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Da-Cheng Hao, Cai-Rong Zhang, Pei-Gen Xiao
In the present study, the shotgun high throughput metagenomic sequencing was implemented to globally capture the features of Taxus rhizosphere microbiome. Total reads could be assigned to 6925 species belonging to 113 bacteria phyla and 301 species of nine fungi phyla. For archaea and virus, 263 and 134 species were for the first time identified, respectively. More than 720,000 Unigenes were identified by clean reads assembly. The top five assigned phyla were Actinobacteria (363,941 Unigenes), Proteobacteria (182,053), Acidobacteria (44,527), Ascomycota (fungi; 18,267), and Chloroflexi (15,539)...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Honglong Chu, Ming Tang, Haihua Wang, Chuyan Wang
AIMS: This study was to investigate pinewood nematode's impacts on root mycoflora of P. tabulaeformis. METHODS AND RESULTS: The biomass, colonization rate, community structure and diversity of root-associated fungi were investigated in pinewood nematode infected and non-infected P. tabulaeformis. The results indicated that the roots of P. tabulaeformis were colonized highly by root-associated fungi, mainly ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECMF) and dark septate endophytes...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
J R Saucedo-Carabez, Randy C Ploetz, J L Konkol, D Carrillo, R Gazis
Nutritional mutualisms that ambrosia beetles have with fungi are poorly understood. Although these interactions were initially thought to be specific associations with a primary symbiont, there is increasing evidence that some of these fungi are associated with, and move among, multiple beetle partners. We examined culturable fungi recovered from mycangia of ambrosia beetles associated with trees of Persea humilis (silk bay, one site) and P. americana (avocado, six commercial orchards) that were affected by laurel wilt, an invasive disease caused by a symbiont, Raffaelea lauricola, of an Asian ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus...
April 20, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Qingyun Zhao, Wu Xiong, Yizhang Xing, Yan Sun, Xingjun Lin, Yunping Dong
Long-term monoculture severely inhibits coffee plant growth, decreases its yield and results in serious economic losses in China. Here, we selected four replanted coffee fields with 4, 18, 26 and 57 years of monoculture history in Hainan China to investigate the influence of continuous cropping on soil chemical properties and microbial communities. Results showed long-term monoculture decreased soil pH and organic matter content and increased soil EC. Soil bacterial and fungal richness decreased with continuous coffee cropping...
April 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Todd J Widhelm, Francesca R Bertoletti, Matt J Asztalos, Joel A Mercado-Díaz, Jen-Pan Huang, Bibiana Moncada, Robert Lücking, Nicolas Magain, Emmanuël Sérusiaux, Bernard Goffinet, Nicholas Crouch, Roberta Mason-Gamer, H Thorsten Lumbsch
A major challenge to evolutionary biologists is to understand how biodiversity is distributed through space and time and across the tree of life. Diversification of organisms is influenced by many factors that act at different times and geographic locations but it is still not clear which have a significant impact and how drivers interact. To study diversification, we chose the lichen genus Sticta, by sampling through most of the global range and producing a time tree. We estimate that Sticta originated about 30 million years ago, but biogoegraphic analysis was unclear in estimating the origin of the genus...
April 12, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Xiaoming Tan, Yaqin Zhou, Xiaolei Zhou, Xianghua Xia, Ying Wei, Lili He, Hongzhen Tang, Liyin Yu
The plant Dysosma versipellis is known for its antimicrobial and anticancer properties but is a rare and vulnerable perennial herb that is endemic to China. In this study, 224 isolates were isolated from various tissues of D. versipellis, and were classified into 53 different morphotypes according to culture characteristics and were identified by sequence analyses of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the rRNA gene. Although nine strains were not assignable at the phylum level, 44 belonged to at least 29 genera of 15 orders of Ascomycota (93%), Basidiomycota (6%), and Zygomycota (1%)...
