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Saline hypertonic preparing

Sandra D Anderson, Evangelia Daviskas, John D Brannan, Hak Kim Chan
The story of how we came to use inhaled mannitol to diagnose asthma and to treat cystic fibrosis began when we were looking for a surrogate for exercise as a stimulus to identify asthma. We had proposed that exercise-induced asthma was caused by an increase in osmolarity of the periciliary fluid. We found hypertonic saline to be a surrogate for exercise but an ultrasonic nebuliser was required. We produced a dry powder of sodium chloride but it proved unstable. We developed a spray dried preparation of mannitol and found that bronchial responsiveness to inhaling mannitol identified people with currently active asthma...
April 4, 2018: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
Juliana Moura Costa, João Bruno Soares
INTRODUCTION: Bowel preparation for colonoscopy and/or colorectal surgery can cause electrolyte imbalances. The risk of electrolyte imbalances seems to be related to the type of bowel cleansing solution, age of patients and comorbidities. CASE REPORT: We report two cases of symptomatic hyponatremia (focal neurological signs and coma) after bowel preparation with sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate for colonoscopy. In both cases, symptoms related to hyponatremia rapidly disappeared after sodium level correction with intravenous administration of hypertonic saline (3% NaCl)...
November 29, 2017: Acta Médica Portuguesa
Nili Elior, Diana Tasher, Elli Somekh, Michal Stein, Orna Schwartz Harari, Avigdor Mandelberg
BACKGROUND: Nebulized hypertonic saline (HS) treatment is unavailable to large populations worldwide. OBJECTIVES: To determine the bacterial contamination and electrolyte concentrations in homemade (HM-HS) vs. pharmacy made (PM-HS). METHODS: We conducted three double-blind consecutive trials: 50 boiled-water homemade 3%-HS (B-HM-HS) bottles and 50 PM-HS. The bottles were cultured after 48 hours. Electrolyte concentrations were measured in 10 bottles (5 per group)...
December 2017: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
Gisele Façanha Diógenes Teixeira, Flávio Nogueira da Costa, Adriana Rolim Campos
CONTEXT: (-)-α-Bisabolol (BISA) is a sesquiterpene alcohol widely used as scent in cosmetic preparations, perfumes, shampoos, toilet soaps and other toiletries with potential for use in the pharmaceutical area. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the corneal antinociceptive efficacy of BISA and to analyze the best solubilizing agent. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Acute corneal nociception was induced by the local application of hypertonic saline (5 M NaCl; 20 μL) to the corneal surface of Swiss mice (n = 8/group) 60 min after topical treatment with solutions or ointment containing BISA (50-200 mg/mL)...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
Martin Windpessl, Christoph Schwarz, Manfred Wallner
BACKGROUND: Symptomatic hyponatremia is considered a rare complication of oral bowel preparation for colonoscopy. The pathophysiology underlying this phenomenon has been widely regarded as a mere sequela of excessive arginine vasopressin (AVP) release. CASE PRESENTATION: This case describes a 61-year old woman who developed acute hyponatremic encephalopathy when preparing for elective outpatient lower endoscopy. She had had negligible oral solute intake for two days and ingested four liters of clear fluid within two hours...
February 7, 2017: BMC Nephrology
Z J Wang, H X Wang, L Li, L Wang, H H Dou
We investigated the influence of different fluid resuscitation techniques on the number of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in rats. Seventy-two healthy Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into groups that received sham operation (Sham group), hypertonic saline (HRS group), lactated ringer's solution (LRS group), or crystalloid solution (LCRS group). Six rats from each group were sacrificed by cervical dislocation at 12, 24, and 48 h after resuscitation. The spleens were harvested under sterile conditions and spleen cell suspension was prepared...
April 28, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Cynthia A Gossman, David M Linn, Cindy Linn
Glaucoma is a disease of the central nervous system affecting retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). RGC axons making up the optic nerve carry visual input to the brain for visual perception. Damage to RGCs and their axons leads to vision loss and/or blindness. Although the specific cause of glaucoma is unknown, the primary risk factor for the disease is an elevated intraocular pressure. Glaucoma-inducing procedures in animal models are a valuable tool to researchers studying the mechanism of RGC death. Such information can lead to the development of effective neuroprotective treatments that could aid in the prevention of vision loss...
