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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236715/fungal-communities-in-ancient-peatlands-developed-from-different-periods-in-the-sanjiang-plain-china
#1
Zhenqing Zhang, Xue Zhou, Lei Tian, Lina Ma, Shasha Luo, Jianfeng Zhang, Xiujun Li, Chunjie Tian
Peatlands in the Sanjiang Plain could be more vulnerable to global warming because they are located at the southernmost boundary of northern peatlands. Unlike bacteria, fungi are often overlooked, even though they play important roles in substance circulation in the peatland ecosystems. Accordingly, it is imperative that we deepen our understanding of fungal community structure and diversity in the peatlands. In this study, high-throughput Illumina sequencing was used to study the fungal communities in three fens in the Sanjiang Plain, located at the southern edge of northern peatlands...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228814/cold-adapted-enzymes-produced-by-fungi-from-terrestrial-and-marine-antarctic-environments
#2
Alysson Wagner Fernandes Duarte, Juliana Aparecida Dos Santos, Marina Vitti Vianna, Juliana Maíra Freitas Vieira, Vitor Hugo Mallagutti, Fabio José Inforsato, Lia Costa Pinto Wentzel, Luciana Daniela Lario, Andre Rodrigues, Fernando Carlos Pagnocca, Adalberto Pessoa Junior, Lara Durães Sette
Antarctica is the coldest, windiest, and driest continent on Earth. In this sense, microorganisms that inhabit Antarctica environments have to be adapted to harsh conditions. Fungal strains affiliated with Ascomycota and Basidiomycota phyla have been recovered from terrestrial and marine Antarctic samples. They have been used for the bioprospecting of molecules, such as enzymes. Many reports have shown that these microorganisms produce cold-adapted enzymes at low or mild temperatures, including hydrolases (e...
December 11, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196717/culturomics-and-amplicon-based-metagenomic-approaches-for-the-study-of-fungal-population-in-human-gut-microbiota
#3
Ibrahim Hamad, Stéphane Ranque, Esam I Azhar, Muhammad Yasir, Asif A Jiman-Fatani, Hervé Tissot-Dupont, Didier Raoult, Fadi Bittar
Herein, the mycobiota was characterized in fecal samples from sick patients and healthy subjects, collected from different geographical locations and using both culturomics and amplicon-based metagenomics approaches. Using the culturomics approach, a total of 17,800 fungal colonies were isolated from 14 fecal samples, and resulted in the isolation of 41 fungal species, of which 10 species had not been previously reported in the human gut. Deep sequencing of fungal-directed ITS1 and ITS2 amplicons led to the detection of a total of 142 OTUs and 173 OTUs from the ITS1 and ITS2 regions, respectively...
December 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194980/polar-solar-panels-arctic-and-antarctic-microbiomes-display-similar-taxonomic-profiles
#4
Kristie Tanner, José Manuel Martí, Josabel Belliure, Mar Fernández-Méndez, Esther Molina-Menor, Juli Peretó, Manuel Porcar
Solar panels located on high (Arctic and Antarctic) latitudes combine the harshness of the climate with that of the solar exposure. We report here that these polar solar panels are inhabited by similar microbial communities in taxonomic terms, dominated by Hymenobacter spp., Sphingomonas spp., and Ascomycota. Our results suggest that solar panels, even on high latitudes, can shape a microbial ecosystem adapted to irradiation and desiccation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
December 1, 2017: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184955/-and-ascomlactone-a-a-pair-of-novel-dimeric-polyketides-from-a-mangrove-endophytic-fungus-ascomycota-sp-sk2yws-l
#5
Zhaoming Liu, Senhua Chen, Pei Qiu, Chunbing Tan, Yuhua Long, Yongjun Lu, Zhigang She
A pair of novel enantiomeric polyketide dimers, (+)- and (-)-ascomlactone A (1a and 1b), were obtained from a mangrove endophytic fungus Ascomycota sp. SK2YWS-L. The structures were elucidated based on spectroscopic methods, and the absolute configurations were determined by X-ray diffraction and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations. Ascomlactone A possessed an unprecedented polymerization system, which constructed an unusual nine-membered lactone ring between the monomers. A possible biogenetic pathway was proposed...