April 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yaqiong Wang, Biswarup Sen, Yaodong He, Ningdong Xie, Guangyi Wang
Fungi play a critical role in the nutrient cycling and ecological function in terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. Yet, many ecological aspects of their counterparts in coastal ecosystems remain largely elusive. Using high-throughput sequencing, quantitative PCR, and environmental data analyses, we studied the spatiotemporal changes in the abundance and diversity of planktonic fungi and their abiotic and biotic interactions in the coastal waters of three transects along the Bohai Sea. A total of 4362 ITS OTUs were identified and more than 60% of which were unclassified Fungi...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Zhuo Zhang, Luyun Luo, Xinqiu Tan, Xiao Kong, Jianguo Yang, Duanhua Wang, Deyong Zhang, Decai Jin, Yong Liu
Phyllosphere microbiota play a crucial role in plant-environment interactions and their microbial community and function are influenced by biotic and abiotic factors. However, there is little research on how pathogens affect the microbial community of phyllosphere fungi. In this study, we collected 16 pumpkin ( Cucurbita moschata ) leaf samples which exhibited powdery mildew disease, with a severity ranging from L1 (least severe) to L4 (most severe). The fungal community structure and diversity was examined by Illumina MiSeq sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of ribosomal RNA genes...
2018: PeerJ
Ellie E Armstrong, Stefan Prost, Damien Ertz, Martin Westberg, Andreas Frisch, Mika Bendiksby
We report here the draft de novo genome assembly, transcriptome assembly, and annotation of the lichen-forming fungus Arthonia radiata (Pers.) Ach., the type species for Arthoniomycetes, a class of lichen-forming, lichenicolous, and saprobic Ascomycota. The genome was assembled using overlapping paired-end and mate pair libraries and sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq 2500 instrument.
April 5, 2018: Genome Announcements
Pedro F Souza Filho, Ramkumar B Nair, Dan Andersson, Patrik R Lennartsson, Mohammad J Taherzadeh
Background: Currently around one billion people in the world do not have access to a diet which provides enough protein and energy. However, the production of one of the main sources of protein, animal meat, causes severe impacts on the environment. The present study investigates the production of a vegan-mycoprotein concentrate from pea-industry byproduct (PpB), using edible filamentous fungi, with potential application in human nutrition. Edible fungal strains of Ascomycota ( Aspergillus oryzae , Fusarium venenatum , Monascus purpureus , Neurospora intermedia ) and Zygomycota ( Rhizopus oryzae ) phyla were screened and selected for their protein production yield...
2018: Fungal Biology and Biotechnology
R M Wallen, Michael H Perlin
Sexual reproduction likely evolved as protection from environmental stresses, specifically, to repair DNA damage, often via homologous recombination. In higher eukaryotes, meiosis and the production of gametes with allelic combinations different from parental type provides the side effect of increased genetic variation. In fungi it appears that while the maintenance of meiosis is paramount for success, outcrossing is not a driving force. In the subkingdom Dikarya , fungal members are characterized by existence of a dikaryon for extended stages within the life cycle...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Weiming Hu, Noah Strom, Deepak Haarith, Senyu Chen, Kathryn E Bushley
The soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines Ichinohe (Phylum Nematoda), is a major pathogen of soybean. It causes substantial yield losses worldwide and is difficult to control because the cyst protects the eggs which can remain viable for nearly a decade. Crop rotation with non-host crops and use of biocontrol organisms such as fungi and bacteria offer promising approaches, but remain hampered by lack of knowledge of the biology of nematode parasitic organisms. We used a high-throughput metabarcoding approach to characterize fungal communities associated with the SCN cyst, a microenvironment in soil that may harbor both nematode parasites and plant pathogens...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Sumit Mukherjee, Matan Drory Retwitzer, Danny Barash, Supratim Sengupta
Riboswitches are metabolite or ion sensing cis-regulatory elements that regulate the expression of the associated genes involved in biosynthesis or transport of the corresponding metabolite. Among the nearly 40 different classes of riboswitches discovered in bacteria so far, only the TPP riboswitch has also been found in algae, plants, and in fungi where their presence has been experimentally validated in a few instances. We analyzed all the available complete fungal and related genomes and identified TPP riboswitch-based regulation systems in 138 fungi and 15 oomycetes...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ergin Sahin, Ilgaz Akata
Ever since their discovery just about 56 years ago in the cultivated mushroom Agaricus bisporus , many more viruses infecting fungi have been identified in a wide range of fungal taxa. With mostly being asymptomatic, especially the ones that are detrimental to their phytopathogenic hosts are intensively studied due to their considerable importance in developing novel plant protection measures. Contrary to the rapid accumulation of notable data on viruses of plant pathogenic microfungi, much less information have hitherto been obtained in regards to the viruses whose hosts are macrofungi...
