against economically important phytopathogenic fungi of the phylum Ascomycota, such as Fusarium graminearum, but it does not harm beneficial fungi such as the mycorrhizal basidiomycete Piriformospora indica...
November 3, 2016: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811180/a-new-marker-sequence-for-systematics-of-medically-important-fungi-based-on-amino-acid-sequence-of-the-largest-subunit-of-rna-polymerase-i
#10
Chiaki Yamanishi, Mohamed Mahdi Alshahni, Ayako Sano, Ikuo Nakamura, Koichi Makimura
Molecular evolution has dominated taxonomic studies for decades, replacing traditional methods for identification and classification. However, there is a need for better markers to resolve the problems that have limited their usefulness. In this report, we introduce the protein tag (Ptag) sequence, a highly polymorphic amino acid sequence within the C-terminal region of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase I, as a new systematic tag sequence for delineating the evolutionary history of medically important fungi...
November 2, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808370/effects-of-phosphate-solubilizing-bacteria-native-microorganisms-and-rock-dust-on-jatropha-curcas-l-growth
#11
E B Santana, E L S Marques, J C T Dias
Microorganisms with the ability to release nutrients to the soil from insoluble sources may be useful for plant cultivation. We evaluated the growth-promoting effect on Jatropha curcas L. of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and the native microbiota in soil with or without rock dust. J. curcas L. is important for biodiesel production. The experiments were performed in a greenhouse under a random-statistical design with 14 replicates. The soil received increasing dosages of rock dust. The presence of resident microorganisms and PSB inoculum was correlated with plant height, biomass production, and phosphorus content in plants for 120 days...
October 5, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786737/assessment-of-fungal-diversity-in-a-water-damaged-office-building
#12
Brett J Green, Angela R Lemons, Yeonmi Park, Jean M Cox-Ganser, Ju-Hyeong Park
Recent studies have described fungal communities in indoor environments using gene sequencing-based approaches. In this study, dust-borne fungal communities were elucidated from a water-damaged office building located in the northeastern region of the United States using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rRNA gene sequencing. Genomic DNA was extracted from 5 mg of floor dust derived from 22 samples collected from either the lower floors (n = 8) or a top floor (n = 14) of the office building. ITS gene sequencing resolved a total of 933 ITS sequences and was clustered into 216 fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs)...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778093/first-record-of-rhizoscyphus-ericae-in-southern-hemisphere-s-ericaceae
#13
M Clara Bruzone, Judith Fehrer, Sonia B Fontenla, Martin Vohník
Ericoid mycorrhiza is arguably the least investigated mycorrhizal type, particularly when related to the number of potential hosts and the ecosystems they inhabit. Little is known about the global distribution of ericoid mycorrhizal (ErM) fungi, and this holds true even for the prominent ErM mycobiont Rhizoscyphus ericae. Earlier studies suggested R. ericae might be low in abundance or absent in the roots of Southern Hemisphere's Ericaceae, and our previous investigations in two Argentine Patagonian forests supported this view...
October 25, 2016: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766161/spatial-and-compositional-variation-in-the-fungal-communities-of-organic-and-conventionally-grown-apple-fruit-at-the-consumer-point-of-purchase
#14
Ahmed Abdelfattah, Michael Wisniewski, Samir Droby, Leonardo Schena
The fungal diversity in harvested apples from organic or conventional management practices was analyzed in different fruit locations (stem end, calyx end, peel, and wounded flesh) shortly after fruit purchase (T1) and after 2 weeks of storage (T5). A total of 5,760,162 high-quality fungal sequences were recovered and assigned to 8,504 Operational Taxonomic Units. Members of the phylum Ascomycota were dominant in all samples and accounted for 91.6% of the total number of detected sequences. This was followed by Basidiomycota (8%), Chytridiomycota (0...
