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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793156/mechanical-properties-of-the-human-scalp-in-tension
#1
Lisa Falland-Cheung, Mario Scholze, Pamela F Lozano, Benjamin Ondruschka, Darryl C Tong, Paul A Brunton, J Neil Waddell, Niels Hammer
Mechanical properties of the human scalp have not been investigated to a great extent with limited information available. The purpose of this study was to provide new baseline material data for human scalp tissue of various ages, which can be applied to experimental and constitutive models, such as in the area of impact biomechanics. This study used specimens from the left and right temporal, fronto-parietal and occipital regions of the human scalp. It investigated the tensile behavior of scalp tissue using tissues harvested from unfixed, fresh cadavers...
May 17, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793138/computation-of-marginal-distributions-of-peak-heights-in-electropherograms-for-analysing-single-source-and-mixture-str-dna-samples
#2
Robert G Cowell
Current models for single source and mixture samples, and probabilistic genotyping software based on them used for analysing STR electropherogram data, assume simple probability distributions, such as the gamma distribution, to model the allelic peak height variability given the initial amount of DNA prior to PCR amplification. Here we illustrate how amplicon number distributions, for a model of the process of sample DNA collection and PCR amplification, may be efficiently computed by evaluating probability generating functions using discrete Fourier transforms...
May 4, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793110/remembrance-of-inferences-past-amortization-in-human-hypothesis-generation
#3
Ishita Dasgupta, Eric Schulz, Noah D Goodman, Samuel J Gershman
Bayesian models of cognition assume that people compute probability distributions over hypotheses. However, the required computations are frequently intractable or prohibitively expensive. Since people often encounter many closely related distributions, selective reuse of computations (amortized inference) is a computationally efficient use of the brain's limited resources. We present three experiments that provide evidence for amortization in human probabilistic reasoning. When sequentially answering two related queries about natural scenes, participants' responses to the second query systematically depend on the structure of the first query...
May 21, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793060/a-computational-framework-for-the-detection-of-subcortical-brain-dysmaturation-in-neonatal-mri-using-3d-convolutional-neural-networks
#4
Rafael Ceschin, Alexandria Zahner, William Reynolds, Jenna Gaesser, Giulio Zuccoli, Cecilia W Lo, Vanathi Gopalakrishnan, Ashok Panigrahy
Deep neural networks are increasingly being used in both supervised learning for classification tasks and unsupervised learning to derive complex patterns from the input data. However, the successful implementation of deep neural networks using neuroimaging datasets requires adequate sample size for training and well-defined signal intensity based structural differentiation. There is a lack of effective automated diagnostic tools for the reliable detection of brain dysmaturation in the neonatal period, related to small sample size and complex undifferentiated brain structures, despite both translational research and clinical importance...
May 21, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792998/bmi-and-gender-increase-risk-for-sacral-fractures-after-multilevel-instrumented-spinal-fusion-compared-to-bone-mineral-density-and-pelvic-parameters
#5
Stephan N Salzmann, Courtney Ortiz Miller, John A Carrino, Jingyan Yang, Jennifer Shue, Andrew A Sama, Frank P Cammisa, Federico P Girardi, Alexander P Hughes
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Sacral fractures are a rare but potentially devastating complication. Long-fusion constructs including the sacrum that do not extend to the pelvis may result in sacral fractures. Besides established risk factors including gender, age and number of levels fused, body mass index (BMI), pelvic parameters and bone mineral density (BMD) have also been proposed as potential risk factors for postoperative sacral fractures. The literature supporting this, however, is limited...
May 21, 2018: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792988/towards-quantitative-prediction-of-the-performance-of-dry-powder-inhalers-by-multi-scale-simulations-and-experiments
#6
Duy Nguyen, Johan Remmelgas, Ingela Niklasson Björn, Berend van Wachem, Kyrre Thalberg
This work demonstrates the use of multi-scale simulations coupled with experiments to build a quantitative prediction tool for the performance of adhesive mixtures in a dry powder inhaler (DPI). Using discrete element model (DEM), the behaviour of fine-carrier particle assemblies upon different mechanisms encountered during dose entrainment and dispersion can be described at the individual particle level. Combining these results with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations, the complete dosing event from a DPI can be captured and key performance measures can be extracted...
May 21, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792986/model-based-nir-spectroscopy-implementation-for-in-line-assay-monitoring-during-a-pharmaceutical-suspension-manufacturing-process
#7
Maxim Verstraeten, Daan Van Hauwermeiren, Mario Hellings, Eline Hermans, Jeroen Geens, Chris Vervaet, Ingmar Nopens, Thomas De Beer
The implementation of Process Analytical Technology (PAT) instruments is generally achieved stochastically. Sub-optimal PAT locations could introduce variation in the measurements which is not related to the analyte of interest. For this reason, rational approaches should be considered to establish an optimal sensor placement where relevant measurements are possible and the impact of disturbances is minimized. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate how mechanistic modelling can support appropriate sensor implementation by means of a case study...
