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Jing-Yun Sun, Yu Song, Zhi-Ping Ma, Huai-Jing Zhang, Zhong-Duo Yang, Zhong-Hua Cai, Jin Zhou
Contamination and eutrophication have caused serious ecological events (such as algal bloom) in coastal area. During this ecological process, microbial community structure is critical for algal bloom succession. The diversity and composition of bacteria and archaea communities in algal blooms have been widely investigated; however, those of fungi are poorly understood. To fill this gap, we used pyrosequencing and correlation approaches to assess fungal patterns and associations during a dinoflagellate (Noctiluca scintillans) bloom...
October 4, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
Elisa Lagostina, Francesco Dal Grande, Sieglinde Ott, Christian Printzen
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Usnea antarctica and U. aurantiacoatra (Parmeliaceae) are common lichens in the maritime Antarctic. These species share the same habitats on King George Island (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica) and are distinguishable based on reproductive strategies. METHODS AND RESULTS: We developed 23 fungus-specific simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers that cross-amplify between the two species. We used a low-coverage genome-skimming approach on one sample of each species to identify SSR repeats in the two species...
September 2017: Applications in Plant Sciences
Darío R Olicón-Hernández, Jesús González-López, Elisabet Aranda
Pharmaceuticals represent an immense business with increased demand due to intensive livestock raising and an aging human population, which guarantee the quality of human life and well-being. However, the development of removal technologies for these compounds is not keeping pace with the swift increase in their use. Pharmaceuticals constitute a potential risk group of multiclass chemicals of increasing concern since they are extremely frequent in all environments and have started to exhibit negative effects on micro- and macro-fauna as well as on human health...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
William E Klingeman, Alicia M Bray, Jason B Oliver, Christopher M Ranger, Debra E Palmquist
Knowledge about which bark and ambrosia beetle species are active and at what heights in black walnut canopies is not well understood. Neither is the role of these beetles in spreading Thousand Cankers Disease. To assist with future planned research, which will assess the extent to which these beetle species are associated with Geosmithia morbida Kolařík, Freeland, Utley, and Tisserat (Ascomycota: Hypocreales: Bionectriaceae), experiments were undertaken to monitor bark and ambrosia beetles in urban landscapes and parks in Tennessee between 2011 and 2013...
September 7, 2017: Environmental Entomology
Mariana C Ferreira, Charles L Cantrell, David E Wedge, Vívian N Gonçalves, Melissa R Jacob, Shabana Khan, Carlos A Rosa, Luiz H Rosa
BACKGROUND: Endophytic fungi, present mainly in the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota phyla, are associated with different plants and represent important producers of bioactive natural products. Brazil has a rich biodiversity of plant species, including those reported as being endemic. Among the endemic Brazilian plant species, Vellozia gigantea (Velloziaceae) is threatened by extinction and is a promising target to recover endophytic fungi. OBJECTIVE: The present study focused on bioprospecting of bioactive compounds of the endophytic fungi associated with V...
October 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Michał Kobiałka, Anna Michalik, Marcin Walczak, Teresa Szklarzewicz
The symbiotic systems (types of symbionts, their distribution in the host insect body, and their transovarial transmission between generations) of four Deltocephalinae leafhoppers: Fieberiella septentrionalis, Graphocraerus ventralis, Orientus ishidae, and Cicadula quadrinotata have been examined by means of histological, ultrastructural, and molecular techniques. In all four species, two types of symbionts are present: bacterium Sulcia (phylum Bacteroidetes) and yeast-like symbionts closely related to the entomopathogenic fungi (phylum Ascomycota, class Sordariomycetes)...
September 23, 2017: Microbial Ecology
Tarek A A Moussa, Hassan S Al-Zahrani, Omar A Almaghrabi, Tamer S Abdelmoneim, Michael P Fuller
A total of 145007 reads were obtained from pyrosequencing for all the 4 samples. The total count ranged from 11,301,014 (Mecca old road) to 23,503,512 bp (Thuwal). A total of 460 fungal species belonging to 133 genera, 58 families, 33 orders, 13 classes and 4 phyla was identified across the four sites. The most abundant phylum at all four sites was Ascomycota followed by Basidiomycota. Four phyla (Ascomycota-99.31%, Basidiomycota-0.59%, Chytridiomycota-0.04%, Glomeromycota-0.03%) were detected in Khulais. Except for Glomeromycota, all phyla were detected at Mecca old road (Ascomycota-74...