November 29, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180801/modification-and-functional-adaptation-of-the-mbf1-gene-family-in-the-lichenized-fungus-endocarpon-pusillum-under-environmental-stress
#6
Yanyan Wang, Xinli Wei, Jenpan Huang, Jiangchun Wei
The multiprotein-bridging factor 1 (MBF1) gene family is well known in archaea, non-lichenized fungi, plants, and animals, and contains stress tolerance-related genes. Here, we identified four unique mbf1 genes in the lichenized fungi Endocarpon spp. A phylogenetic analysis based on protein sequences showed the translated MBF1 proteins of the newly isolated mbf1 genes formed a monophyletic clade different from other lichen-forming fungi and Ascomycota groups in general, which may reflect the evolution of the biological functions of MBF1s...
November 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177429/identification-of-a-basidiomycete-specific-vilse-like-gtpase-activating-proteins-gaps-and-its-roles-in-the-production-of-virulence-factors-in-cryptococcus-neoformans
#7
Kashif Rahim, Liang Huo, Chenxi Li, Ping Zhang, Abdul Basit, Biyun Xiang, Bie Ting, Xiaoran Hao, Xudong Zhu
Cryptococcus neoformans is a basidiomycetous pathogenic yeast that causes fatal infections in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. Regulation on the production of its virulence factor is not fully understood. Here we reported the characterization of a gene, named CVH1(CNA06260), encoding a Drosophila Vilse-like RhoGAP homologue, which is hallmarked by three conserved functional domains, i.e. WW, MyTH4, and RhoGAP. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that CVH1 is highly conserved from protists to mammals and interestingly in basidiomycetes, but absent in plants or Ascomycota and other lower fungi...
November 21, 2017: FEMS Yeast Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176690/fungal-endophytes-inhabiting-mountain-cultivated-ginseng-panax-ginseng-meyer-diversity-and-biocontrol-activity-against-ginseng-pathogens
#8
Young-Hwan Park, Yoosam Kim, Ratnesh Chandra Mishra, Hanhong Bae
Fungal endophytes isolated from mountain-cultivated ginseng (MCG, Panax ginseng Meyer) were explored for their diversity and biocontrol activity against ginseng pathogens (Alternaria panax, Botrytis cinerea, Cylindrocarpon destructans, Pythium sp. and Rhizoctonia solani). A total of 1,300 isolates were isolated from three tissues (root, stem and leaf) from MCGs grown in 24 different geographic locations in Korea. In total, 129 different fungal isolates were authenticated by molecular identification based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences...
November 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170872/new-insights-from-molecular-phylogenetics-of-amoebophagous-fungi-zoopagomycota-zoopagales
#9
Daniele Corsaro, Martina Köhsler, Claudia Wylezich, Danielle Venditti, Julia Walochnik, Rolf Michel
Amoebophagous fungi are represented in all fungal groups: Basidiomycota, Ascomycota, Zygomycota, and Chytridiomycota. The amoebophagous fungi, within the zygomycota (Zoopagales, Zoopagomycota), mainly affect naked amoebae as ectoparasites or endoparasites. It is rather difficult to isolate members of the Zoopagales, because of their parasitic lifestyle, and to bring them into culture. Consequently, gene sequences of this group are undersampled, and its species composition and phylogeny are relatively unknown...
