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Mohammad Asadi, Baharak Sayahpour, Pedram Abbasi, Anh T Ngo, Klas Karis, Jacob R Jokisaari, Cong Liu, Badri Narayanan, Marc Gerard, Poya Yasaei, Xuan Hu, Arijita Mukherjee, Kah Chun Lau, Rajeev S Assary, Fatemeh Khalili-Araghi, Robert F Klie, Larry A Curtiss, Amin Salehi-Khojin
Lithium-air batteries are considered to be a potential alternative to lithium-ion batteries for transportation applications, owing to their high theoretical specific energy. So far, however, such systems have been largely restricted to pure oxygen environments (lithium-oxygen batteries) and have a limited cycle life owing to side reactions involving the cathode, anode and electrolyte. In the presence of nitrogen, carbon dioxide and water vapour, these side reactions can become even more complex. Moreover, because of the need to store oxygen, the volumetric energy densities of lithium-oxygen systems may be too small for practical applications...
March 21, 2018: Nature
Bo Zhu, Jeremiah Z Liu, Stephen F Cauley, Bruce R Rosen, Matthew S Rosen
Image reconstruction is essential for imaging applications across the physical and life sciences, including optical and radar systems, magnetic resonance imaging, X-ray computed tomography, positron emission tomography, ultrasound imaging and radio astronomy. During image acquisition, the sensor encodes an intermediate representation of an object in the sensor domain, which is subsequently reconstructed into an image by an inversion of the encoding function. Image reconstruction is challenging because analytic knowledge of the exact inverse transform may not exist a priori, especially in the presence of sensor non-idealities and noise...
March 21, 2018: Nature
Lingyu Chen, Youxing Su, Wenbin Luo, Xuemin Hong, Jianghong Shi
The deployment density and computational power of small base stations (BSs) are expected to increase significantly in the next generation mobile communication networks. These BSs form the mobile edge network, which is a pervasive and distributed infrastructure that can empower a variety of edge/fog computing applications. This paper proposes a novel edge-computing application called explicit caching, which stores selective contents at BSs and exposes such contents to local users for interactive browsing and download...
March 22, 2018: Sensors
Safa Ouerghi, Rémi Boutteau, Xavier Savatier, Fethi Tlili
In this paper, we address the problem of vehicle localization in urban environments. We rely on visual odometry, calculating the incremental motion, to track the position of the vehicle and on place recognition to correct the accumulated drift of visual odometry, whenever a location is recognized. The algorithm used as a place recognition module is SeqSLAM, addressing challenging environments and achieving quite remarkable results. Specifically, we perform the long-term navigation of a vehicle based on the fusion of visual odometry and SeqSLAM...
March 22, 2018: Sensors
Chao-Ching Ho, Dung-Sheng Wu
Spark-assisted chemical engraving (SACE) is a non-traditional machining technology that is used to machine electrically non-conducting materials including glass, ceramics, and quartz. The processing accuracy, machining efficiency, and reproducibility are the key factors in the SACE process. In the present study, a machine vision method is applied to monitor and estimate the status of a SACE-drilled hole in quartz glass. During the machining of quartz glass, the spring-fed tool electrode was pre-pressured on the quartz glass surface to feed the electrode that was in contact with the machining surface of the quartz glass...
March 22, 2018: Materials
Ireneusz Sowa, Magdalena Wójciak-Kosior, Maciej Strzemski, Jan Sawicki, Michał Staniak, Sławomir Dresler, Wojciech Szwerc, Jarosław Mołdoch, Michał Latalski
Polyaniline (PANI) is one of the best known conductive polymers with multiple applications. Recently, it was also used in separation techniques, mostly as a component of composites for solid-phase microextraction (SPME). In the present paper, sorbent obtained by in situ polymerization of aniline directly on silica gel particles (Si-PANI) was used for dispersive solid phase extraction (d-SPE) and matrix solid-phase extraction (MSPD). The efficiency of both techniques was evaluated with the use of high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) quantitative analysis...
March 22, 2018: Materials
Peter A Muller, Jennifer L Mueller, Michelle Mellenthin, Rashmi Murthy, Michael Capps, Brandie Wagner, Melody Alsaker, Robin Deterding, Scott D Sagel, Jordana Hoppe
Lung function monitoring by spiromety plays a critical role in the clinical care of pediatric cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, but many young children are unable to perform spirometry, and the outputs are often normal even in the presence of lung disease. Measures derived from electrical impedance tomography (EIT) images were studied for their utility as potential surrogates for spirometry in CF patients and to assess response to intravenous antibiotic treatment for acute pulmonary exacerbations (PEx) in a subset of patients...