March 12, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Sandra D Anderson
Indirect challenges act to provoke bronchoconstriction by causing the release of endogenous mediators and are used to identify airway hyper-responsiveness. This paper reviews the historical development of challenges, with exercise, eucapnic voluntary hyperpnoea (EVH) of dry air, wet hypertonic saline, and with dry powder mannitol, that preceded their use in clinical practice. The first challenge developed for clinical use was exercise. Physicians were keen for a standardized test to identify exercise-induced asthma (EIA) and to assess the effect of drugs such as disodium cromoglycate...
2016: European Clinical Respiratory Journal
Elliot T Hardy, Scott P Stringer, Richard O'Callaghan, Angela Arana, Michael A Bierdeman, Warren L May
BACKGROUND: Saline nasal irrigations (SNI) are an important adjunct in the treatment of rhinosinusitis, and many patients prepare and store these solutions in their homes without an awareness of the potential for contamination. The objectives of this study were to determine if such contamination occurs and the effect of preparation methods on contamination. METHODS: Stock solutions of various tonicities and pHs were prepared using boiled, bottled, and distilled water (n = 57)...
February 2016: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
Yu Chen, Yi Bao, Jingping Zhang, Tobias Woehrle, Yuka Sumi, Stephan Ledderose, Xiaoou Li, Carola Ledderose, Wolfgang G Junger
Hypertonic saline (HS) resuscitation has been studied as a possible strategy to reduce polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) activation and tissue damage in trauma patients. Hypertonic saline blocks PMNs by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) release and stimulation of A2a adenosine receptors. Here, we studied the underlying mechanisms in search of possible reasons for the inconsistent results of recent clinical trials with HS resuscitation. Purified human PMNs or PMNs in whole blood were treated with HS to simulate hypertonicity levels found after HS resuscitation (40 mmol/L beyond isotonic levels)...
September 2015: Shock
Anil Kumar Gangwar, Naveen Kumar, Sangeeta Devi Khangembam, Vineet Kumar, Rajendra Singh
Rat skins were deepithelialized and decellularized by hypertonic saline and sodium deoxycholate (SDC), respectively. Primary chicken embryo fibroblasts (P-CEF) were cultured and seeded on prepared acellular dermal matrix (ADM). A full thickness skin defect (20×20 mm(2)) was created in thirty-six rats and randomly divided into three equal groups. Defect was left open, repaired with ADM and ADM seeded with P-CEF (3-D ADM) in groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively. By day 28, the treated wounds healed completely without scar...
June 2015: Tissue & Cell
Melissa A MacIver, Matthew Johnson
This article reports the development of a novel cadaveric model for future use in teaching arthrocentesis. In the clinical setting, animal safety is essential and practice is thus limited. Objectives of the study were to develop and compare a model to an unmodified cadaver by injecting one of two types of fluids to increase yield. The two fluids injected, mineral oil (MO) and hypertonic saline (HS), were compared to determine any difference on yield. Lastly, aspiration immediately after (T1) or three hours after (T2) injection were compared to determine any effect on diagnostic yield...
2015: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
Ralf M Dutescu, Claudia Panfil, Norbert Schrage
PURPOSE: Little is known about how the osmolarity of ophthalmic formulations affects the ocular surface. Because hyperosmolar eye drops could be therapeutic for treating corneal edema, this article presents an ex vivo model of corneal edema for testing ophthalmic drugs based on their osmolarity. The respective osmolarity of common eye drops found in the German market is also analyzed here. METHODS: For modeling corneal edema, an Ex Vivo Eye Irritation Test was used to simulate an ocular anterior chamber with a physiological corneal barrier...
May 2015: Cornea
Jakub Furmaga, Paul Wax, Kurt Kleinschmidt
INTRODUCTION: Intravenous N-acetylcysteine (NAC) causes few adverse drug events, with mild anaphylactoid reactions being the most common. Hyponatremia as a complication of hypoosmolar NAC solution has been reported. We describe how a locally constructed electronic medical record (EMR) order set for IV NAC resulted in a seizure from hyponatremia due to excess free water administration. CASE REPORT: A 13-month-old female with no past medical history presented to a hospital after ingesting an unknown number of acetaminophen 500 mg tablets...