2017: PloS One
Todd Kabaluk, Erica Li-Leger, Sean Nam
Wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae) are serious agricultural pests, with soil-dwelling larvae attacking subterranean tissues of crop plants and their fruit when in contact with the soil surface. Researchers collect wireworms for laboratory experiments to study their behaviour and test pest control agents but frequently lose them to Metarhizium Petch (Ascomycota: Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) infection. We found latent M. brunneum infection in 13-100% of live, asymptomatic Agriotes obscurus and A. lineatus wireworms acquired from agricultural fields and in wireworms maintained indoors, indicating its enzootic presence...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Joseph W Spatafora, M Catherine Aime, Igor V Grigoriev, Francis Martin, Jason E Stajich, Meredith Blackwell
The kingdom Fungi is one of the more diverse clades of eukaryotes in terrestrial ecosystems, where they provide numerous ecological services ranging from decomposition of organic matter and nutrient cycling to beneficial and antagonistic associations with plants and animals. The evolutionary relationships of the kingdom have represented some of the more recalcitrant problems in systematics and phylogenetics. The advent of molecular phylogenetics, and more recently phylogenomics, has greatly advanced our understanding of the patterns and processes associated with fungal evolution, however...
September 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
Xue Zhou, Lei Tian, Jianfeng Zhang, Lina Ma, Xiujun Li, Chunjie Tian
Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) is a pioneer plant used for land reclamation and an appropriate material for studying the interactions of symbiotic microorganisms because of its nitrogen-fixing root nodules and mycorrhiza. We used high-throughput sequencing to reveal the diversities and community structures of rhizospheric fungi and their link with nitrogen-fixing Frankia harbored in sea buckthorn collected along an altitude gradient from the Qinghai Tibet Plateau to interior areas. We found that the fungal diversities and compositions varied between different sites...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Alberto M Stchigel, Deanna A Sutton, José F Cano-Lira, Nathan Wiederhold, Josep Guarro
The new species Spiromastigoides albida (Onygenales, Eurotiomycetes, Ascomycota), from a lung biopsy in USA, is proposed and described based on morphological data and the analysis of rRNA, and fragments of actin and ß-tubulin gene sequences. This species is characterized by white colonies and a malbranchea-like asexual morph with profusely branching curved conidiophores forming sporodochia-like structures. Moreover, new combinations for Gymnoascus alatosporus, and for some new species recently described under the generic name Spiromastix, are provided...
September 11, 2017: Mycopathologia
Xiangyun Zang, Meiting Liu, Han Wang, Yihong Fan, Haichang Zhang, Jiawen Liu, Enlu Xing, Xiuhong Xu, Hongtao Li
Cellulose degradation is an important part of global carbon cycle in composting process, and β-Glucosidases complete the final step of cellulose hydrolysis by converting cellobiose to glucose. This work analyzes the succession of β-glucosidase-producing microbial communities that persists throughout composting, evaluates their metabolic activities and community advantage during the various phases of composting. Fungal and bacterial β-glucosidase genes belonging to glycoside hydrolase families GH1 and GH3 amplified from DNA and gene abundance levels were analyzed...
September 11, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Shankar Prasad Sha, Kunal Jani, Avinash Sharma, Anu Anupma, Pooja Pradhan, Yogesh Shouche, Jyoti Prakash Tamang
Marcha and thiat are traditionally prepared amylolytic starters use for production of various ethnic alcoholic beverages in Sikkim and Meghalaya states in India. In the present study we have tried to investigate the bacterial and fungal community composition of marcha and thiat by using high throughput sequencing. Characterization of bacterial community depicts phylum Proteobacteria is the most dominant in both marcha (91.4%) and thiat (53.8%), followed by Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. Estimates of fungal community composition showed Ascomycota as the dominant phylum...
September 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
Hui Tian, Hui Wang, Xiaoli Hui, Zhaohui Wang, Rhae A Drijber, Jinshan Liu
Agricultural management methods, such as cultivation or fallowing, have led to significant changes in soil fertility and hence, crop yield. Such changes may have stemmed from changes in soil microbial communities and associated biogeochemical processes. This phenomenon is particularly true in organic-poor soil in the Loess Plateau of China. In this study, we examined three existing soil management regimes as part of a 10-year field experiment and evaluated their effects on fungal and bacterial community structures by performing high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing...