2016: Horticulture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763253/fungal-sex-the-ascomycota
#15
Richard J Bennett, B Gillian Turgeon
This article provides an overview of sexual reproduction in the ascomycetes, a phylum of fungi that is named after the specialized sacs or "asci" that hold the sexual spores. They have therefore also been referred to as the Sac Fungi due to these characteristic structures that typically contain four to eight ascospores. Ascomycetes are morphologically diverse and include single-celled yeasts, filamentous fungi, and more complex cup fungi. The sexual cycles of many species, including those of the model yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe and the filamentous saprobes Neurospora crassa, Aspergillus nidulans, and Podospora anserina, have been examined in depth...
October 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752718/analysis-of-the-fungal-diversity-in-citrus-leaves-with-greasy-spot-disease-symptoms
#16
Ahmed Abdelfattah, Santa O Cacciola, Saveria Mosca, Rocco Zappia, Leonardo Schena
Citrus greasy spot (CGS) is a disease of citrus with worldwide distribution and recent surveys have revealed a high level of incidence and severity of symptoms of the disease in Sicily, southern Italy. Although Mycosphaerel la citri (anamorph Zasmidium citri-griseum) and other related species are generally considered as causal agents, the etiology of CGS is still unclear. Here, we report the use of an amplicon metagenomic approach to investigate the fungal communities on citrus leaves symptomatic or asymptomatic for CGS from an orchard in Sicily showing typical CGS symptoms...
October 18, 2016: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744477/experimental-climate-change-modifies-degradative-succession-in-boreal-peatland-fungal-communities
#17
Asma Asemaninejad, R Greg Thorn, Zoë Lindo
Peatlands play an important role in global climate change through sequestration of atmospheric CO2. Climate-driven changes in the structure of fungal communities in boreal peatlands that favor saprotrophic fungi can substantially impact carbon dynamics and nutrient cycling in these crucial ecosystems. In a mesocosm study using a full factorial design, 100 intact peat monoliths, complete with living Sphagnum and above-ground vascular vegetation, were subjected to three climate change variables (increased temperature, reduced water table, and elevated CO2 concentrations)...
October 15, 2016: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742095/hidden-diversity-before-our-eyes-delimiting-and-describing-cryptic-lichen-forming-fungal-species-in-camouflage-lichens-parmeliaceae-ascomycota
#18
Steven D Leavitt, Theodore L Esslinger, Pradeep K Divakar, Ana Crespo, H Thorsten Lumbsch
Molecular data provide unprecedented insight into diversity of lichenized fungi, although morphologically cryptic species-level lineages circumscribed from sequence data often remain undescribed even in well-studies groups. Using diagnostic characters from DNA sequence data and support from the multispecies coalescent model, we formally describe a total of eleven new species and resurrect two others in the hyperdiverse lichen-forming fungal family Parmeliaceae. These include: four in the genus Melanelixia - M...
November 2016: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732675/from-the-tunnels-into-the-treetops-new-lineages-of-black-yeasts-from-biofilm-in-the-stockholm-metro-system-and-their-relatives-among-ant-associated-fungi-in-the-chaetothyriales
#19
Martina Réblová, Vit Hubka, Olle Thureborn, Johannes Lundberg, Therese Sallstedt, Mats Wedin, Magnus Ivarsson
Rock-inhabiting fungi harbour species-rich, poorly differentiated, extremophilic taxa of polyphyletic origin. Their closest relatives are often well-known species from various biotopes with significant pathogenic potential. Speleothems represent a unique rock-dwelling habitat, whose mycobiota are largely unexplored. Isolation of fungi from speleothem biofilm covering bare granite walls in the Kungsträdgården metro station in Stockholm yielded axenic cultures of two distinct black yeast morphotypes. Phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequences from six nuclear loci, ITS, nuc18S and nuc28S rDNA, rpb1, rpb2 and β-tubulin, support their placement in the Chaetothyriales (Ascomycota)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726781/yeasts
#20
Sean X Zhang, Nathan P Wiederhold
Yeasts are unicellular organisms that reproduce mostly by budding and less often by fission. Most medically important yeasts originate from Ascomycota or Basidiomycota. Here, we review taxonomy, epidemiology, disease spectrum, antifungal drug susceptibility patterns of medically important yeast, laboratory diagnosis, and diagnostic strategies.
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
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