May 21, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792918/translational-omics-future-potential-and-current-challenges-in-precision-medicine
#8
Arsalan Wafi, Reza Mirnezami
Rapid advances in computational science and biotechnology are paving the way for precision medicine - a vision in next-generation healthcare that promises to provide a care package uniquely tailored to each individual's molecular make-up. Until relatively recently, the focus has been firmly centred around the genome; however, over the past two decades there has been a surge in the study of molecular activity within other biological domains (proteome/transcriptome/metabolome) involved in health and pathogenesis...
May 21, 2018: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792917/storage-visualization-and-navigation-of-3d-genomics-data
#9
Jérôme Waldispühl, Eric Zhang, Alexander Butyaev, Elena Nazarova, Yan Cyr
The field of 3D genomics grew at increasing rates in the last decade. The volume and complexity of 2D and 3D data produced is progressively outpacing the capacities of the technology previously used for distributing genome sequences. The emergence of new technologies provides also novel opportunities for the development of innovative approaches. In this paper, we review the state-of-the-art computing technology, as well as the solutions adopted by the platforms currently available.
May 21, 2018: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792913/comparison-of-cerebral-ventricular-volumes-and-cortical-thicknesses-in-normal-rats-and-genetic-absence-epilepsy-gaers-a-developmental-study
#10
Özlem Kirazlı, Hüsniye Hacıoğlu Bay, Yusuf Özgür Çakmak, Filiz Onat, Safiye Çavdar
Ventricular enlargement and cortical atrophy have been associated with various central nervous system diseases. The aim of the present study was to measure the volumes of the lateral (LV) and third (3V) ventricles and to determine the cortical thickness for the motor (MCx), somatosensory (SSCx), visual (VCx) and auditory (AuCx) cortex and the striatum of Wistar rats, in a developmental series at 10, 20, 30, and 60 days postnatal, and to compare them with similar data from genetic absence epilepsy rats from Strasbourg (GAERS)...
May 21, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792747/interpretation-time-using-a-concurrent-read-computer-aided-detection-system-for-automated-breast-ultrasound-in-breast-cancer-screening-of-women-with-dense-breast-tissue
#11
Yulei Jiang, Marc F Inciardi, Alexandra V Edwards, John Papaioannou
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare diagnostic accuracy and interpretation time of screening automated breast ultrasound (ABUS) for women with dense breast tissue without and with use of a recently U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved computer-aided detection (CAD) system for concurrent read. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a retrospective observer performance study, 18 radiologists interpreted a cancer-enriched set (i.e., cancer prevalence higher than in the original screening cohort) of 185 screening ABUS studies (52 with and 133 without breast cancer)...
May 24, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792732/phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-isoforms-play-key-roles-in-metastasis-of-prostate-cancer-du145-cells
#12
Zhe Zhang, Jie Liu, Yingying Wang, Xiao Tan, Wennan Zhao, Xiaoxue Xing, Yuling Qiu, Ran Wang, Meihua Jin, Guanwei Fan, Ping Zhang, Yuxu Zhong, Dexin Kong
Metastasis is the main cause of the lethality of prostate cancer. Class I phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3Ks), which contain 4 isoforms, α, β, δ, and γ, are known to play important roles in cell growth, migration, invasion, and so on. However, the respective role of each PI3K isoform in cancer cell migration and invasion remains unknown. In a study that aimed to elucidate the respective role of the 4 PI3K isoforms, we investigated the change in migratory and invasive ability of DU145 cells after treatment with each PI3K isoform-specific inhibitor...
May 24, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792729/90-kvp-low-tube-voltage-ct-pulmonary-angiography-in-combination-with-advanced-modelled-iterative-reconstruction-algorithm-effects-on-radiation-dose-image-quality-and-diagnostic-accuracy-for-the-detection-of-pulmonary-embolism
#13
Doris Leithner, Tatjana Gruber-Rouh, Martin Beeres, Julian L Wichmann, Scherwin Mahmoudi, Simon S Martin, Lukas Lenga, Moritz H Albrecht, Christian Booz, Thomas J Vogl, Jan-Erik Scholtz
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate low-tube-voltage 90-kVp computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) with advanced modelled iterative reconstruction algorithm (Admire) compared to 120-kVp equivalent dual-energy acquisition with regards to radiation exposure, image quality, and diagnostic accuracy for pulmonary embolism (PE) assessment. METHODS: CTPA studies of 40 patients with suspected PE (56.7 ± 16.3 years) performed on a third-generation 192-slice dual-source CT scanner were retrospectively included...
May 24, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792720/-experimental-processing-of-corrosion-casts-of-large-animal-organs
#14
R Pálek, V Liška, L Eberlová, H Mírka, M Svoboda, S Haviar, M Emingr, O Brzoň, P Mik, V Třeška
INTRODUCTION: Corrosion casts (CCs) are used for the visualization and assessment of hollow structures. CCs with filled capillaries enable (with the help of imaging methods) to obtain data for mathematical organ perfusion modelling. As the processing is more difficult in case of organs with greater volume of the vasculature, mainly organs from small animals have been cast up to now. The aim of this study was to optimize the protocol of corrosion casting of different organs of pig. Porcine organs are relatively easily accessible and frequently used in experimental medicine...