2017: PloS One
P C Carmichael, N Siyoum, L Chidamba, L Korsten
AIMS: To determine fungal communities that characterise table grapes during berry development. METHODS AND RESULTS: Two agro-ecologically different table grape commercial farms (site A and B) were used in this study. Samples were collected at full bloom, pea size and mature stages, from three positions (inside centre, eastern and western peripheral-ends) per site. Total DNA extraction, Illumina sequencing and analysis of 18 pooled samples for fungal diversity targeting ITS1-2 generated a total of 2035933 high quality sequences...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Nicolas Magain, Jolanta Miadlikowska, Olaf Mueller, Michael Gajdeczka, Camille Truong, Asaf A Salamov, Inna Dubchak, Igor V Grigoriev, Bernard Goffinet, Emmanuël Sérusiaux, François Lutzoni
Synteny can be maintained for certain genomic regions across broad phylogenetic groups. In these homologous genomic regions, sites that are under relaxed purifying selection, such as intergenic regions, could be used broadly as markers for population genetic and phylogenetic studies on species complexes. To explore the potential of this approach, we found 125 Collinear Orthologous Regions (COR) ranging from 1 to > 10 kb across nine genomes representing the Lecanoromycetes and Eurotiomycetes (Pezizomycotina, Ascomycota)...
August 28, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Gustavo Vasconcelos Bastos Paulino, Ciro Ramon Félix, Leonardo Broetto, Melissa Fontes Landell
Some of the main threats to coral reefs come from human actions on marine environment, such as tourism, overfishing and pollution from urban development. While several studies have demonstrated an association between bacteria and corals, demonstrating how these communities react to different anthropogenic stressors, yeast communities associated with corals have received far less attention from researchers. The aim of this work was therefore to describe cultivable yeasts associated with three coral species and to evaluate the influence of sewage discharge on yeasts community...
August 23, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Hagai Yanai, Arie Budovsky, Thomer Barzilay, Robi Tacutu, Vadim E Fraifeld
Hundreds of genes, when manipulated, affect the lifespan of model organisms (yeast, worm, fruit fly, and mouse) and thus can be defined as longevity-associated genes (LAGs). A major challenge is to determine whether these LAGs are model-specific or may play a universal role as longevity regulators across diverse taxa. A wide-scale comparative analysis of the 1805 known LAGs across 205 species revealed that (i) LAG orthologs are substantially overrepresented, from bacteria to mammals, compared to the entire genomes or interactomes, and this was especially noted for essential LAGs; (ii) the effects on lifespan, when manipulating orthologous LAGs in different model organisms, were mostly concordant, despite a high evolutionary distance between them; (iii) LAGs that have orthologs across a high number of phyla were enriched in translational processes, energy metabolism, and DNA repair genes; (iv) LAGs that have no orthologs out of the taxa in which they were discovered were enriched in autophagy (Ascomycota/Fungi), G proteins (Nematodes), and neuroactive ligand-receptor interactions (Chordata)...
August 24, 2017: Aging Cell
Yan-Mei Zheng, Fu-Long Lin, Hao Gao, Gen Zou, Jiang-Wei Zhang, Gao-Qian Wang, Guo-Dong Chen, Zhi-Hua Zhou, Xin-Sheng Yao, Dan Hu
Filamentous fungi represent an invaluable source of pharmaceutically active compounds. The development of versatile methods to genetically manipulate filamentous fungi is of great value for improving the low yields of bioactive metabolites and expanding chemical diversity. The CRISPR-Cas9-based system has become a common platform for genome editing in a variety of organisms. However, recent application of this technology in filamentous fungi is limited to model strains, a versatile method for efficient gene disruption in different fungi is lacking...
August 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
Tian Tian, Zhiqun Chen, Yongqiang Tian, Lihong Gao
Round-Bohai Bay (RBB)-Region is an important crop production area in China, where vegetables are mainly produced in solar greenhouses. However, excessive fertilization and monoculture have caused serious deterioration of soil quality in this region. Soil microbial communities play pivotal roles in many ecosystem processes and are recognized as integrative components of soil quality. Therefore, in this study, we investigated bacterial and fungal diversity in solar greenhouse soils covering a wide range of cultivation year (CY) and sampling site (SS), by using pyrosequencing technology...
August 22, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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