March 22, 2018: Physiological Measurement
Melissa Preissner, Rhiannon P Murrie, Isaac Pinar, Freda Werdiger, Richard P Carnibella, Graeme R Zosky, Andreas Fouras, Stephen Dubsky
We have developed an X-ray imaging system for <i>in vivo</i> four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) of small animals for pre-clinical lung investigations. Our customized laboratory facility is capable of high resolution <i>in vivo</i> imaging at high frame rates. Characterization using phantoms demonstrate a spatial resolution of slightly below 50 μm at imaging rates of 30 Hz, and the ability to quantify material density differences of at least 3%...
March 22, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Sudha Devi, Mayank Saraswat, Surbhi Grewal, Sugumar Venkataramani
The electronic and steric effects of aryl substituents, and the influence of hydrogen bonding in Z-isomer stability of phenylazopyrazole derivatives have been investigated. In this regard, 38 substituted phenylazopyrazole derivatives and six N-methyl phenylazopyrazole (with meta-substitutions) have been synthesized. Their photoswitching behavior, photostationary states (PSS) and kinetics of thermal reverse isomerization were evaluated experimentally using UV-Vis and NMR spectroscopic techniques. Furthermore, density functional theory (DFT) computations have been performed for more detailed insights...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
S M Shiels, M Bouchard, H Wang, J C Wenke
BThe use of internal intramedullary nails for long bone fracture fixation is a common practice among surgeons. Bacteria naturally attach to these devices, increasing the risk for wound infection, which can result in non- or malunion, additional surgical procedures and extended hospital stays. Intramedullary nail surface properties can be modified to reduce bacterial colonisation and potentially infectious complications. In the current study, a coating combining a non-fouling property with leaching chlorhexidine for orthopaedic implantation was tested...
March 22, 2018: European Cells & Materials
Yuannan Chen, Aimin Ren, Zhongyue Yang, Tengfei He, Xiaoli Ding, Hongxing Zhang, Luyi Zou
In this paper, we conducted DFT and TDDFT calculations on three double heteroleptic Cu(i) complexes to understand how different substituents on N^N ligands influence the phosphorescence quantum yield (PLQY). Both radiative and nonradiative decay processes were thoroughly investigated. Factors that determine the rate of radiative process (kr) were considered, including the lowest triplet excited state E(T1), the transition dipole moment MSm,j of the Sm → S0 transition, the spin-coupled matrix element SOC, and the singlet-triplet splitting energies ΔE(Sm-T1)...
March 22, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Songcheng Wang, Yi Zhang, J Carson Meredith, Sven H Behrens, Manoj Kumar Tripathi, Kirti Chandra Sahu
Air bubbles rising through an aqueous medium have been studied extensively and are routinely used for the separation of particulates via froth flotation, a key step in many industrial processes. Oil-coated bubbles can be more effective for separating hydrophilic particles with low affinity for the air-water interface, but the rise dynamics of oil-coated bubbles has not yet been explored. In the present work, we report the first systematic study of the shape and rise trajectory of bubbles engulfed in a layer of oil...
March 22, 2018: Soft Matter
Zeinab El-Taher Hassan, Nehad M Farag, Wael M Elshemey
This work aims at designing a computer program to calculate the necessary amount of shielding for a given or proposed linear accelerator room design in radiotherapy. The program (Shield Calculation in Radiotherapy, SCR) is developed using Microsoft Visual Basic. It applies the treatment room shielding calculations of the NCRP report no. 151 to calculate proper shielding thicknesses for a given linear accelerator treatment room design. The program is composed of six main user-friendly interfaces. The first one enables the user to upload whatever treatment room design of his choice and to measure the distances required for shielding calculations...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
Bamigboye J Taiwo, Olujide O Olubiyi, Fanie R van Heerden
Nigerian medicinal plants have been demonstrated to be veritable source of lead compounds for drug discovery efforts. One such example is mangiferin. Mangiferin was originally isolated from the Nigerian plant Ceiba pentandra (Mombacaceae), after which its structure was elucidated with the aid of spectroscopy. Mangiferin, a xanthone glycoside, has also been reported in certain other plant families including Gentianaceae and Anacardiaceae. In certain other climes and different parts of the world, folkloric and traditional medicine has extensively employed Mangifera indica (another source of mangiferin) in treating different diseases...
