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Sabrina Leonhardt, Enrico Büttner, Anna Maria Gebauer, Martin Hofrichter, Harald Kellner
Lecythophora ( Coniochaeta ) hoffmannii , a soil- and lignocellulose-inhabiting sordariomycete (Ascomycota) that can also live as a facultative tree pathogen causing soft rot, belongs to the family Coniochaetaceae. The strain CBS 245.38 sequenced here was assembled into 869 contigs, has a size of 30.8 Mb, and comprises 10,596 predicted protein-coding genes.
February 15, 2018: Genome Announcements
Yan Chen, Zhaoming Liu, Hongju Liu, Yahong Pan, Jing Li, Lan Liu, Zhigang She
Three new isocoumarins-dichlorodiaportintone (1), desmethyldichlorodiaportintone (2) and desmethyldichlorodiaportinol (3)-as well as six known analogues (4-9) were isolated from the culture of the mangrove endophytic fungus Ascomycota sp. CYSK-4 from Pluchea indica. Their structures were elucidated by analysis of spectroscopic data. The absolute configuration of compounds 1 and 2 were determined by the modified Mosher's method. Compound 2 showed significant anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting the production of NO in LPS-induced RAW 264...
February 9, 2018: Marine Drugs
Christian Hernández, Adriane M F Milagres, Gerardo Vázquez-Marrufo, Karla María Muñoz-Páez, José Antonio García-Pérez, Enrique Alarcón
Efficient hydrolysis of holocellulose depends on a proper balance between cellulase (endoglucanase, exoglucanase, β-glucosidase) and xylanase activities. The present study aimed to induce the production of cellulases and xylanases using liquid cultures (one, two, three, and four fungal strains on the same bioreactor) of wild strains of Trichoderma harzianum, Aspergillus niger, and Fusarium oxysporum. The strains were identified by amplification and analysis of the ITS rDNA region and the obtained sequences were deposited in Genbank...
February 8, 2018: Folia Microbiologica
Meelad Yousef, Carmen Alba-Ramírez, Inmaculada Garrido Jurado, Jordi Mateu, Silvia Raya Díaz, Pablo Valverde-García, Enrique Quesada-Moraga
Soil treatments with Metarhizium brunneum EAMa 01/58-Su strain conducted in both Northern and Southern Spain reduced the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae) population density emerging from the soil during spring up to 70% in treated plots compared with controls. A model to determine the influence of rainfall on the conidial wash into different soil types was developed, with most of the conidia retained at the first 5 cm, regardless of soil type, with relative percentages of conidia recovered ranging between 56 and 95%...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
P Markus Wilken, Emma T Steenkamp, Magriet A van der Nest, Michael J Wingfield, Z Wilhelm de Beer, Brenda D Wingfield
Sexual reproduction in the Ascomycota is controlled by genes encoded at the mating-type or MAT1 locus. The two allelic versions of this locus in heterothallic species, referred to as idiomorphs, are defined by the MAT1-1-1 (for the MAT1-1 idiomorph) and MAT1-2-1 (for the MAT1-2 idiomorph) genes. Both idiomorphs can contain additional genes, although the contents of each is typically specific to and conserved within particular Pezizomycotina lineages. Using full genome sequences, complemented with conventional PCR and Sanger sequencing, we compared the mating-type idiomorphs in heterothallic species of Thielaviopsis (Ceratocystidaceae)...
January 30, 2018: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
George Talal Abboud, Abdullah Zubaer, Alvan Wai, Georg Hausner
Ophiostoma novo-ulmi, a member of the Ophiostomatales (Ascomycota) is the causal agents of the current Dutch elm disease pandemic in Europe and North America. The complete mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) of Ophiostoma novo-ulmi subsp. novo-ulmi, the European component of O. novo-ulmi, has been sequenced and annotated. Gene order (synteny) among the currently available members of the Ophiostomatales was examined and appears to be conserved and mtDNA size variability among the Ophiostomatales in part is due the presence of introns and their encoded open reading frames...
February 5, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Isabelle Delsarte, Catherine Rafin, Fida Mrad, Etienne Veignie
In a search for indigenous soil saprotrophic fungi for bioremediation purposes, Fusarium solani, a saprotrophic fungus belonging to the phylum Ascomycota, was isolated from a fossil carbon contaminated soil. The effect of the carbon source, glucose or olive oil, was investigated in vitro on the biomass produced by F. solani and on the degradation of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in mineral medium. After only 12 days of incubation, BaP degradation by F. solani was higher (37.4%) with olive oil used as the carbon source than the one obtained with glucose (4...