September 2015: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
Ranthilaka R Ranawaka, Hema S Weerakoon, S H Padmal de Silva
BACKGROUND: Intralesional 7% hypertonic saline (HS) has been shown to be effective and safe against Leishmania donovani and Leishmania major cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), with cure rates of 92% and 96%, respectively. This study was designed to assess the efficacy and safety of 10% and 15% HS in CL. METHODS: A total of 444 patients (643 lesions) were randomly allocated to sodium stibogluconate (SSG), 10% HS and 15% HS at a ratio of 2 : 2 : 1, taking into consideration any unwanted side effects that might arise with 15% HS...
2015: International Journal of Dermatology
Masaaki Ando, Yoshio Takei
Guanylin (GN) action on seawater eel intestine was examined under simulated in vivo conditions, where isotonic luminal fluid has low NaCl and high MgSO4 (MgSO4 Ringer). In Ussing chamber, MgSO4 Ringer induced serosa-negative potential difference (PD) even after bumetanide treatment, which is due to the higher paracellular Na(+) permeability over Cl(-), as confirmed by the replacement by MgCl2 (no Cl(-) gradient) or Na2SO4 Ringer (no Na(+) gradient). Luminal GN reversed serosa-negative PD, probably by enhancing Cl(-) secretion into the lumen, as the GN effect was blocked by apical Cl(-) channel blockers [diphenylamine-2-carboxylic acid (DPC), 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino) benzoic acid, glibenclamide but not cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR)inh-172] or replacement of luminal fluid by MgCl2 Ringer...
March 1, 2015: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Elaine C Johnson, William O Cepurna, Dongseok Choi, Tiffany E Choe, John C Morrison
PURPOSE: Optic nerve injury has been found to be dramatically reduced in a genetic mouse glaucoma model following exposure to sublethal, head-only irradiation. In this study, the same radiation treatment was used prior to experimental induction of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) to determine if radiation is neuroprotective in another glaucoma model. METHODS: Episcleral vein injection of hypertonic saline was used to elevate IOP unilaterally in two groups of rats: (1) otherwise untreated and (2) radiation pretreated, n > 25/group...
December 18, 2014: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Sun-Hye Ko, Chul-Hyun Lim, Jae-Young Kim, Seung Hun Kang, Myong Ki Baeg, Hyun Jin Oh
Colonoscopic screening has been reported to reduce deaths from colorectal cancer. Adequate bowel preparation is essential for this and safety is an important issue in choosing the methods. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is regarded as a safe method for cleansing, especially compared with oral sodium phosphate. Here, we present a case of hyponatremia caused by the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (ADH) syndrome after PEG precolonoscopic cleansing resulting in generalized tonic-clonic seizures. A 62-year-old women had ingested PEG for precolonoscopic bowel cleansing...
September 14, 2014: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Zunmin Du, Haipeng Jia, Jing Liu, Xiaomin Zhao, Wei Xu
BACKGROUND: Hydrogen-rich saline provides a high concentration of hydrogen, which selectively reduces levels of hydroxyl radicals and alleviates acute oxidative stress in many models. We investigated the protective effects and mechanisms of three different hydrogen-rich liquid resuscitation preparations on lung injury-induced uncontrolled-hemorrhagic shock (UHS) in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A UHS rat model was prepared using the method of Capone et al. of arterial bleeding and tail amputation...
January 2015: Journal of Surgical Research
Kylie J Tucker, Matthew Fels, Scott R Walker, Paul W Hodges
INTRODUCTION: The pattern of pain originating from experimentally induced low back pain appears diffuse. This may be because sensory information from low back muscles converges, sensory innervation extends over multiple vertebral levels, or people have difficulty accurately representing the painful location on standardized pain maps. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to provide insight into the perception of pain from noxious stimulation of a range of low back muscles using novel depth and location measures...
September 2014: Clinical Journal of Pain
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