2018: Rozhledy V Chirurgii: Měsíčník Československé Chirurgické Společnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792713/gan-nanowire-arrays-for-efficient-optical-read-out-and-optoelectronic-control-of-nv-centers-in-diamond
#15
Martin Hetzl, Jakob Wierzbowski, Theresa Hoffmann, Max Kraut, Verena Zuerbig, Christoph E Nebel, Kai Müller, Jonathan J Finley, Martin Stutzmann
Solid state quantum emitters embedded in a semiconductor crystal environment are potentially scalable platforms for quantum optical networks operated at room temperature. Prominent representatives are nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond showing coherent entanglement and interference with each other. However, these emitters suffer from inefficient optical outcoupling from the diamond and from fluctuations of their charge state. Here, we demonstrate the implementation of regular n-type gallium nitride nanowire arrays on diamond as photonic waveguides to tailor the emission direction of surface-near NV centers and to electrically control their charge state in a p-i-n nano-diode...
May 24, 2018: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792707/nano-scale-conductive-filament-with-alternating-rectification-as-an-artificial-synapse-building-block
#16
Dan Berco, Yu Zhou, Sankara Rao Gollu, Pranav Sairam Kalaga, Abhisek Kole, Mohamed Hassan, Diing Shenp Ang
A popular approach for resistive memory (RRAM) based hardware implementation of neural networks utilizes one (or two) device that functions as an analog synapse in a crossbar structure of perpendicular pre- and post-synaptic neurons. An ideal fully automated, large scale artificial neural network, that matches a biologic counterpart (in terms of density and energy consumption), thus requires nano sized, extremely low power devices with a wide dynamic range and multi level functionality. Unfortunately the tradeoff between these traits proves to be a serious obstacle in the realization of brain inspired computing platforms yet to be overcome...
May 24, 2018: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792704/double-hydrogen-atom-exchange-reactions-of-hx-x-f-cl-br-i-with-ho2
#17
Rex T Skodje, Jonathan R Church
A novel double hydrogen atom exchange process, HX+H'O2H'X+HO2 for the halogen series X=F, Cl, Br, and I, is identified using theoretical methods. These concerted reactions are mediated through a stabilized five-member planar ring transition state structure. The transition state barrier for the double exchange process is found to be significantly lower than that for the abstraction reaction of a single hydrogen atom, . Density functional theory employing the M11 exchange functional is used to compute parameters of the potential energy surface and the rate coefficients are obtained using transition state theory with small curvature tunneling...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792683/top-down-deep-sequencing-of-ubiquitin-using-two-dimensional-mass-spectrometry
#18
Federico Floris, Lionel Chiron, Alice Lynch, Mark P Barrow, Marc-André Delsuc, Peter B O'Connor
Two-dimensional Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (2D FT-ICR MS or 2D MS) allows data independent fragmentation of all ions in a sample, and correlation of fragment ions to their precursors without isolation prior to fragmentation. Developments in computer capabilities and implementations in FTMS over of the last decade have allowed the technique to become a useful analytical tool for bottom-up proteomics (BUP), and more recently in top-down protein analysis (TDP). In this work, a new method of TDP is developed using two-dimensional mass spectrometry, called MS/2D FT-ICR MS or MS/2DMS...
May 24, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792674/partial-intrinsic-disorder-governs-the-dengue-capsid-protein-conformational-ensemble
#19
Priscilla L S Boon, Wuan Geok Saw, Xin Xiang Lim, Palur Venkata Raghuvamsi, Roland G Huber, Jan K Marzinek, Daniel A Holdbrook, Ganesh S Anand, Gerhard Grüber, Peter J Bond
The 11 kDa, positively charged dengue capsid protein (C protein) exists stably as a homodimer and co-localizes with the viral genome within mature viral particles. Its core is composed of four alpha helices encompassing a small hydrophobic patch that may interact with lipids, but approximately 20% of the protein at the N-terminus is intrinsically disordered, making it challenging to elucidate its conformational landscape. Here, we combine small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), amide hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDXMS), and atomic-resolution molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to probe the dynamics of dengue C proteins...
May 24, 2018: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792667/control-of-selectivity-in-palladium-ii-catalyzed-oxidative-transformations-of-allenes
#20
Bin Yang, Youai Qiu, Jan-E Bäckvall
Oxidation reactions play a central role in organic synthesis, and it is highly desirable that these reactions are mild and occur under catalytic conditions. In Nature, oxidation reactions occur under mild conditions via cascade processes, and furthermore, they often occur in an enantioselective manner with many of them involving molecular oxygen or hydrogen peroxide as the terminal oxidant. Inspired by the reactions in Nature, we have developed a number of Pd(II)-catalyzed cascade reactions under mild oxidative conditions...
May 24, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
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