February 1, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Alexandra H Mandarano, Ludovic Giloteaux, Betsy A Keller, Susan M Levine, Maureen R Hanson
Patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) often suffer from gastrointestinal symptoms and many are diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Previous studies, including from our laboratory, have demonstrated that the ME/CFS gut bacterial composition is altered and less diverse when compared to healthy individuals. Patients have increased biomarkers of inflammation and leaky gut syndrome. To further investigate dysbiosis in the ME/CFS gut microbiome, we sought to characterize the eukaryotes present in the gut of 49 individuals with ME/CFS and 39 healthy controls...
2018: PeerJ
Jia Liu, Ahmed Abdelfattah, John Norelli, Erik Burchard, Leonardo Schena, Samir Droby, Michael Wisniewski
BACKGROUND: High-throughput amplicon sequencing spanning conserved portions of microbial genomes (16s rRNA and ITS) was used in the present study to describe the endophytic microbiota associated with three apple varieties, "Royal Gala," "Golden Delicious," and "Honey Crisp," and two rootstocks, M.9 and M.M.111. The objectives were to (1) determine if the microbiota differs in different rootstocks and apple varieties and (2) determine if specific rootstock-scion combinations influence the microbiota composition of either component...
January 27, 2018: Microbiome
Qiang Li, Bingjian Zhang, Xiaoru Yang, Qinya Ge
Research on the microbial communities that colonize stone monuments may provide a new understanding of stone biodeterioration and microbe-induced carbonate precipitation. This work investigates the seasonal variation of microbial communities in 2016 and 2017, as well as its effects on stone monuments. We determined the bacterial and fungal composition of 12 samples from 4 well-separated geographic locations using 16S rRNA and ITS gene amplicon sequencing. Cyanobacteria and Ascomycota were the predominant bacterial and fungal phyla respectively, and differences in species abundance among our 12 samples and two years showed no consistent temporal or spatial trends...
January 26, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
B L Blood, W E Klingeman, M A Paschen, Ð Hadžiabdic, J J Couture, M D Ginzel, Lukasz Stelinski
Thousand cankers disease (TCD) is a pest complex formed by the association of the walnut twig beetle (WTB), Pityophthorus juglandis Blackman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), with the fungal pathogen Geosmithia morbida Kolařík, Freeland, Utley and Tisserat (Ascomycota: Hypocreales: Bionectriaceae). Current monitoring and detection efforts for WTB rely on a pheromone lure that is effective over a limited distance while plant- and fungal-derived volatiles that may facilitate host location remain poorly understood...
January 24, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Mian Wang, Mingna Chen, Zhen Yang, Na Chen, Xiaoyuan Chi, Lijuan Pan, Tong Wang, Shanlin Yu, Xingqi Guo
Peanut yield and quality are seriously affected by pod rot pathogens worldwide, especially in China in recent years. The goals of this study are to analyze the structure of fungal communities of peanut pod rot in soil in three peanut cultivars and the correlation of pod rot with environmental variables using 454 pyrosequencing. A total of 46,723 internal transcribed spacer high-quality sequences were obtained and grouped into 1,706 operational taxonomic units at the 97% similarity cut-off level. The coverage, rank abundance, and the Chao 1 and Shannon diversity indices of the operational taxonomic units were analyzed...
December 2017: Mycobiology
Mahesh Adhikari, Sun Kumar Gurung, Hyun Seung Kim, Setu Bazie, Hyun Gu Lee, Hyang Burm Lee, Youn Su Lee
Three new records of Ascomycota species (Chaetomium acropullum, Phialemonium globosum, Phialemonium atrogriseum) from field soils in Korea are presented in this study. These newly discovered fungal isolates were isolated from field soils from various places across Gyeongnam, Korea in 2016. All the isolates were identified and described based on morphological characteristics, and rDNA internal transcribed spacer and β-tubulin gene sequence data. Morphological features of these fungal species were studied on different agar media: potato dextrose agar, oatmeal agar, malt extract agar, Czapek yeast extract agar, and yeast extract sucrose agar...
December 2017: Mycobiology
Jung Shin Park, Sook-Young Park, Chan-Ho Park, Sergii Y Kondratyuk, Soon-Ok Oh, Jae-Seoun Hur
The crustose lichen genus Pertusaria comprises over ca. 800 species worldwide. In total, 20 Pertusaria species were localized to the Mt. Sorak and Jeju-do in Korea. To date, information regarding the distribution of Pertusaria species in the South Korean peninsula is scarce. In this study, we collected Pertusaria species across South Korea and identified them based on morphological, chemical, and molecular characteristics. Of the 387 samples collected, we identified 24 taxa and 1 variety, of which 17 were previously recorded, and 6 taxa were newly found in South Korea (P...