November 23, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170660/effect-of-dietary-forage-to-concentrate-ratios-on-dynamic-profile-changes-and-interactions-of-ruminal-microbiota-and-metabolites-in-holstein-heifers
#10
Jun Zhang, Haitao Shi, Yajing Wang, Shengli Li, Zhijun Cao, Shoukun Ji, Yuan He, Hongtao Zhang
A better understanding of global ruminal microbiota and metabolites under extensive feeding conditions is a prerequisite for optimizing rumen function and improving ruminant feed efficiency. Furthermore, the gap between the information on the ruminal microbiota and metabolites needs to be bridged. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a wide range of forage to concentrate ratios (F:C) on changes and interactions of ruminal microbiota and metabolites. Four diets with different F:C (80:20, 60:40, 40:60, and 20:80) were limit-fed to 24 Holstein heifers, and Illumina MiSeq sequencing and gas chromatography time-of-flight/mass spectrometry were used to investigate the profile changes of the ruminal microbes and metabolites, and the interaction between them...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170658/fungal-community-structure-and-as-resistant-fungi-in-a-decommissioned-gold-mine-site
#11
Silvia Crognale, Alessandro D'Annibale, Lorena Pesciaroli, Silvia R Stazi, Maurizio Petruccioli
Although large quantities of heavy metal laden wastes are released in an uncontrolled manner by gold mining activities with ensuing contamination of the surrounding areas, there is scant information on the mycobiota of gold-mine sites. Thus, the present study was aimed to describe the fungal community structure in three differently As- and Hg-polluted soils collected from the Pestarena decommissioned site by using Illumina® metabarcoding. Fungal richness was found to increase as the contamination level increased while biodiversity was not related to the concentrations of inorganic toxicants...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166284/pulmonary-adiaspiromycosis-in-the-eurasian-beaver-castor-fiber-inhabiting-poland
#12
I Dolka, A Giżejewska, Z Giżejewski, J Kołodziejska-Lesisz, W Kluciński
Adiaspiromycosis is a rare fungal infection caused by saprophytic fungi Emmonsia spp. (type Ascomycota) occurring especially in small free-living mammals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of histopathological lesions asscociated with adiaspiromycosis in the Eurasian beaver inhabiting Poland. In order to evaluate the presence of natural adiaspiromycosis we systematically investigated beaver populations from north-eastern Poland for adiaspores in the lungs. This study reveals for the first time the presence of pulmonary adiaspiromycosis of Eurasian beaver in Poland...
September 26, 2017: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163460/links-between-soil-fungal-diversity-and-plant-and-soil-properties-on-the-loess-plateau
#13
Yang Yang, Yanxing Dou, Yimei Huang, Shaoshan An
Previous studies have revealed inconsistent correlations between fungal diversity and plant/soil properties from local to global scales. Here, we investigated the internal relationships between soil fungal diversity and plant/soil properties on the Loess Plateau following vegetation restoration, using Illumina sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region for fungal identification. We found significant effects of land use types (Af, Artificial forest; Ns, Natural shrub; Ag, Artificial grassland; Ng, Natural grassland; Sc, slope cropland) on soil fungal communities composition, and the dominant phyla were Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, and Zygomycota, which transitioned from Basidiomycota-dominant to Ascomycota-dominant community due to vegetation restoration...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163383/microbial-taxa-distribution-is-associated-with-ecological-trophic-cascades-along-an-elevation-gradient
#14
Fei Yao, Shan Yang, Zhirui Wang, Xue Wang, Ji Ye, Xugao Wang, Jennifer M DeBruyn, Xue Feng, Yong Jiang, Hui Li
The elevational pattern of soil microbial diversity along mountain slopes has received considerable interest over the last decade. An increasing amount of taxonomic data on soil microbial community composition along elevation gradients have been collected, however the trophic patterns and environmental drivers of elevational changes remain largely unclear. Here, we examined the distribution patterns of major soil bacterial and fungal taxa along the northern slope of Changbai Mountain, Northeast China, at five typical vegetation types located between 740 and 2,691 m above sea level...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159452/saprotrophic-soil-fungi-to-improve-phosphorus-solubilisation-and-release-in-vitro-abilities-of-several-species
#15
Andrea Ceci, Flavia Pinzari, Fabiana Russo, Oriana Maggi, Anna Maria Persiani
Modern agriculture is dependent on phosphate rock (PR), which is a nonrenewable resource. Improvement of phosphorus (P) availability for crops in agricultural soils represents a key strategy to slow down the depletion of PR. The aim of this study was to identify potential P biofertilisers among saprotrophic fungal species. We tested 30 fungal strains belonging to 28 taxa (4 Zygomycota and 24 Ascomycota) and with different life strategies. The study showed that many saprotrophic fungi have the ability to mobilise P from insoluble forms according to a variety of mechanisms...