March 2018: Virusdisease
Ko-Hsuan Chen, Hui-Ling Liao, A Elizabeth Arnold, Gregory Bonito, François Lutzoni
Diverse plant-associated fungi are thought to have symbiotrophic and saprotrophic states because they can be isolated from both dead and living plant tissues. However, such tissues often are separated in time and space, and fungal activity at various stages of plant senescence is rarely assessed directly in fungal community studies. We used fungal ribosomal RNA metatranscriptomics to detect active fungal communities across a natural senescence gradient within wild-collected gametophytes of Dicranum scoparium (Bryophyta) to understand the distribution of active fungal communities in adjacent living, senescing and dead tissues...
March 31, 2018: New Phytologist
Yue Quan, Hao Wu, Chunyu Guo, Yu Han, Chengri Yin
A fungal biotrickling filter (BTF) was employed to treat trichloroethylene (TCE) gas under different magnetic field intensities (MFIs). When the TCE inlet concentrations were approximately 370, 500-900, and 1000 mg/m3 , the removal performances followed the order: MFI 20.0 mT > MFI 60.0 mT > MFI 80.0 mT > MFI 0 mT. In particular, at a TCE inlet concentration of 1000 mg/m3 , MFI 20.0 mT was significantly better than MFI 0 mT performance. The corresponding removal efficiencies and maximum elimination capacities were 52...
March 9, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Mingchao Ma, Xin Jiang, Qingfeng Wang, Marc Ongena, Dan Wei, Jianli Ding, Dawei Guan, Fengming Cao, Baisuo Zhao, Jun Li
How fungi respond to long-term fertilization in Chinese Mollisols as sensitive indicators of soil fertility has received limited attention. To broaden our knowledge, we used high-throughput pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR to explore the response of soil fungal community to long-term chemical and organic fertilization strategies. Soils were collected in a 35-year field experiment with four treatments: no fertilizer, chemical phosphorus, and potassium fertilizer (PK), chemical phosphorus, potassium, and nitrogen fertilizer (NPK), and chemical phosphorus and potassium fertilizer plus manure (MPK)...
March 23, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Takashi Nagai
Fungicides are used to control fungal plant pathogen, but they may also be highly toxic to aquatic fungi, which play an important role in natural aquatic ecosystems. However, a bioassay method using aquatic fungi has not been sufficiently well developed. In the present study, a novel, efficient, and ecologically relevant bioassay method was developed for the ecological effect assessment of fungicides. Candidate test species were selected by considering the following 4 factors: (1) their ecological relevance (i...
March 23, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Dockyu Kim, Ha Ju Park, Jung Ho Kim, Ui Joung Youn, Yung Hun Yang, Angélica Casanova-Katny, Cristina Muñoz Vargas, Erick Zagal Venegas, Hyun Park, Soon Gyu Hong
Although the maritime Antarctic has undergone rapid warming, the effects on indigenous soil-inhabiting microorganisms are not well known. Passive warming experiments using open-top chamber (OTC) have been performed on the Fildes Peninsula in the maritime Antarctic since 2008. When the soil temperature was measured at a depth of 2-5 cm during the 2013-2015 summer seasons, the mean temperature inside OTC (OTC-In) increased by approximately 0.8 °C compared with outside OTC (OTC-Out), while soil chemical and physical characteristics did not change...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Yu-Jie Wei, Yun Wu, Yin-Zhuo Yan, Wan Zou, Jie Xue, Wen-Rui Ma, Wei Wang, Ge Tian, Li-Ye Wang
In this study Illumina MiSeq was performed to investigate microbial diversity in soil, leaves, grape, grape juice and wine. A total of 1,043,102 fungal Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) reads and 2,422,188 high quality bacterial 16S rDNA sequences were used for taxonomic classification, revealed five fungal and eight bacterial phyla. At the genus level, the dominant fungi were Ascomycota, Sordariales, Tetracladium and Geomyces in soil, Aureobasidium and Pleosporaceae in grapes leaves, Aureobasidium in grape and grape juice...
2018: PloS One
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