December 2017: Mycobiology
Matthew A Campbell, Brian A Tapper, Wayne R Simpson, Richard D Johnson, Wade Mace, Arvina Ram, Yonathan Lukito, Pierre-Yves Dupont, Linda J Johnson, D Barry Scott, Austen R D Ganley, Murray P Cox
Endophytes of the genus Epichloë (Clavicipitaceae, Ascomycota) frequently occur within cool-season grasses and form interactions with their hosts that range from mutualistic to antagonistic. Many Epichloë species have arisen via interspecific hybridization, resulting in species with two or three subgenomes that retain all or nearly all of their original parental genomes, a process termed allopolyploidization. Here, we characterize Epichloë hybrida, sp. nov., a mutualistic species that has increasingly become a model system for investigating allopolyploidy in fungi...
November 17, 2017: Mycologia
Brett J Green, James R Couch, Angela R Lemons, Nancy C Burton, Kerton R Victory, Ajay P Nayak, Donald H Beezhold
Cannabis cultivation is an emerging industry within the United States. Organic dust derived in part from naturally occurring microorganisms is known to cause byssinosis in the hemp industry. In this pilot study, bacteria and fungi encountered by workers at an outdoor cannabis farm that utilized organic practices were elucidated by 16░S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region sequencing, respectively. Area (n = 14) and personal air samples (n = 12) were collected during harvesting and processing activities...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Francis M Borges, Thaís O de Paula, Marjorie R A Sarmiento, Maycon G de Oliveira, Maria L M Pereira, Isabela V Toledo, Thiago C Nascimento, Alessandra B Ferreira-Machado, Vânia L Silva, Cláudio G Diniz
Fungi have a complex role in the intestinal tract, influencing health and disease, with dysbiosis contributing to obesity. Our objectives were to investigate fungal diversity in human gut microbiota among eutrophic, overweight, and obese. Epidemiological and nutritional information were collected from adult individuals, as well as stool samples processed for selective fungi isolation and identification by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (yeasts) or microculture (filamentous fungi)...
January 24, 2018: Current Microbiology
Antoine Simon, Bernard Goffinet, Nicolas Magain, Emmanuël Sérusiaux
Lichen biodiversity and its generative evolutionary processes are practically unknown in the MIOI1 biodiversity hotspot (including Madagascar and the neighboring Mascarene archipelago, formed by Mauritius, Réunion and Rodrigues). We sought to test the hypothesis that lichenized fungi in this region have undergone a rapid radiation, following a single colonization event, giving rise to narrow endemics, as is characteristic of other lineages of plants. We extensively sampled specimens of the lichen genus Sticta in the Mascarene archipelago (mainly Réunion) and in Madagascar, mainly in the northern range (Amber Mt and Marojejy Mt) and produced the fungal ITS barcode sequence for 148 thalli...
January 19, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Qiang Li, Chuan Xiong, Xiaolin Li, Xin Jin, Wenli Huang
Tricholoma matsutake (S. Ito et Imai) is an ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete associated with Pinaceae and Fagaceae trees in the Northern Hemisphere. It is still unknown whether the symbiotic relationship with this ectomycorrhiza could affect the host plant's endophytic microbial community. In this study, we used high throughput sequencing to analyze the endophytic microbial communities of different Quercus aquifolioides tissues with or without T. matsutake partner. About 35,000 clean reads were obtained per sample, representing 34 bacterial phyla and 7 fungal phyla...
January 23, 2018: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Eldon C Q Gomes, Valéria M Godinho, Débora A S Silva, Maria T R de Paula, Gislaine A Vitoreli, Carlos L Zani, Tânia M A Alves, Policarpo A S Junior, Silvane M F Murta, Emerson C Barbosa, Jaquelline G Oliveira, Fabio S Oliveira, Camila R Carvalho, Mariana C Ferreira, Carlos A Rosa, Luiz H Rosa
Molecular biology techniques were used to identify 218 fungi from soil samples collected from four islands of Antarctica. These consisted of 22 taxa of 15 different genera belonging to the Zygomycota, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota. Mortierella, Antarctomyces, Pseudogymnoascus, and Penicillium were the most frequently isolated genera and Penicillium tardochrysogenum, Penicillium verrucosus, Goffeauzyma gilvescens, and Mortierella sp. 2 the most abundant taxa. All fungal isolates were cultivated using solid-state fermentation to obtain their crude extracts...
January 13, 2018: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
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