November 20, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157056/the-intron-landscape-of-the-mtdna-cytb-gene-among-the-ascomycota-introns-and-intron-encoded-open-reading-frames
#16
Tuhin K Guha, Alvan Wai, Sahra-Taylor Mullineux, Georg Hausner
Fungal mitochondrial genes are frequently noted for the presence of introns. These introns are self-splicing and can be assigned to either group I or II introns and they can encode open reading frames (ORFs). This study examines the introns present within the cytochrome b (cytb) gene of ascomycetes fungi. Cytochrome b gene sequences were sampled from GenBank and supplemented with our own data for species of Leptographium and Ophiostoma. Group I introns were encountered most frequently, many encoding either LAGLIDADG or GIY-YIG homing endonucleases (HEs)...
November 20, 2017: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152157/a-dysbiotic-mycobiome-dominated-by-candida-albicans-is-identified-within-oral-squamous-cell-carcinomas
#17
Manosha Perera, Nezar Noor Al-Hebshi, Irosha Perera, Deepak Ipe, Glen C Ulett, David J Speicher, Tsute Chen, Newell W Johnson
The aim of this study was to characterize the mycobiome associated with oral squamous-cell carcinoma (OSCC). DNA was extracted from 52 tissue biopsies (cases: 25 OSCC; controls: 27 intra-oral fibro-epithelial polyps [FEP]) and sequenced for the fungal internal transcribed spacer 2 region using Illumina™ 2 x300bp chemistry. Merged reads were classified to species level using a BLASTN-algorithm with UNITE's named species sequences as reference. Downstream analyses were performed using QIIME™ and linear discriminant analysis effect size...
2017: Journal of Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151633/the-genus-elaphomyces-ascomycota-eurotiales-a-ribosomal-dna-based-phylogeny-and-revised-systematics-of-european-deer-truffles
#18
A Paz, J-M Bellanger, C Lavoise, A Molia, M Ławrynowicz, E Larsson, I O Ibarguren, M Jeppson, T Læssøe, M Sauve, F Richard, P-A Moreau
Elaphomyces ('deer truffles') is one of the most important ectomycorrhizal fungal genera in temperate and subarctic forest ecosystems, but also one of the least documented in public databases. The current systematics are mainly based on macromorphology, and is not significantly different from that proposed by Vittadini (1831). Within the 49 species recognised worldwide, 23 were originally described from Europe and 17 of these were described before the 20th century. Moreover, very recent phylogenetic treatments of the genus are mainly based on a few extra-European species and most common European species are still poorly documented...
June 2017: Persoonia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136413/first-metagenomic-survey-of-the-microbial-diversity-in-bioaerosols-emitted-in-waste-sorting-plants
#19
Jodelle Degois, Frederic Clerc, Xavier Simon, Cyril Bontemps, Pierre Leblond, Philippe Duquenne
Waste sorting activities are source of occupational bioaerosol exposures that are associated with several health disorders. New analytical tools, based on next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, provide powerful methods to assess the microbial composition of bioaerosols. The objectives of the study were (i) to assess the feasibility and the repeatability of NGS-based biodiversity measurements and (ii) to study the microbial biodiversity using NGS in bioaerosols emitted in a waste sorting plant (WSP)...
November 10, 2017: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127335/early-diverging-lineages-within-cryptomycota-and-chytridiomycota-dominate-the-fungal-communities-in-ice-covered-lakes-of-the-mcmurdo-dry-valleys-antarctica
#20
Keilor Rojas-Jimenez, Christian Wurzbacher, Elizabeth Charlotte Bourne, Amy Chiuchiolo, John C Priscu, Hans-Peter Grossart
Antarctic ice-covered lakes are exceptional sites for studying the ecology of aquatic fungi under conditions of minimal human disturbance. In this study, we explored the diversity and community composition of fungi in five permanently covered lake basins located in the Taylor and Miers Valleys of Antarctica. Based on analysis of the 18S rRNA sequences, we showed that fungal taxa represented between 0.93% and 60.32% of the eukaryotic sequences. Cryptomycota and Chytridiomycota dominated the fungal communities in all lakes; however, members of Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Zygomycota, and Blastocladiomycota were also present...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
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