March 20, 2018: Current Computer-aided Drug Design
Nuria Garzón, Manuel Rodríguez-Vallejo, David Carmona, Jorge A Calvo-Sanz, Francisco Poyales, Carlos Palomino, Miguel Á Zato-Gómez de Liaño, Joaquín Fernández
PURPOSE: To evaluate surgically induced astigmatism as computed by means of either simulated keratometry (KSIM ) or total corneal refractive power (TCRP) after temporal incisions. METHODS: Prospective observational study including 36 right eyes undergoing cataract surgery. Astigmatism was measured preoperatively during the 3-month follow-up period using Pentacam. Surgically induced astigmatism was computed considering anterior corneal surface astigmatism at 3 mm with KSIM and considering both corneal surfaces with TCRP from 1 to 8 mm (TCRP3 for 3 mm)...
March 1, 2018: European Journal of Ophthalmology
Daniel Blasco, José M López-de-Luzuriaga, Miguel Monge, M Elena Olmos, David Pascual, María Rodríguez-Castillo
Two water-soluble [Au(9 N-adeninate)(PR3 )] complexes (PR3 = PMe3 (1); PTA (3)) were synthesized by the coordination of the respective cationic [Au(PR3 )]+ fragment to the9 N position of the adeninate anion. Both complexes crystallize as dimers by aurophilic contacts of 3.2081(6) Å in 1 and 3.0942(7) and 3.0969(7) Å in 3, but different packings are observed due to the crystallizing solvent choice and the nature of the ancillary phosphine ligand. At this regard, different supramolecular behavior is observed in water, ranges from the formation of ultrathin nanowires of 5...
March 22, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Marta Oñate Miranda, Thomas P Moser
Percutaneous approaches for pelvic bone procedures (bone biopsies, tumour ablation and cementoplasty) are multiple and less well systematised than for the spine or extremities. Among the different imaging techniques that can be used for guidance, computed tomography (CT) scan is the modality of choice because of the complex pelvic anatomy. In specific cases, such as cementoplasty where real-time evaluation is a determinant, a combination of CT and fluoroscopy is highly recommended. The objective of this article is to propose a systematic approach for image-guided pelvic bone procedures, as well as to provide some technical tips...
March 21, 2018: Insights Into Imaging
Takeshi Urade, Hidehiro Sawa, Koichi Murata, Yasuhiko Mii, Yoshiteru Iwatani, Ryoko Futai, Shohei Abe, Tsuyoshi Sanuki, Yukiko Morinaga, Daisuke Kuroda
Omental abscess due to a spilled gallstone is extremely rare after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Herein, we report a 68-year-old man who presented with left upper abdominal pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy for gangrenous cholecystitis. Seven months prior to admission, gallbladder perforation with spillage of pigment gallstones and bile occurred during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The spilled gallstones were retrieved through vigorous peritoneal lavage. Abdominal computed tomography showed a 3 × 2...
March 21, 2018: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
Teresa S Henriques, Madalena D Costa, Pooja Mathur, Priyam Mathur, Roger B Davis, Murray A Mittleman, Kamal R Khabbaz, Ary L Goldberger, Balachundhar Subramaniam
Complexity measures are intended to assess the cardiovascular system's capacity to respond to stressors. We sought to determine if decreased BP complexity is associated with increased estimated risk as obtained from two standard instruments: the Society of Thoracic Surgeons' (STS) Risk of Mortality and Morbidity Index and the European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation Score (EuroSCORE II). In this observational cohort study, preoperative systolic, diastolic, mean (MAP) and pulse pressure (PP) time series were derived in 147 patients undergoing cardiac surgery...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
Emanuela Risi, Andrea Grilli, Ilenia Migliaccio, Chiara Biagioni, Amelia McCartney, Cristina Guarducci, Martina Bonechi, Matteo Benelli, Stefania Vitale, Laura Biganzoli, Silvio Bicciato, Angelo Di Leo, Luca Malorni
PURPOSE: HER2-positive (HER2+) breast cancers show heterogeneous response to chemotherapy, with the ER-positive (ER+) subgroup deriving less benefit. Loss of retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene (RB1) function has been suggested as a cardinal feature of breast cancers that are more sensitive to chemotherapy and conversely resistant to CDK4/6 inhibitors. We performed a retrospective analysis exploring RBsig, a gene signature of RB loss, as a potential predictive marker of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in ER+/HER2+ breast cancer patients...
March 22, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
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