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Hyperpolarized MRI

Hooman Hamedani, Stephen Kadlecek, Yi Xin, Sarmad Siddiqui, Heather Gatens, Joseph Naji, Masaru Ishii, Maurizio Cereda, Milton Rossman, Rahim Rizi
PURPOSE: To present a method for simultaneous acquisition of alveolar oxygen tension (PA O2 ), specific ventilation (SV), and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of hyperpolarized (HP) gas in the human lung, allowing reinterpretation of the PA O2 and SV maps to produce a map of oxygen uptake (R). METHOD: An imaging scheme was designed with a series of identical normoxic HP gas wash-in breaths to measure ADC, SV, PA O2 , and R in less than 2 min. Signal dynamics were fit to an iterative recursive model that regionally solved for these parameters...
October 13, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Khadija Sheikh, Fumin Guo, Dante P I Capaldi, Alexei Ouriadov, Rachel L Eddy, Sarah Svenningsen, Grace Parraga
PURPOSE: To develop and assess ultrashort echo-time (UTE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) biomarkers of lung function in asthma patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty participants including 13 healthy volunteers and 17 asthmatics provided written informed consent to UTE and pulmonary function tests in addition to hyperpolarized-noble-gas 3T MRI and computed tomography (CT) for asthmatics only. The difference in MRI signal-intensity (SI) across four lung volumes (full-expiration, functional-residual-capacity [FRC], FRC+1L, and full-inspiration) was determined on a voxel-by-voxel basis to generate dynamic proton-density (DPD) maps...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Sarah Svenningsen, Fumin Guo, David G McCormack, Grace Parraga
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Evidence-based treatment and management for patients with bronchiectasis remain challenging. There is a need for regional disease measurements as focal distribution of disease is common. Our objective was to evaluate the ability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect regional ventilation impairment and response to airway clearance therapy (ACT) in patients with noncystic fibrosis (CF) bronchiectasis, providing a new way to objectively and regionally evaluate response to therapy...
October 4, 2016: Academic Radiology
Danila A Barskiy, Aaron M Coffey, Panayiotis Nikolaou, Dmitry M Mikhaylov, Boyd M Goodson, Rosa T Branca, George J Lu, Mikhail G Shapiro, Ville-Veikko Telkki, Vladimir V Zhivonitko, Igor V Koptyug, Oleg G Salnikov, Kirill V Kovtunov, Valerii I Bukhtiyarov, Matthew S Rosen, Michael J Barlow, Shahideh Safavi, Ian P Hall, Leif Schröder, Eduard Y Chekmenev
Nuclear spin polarization can be significantly increased through the process of hyperpolarization, leading to an increase in the sensitivity of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments by 4-8 orders of magnitude. Hyperpolarized gases, unlike liquids and solids, can be more readily separated and purified from the compounds used to mediate the hyperpolarization processes. These pure hyperpolarized gases enabled many novel MRI applications including the visualization of void spaces, imaging of lung function, and remote detection...
October 6, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Lukas Ebner, Jeff Kammerman, Bastiaan Driehuys, Mark L Schiebler, Robert V Cadman, Sean B Fain
In the last two decades, functional imaging of the lungs using hyperpolarized noble gases has entered the clinical stage. Both helium ((3)He) and xenon ((129)Xe) gas have been thoroughly investigated for their ability to assess both the global and regional patterns of lung ventilation. With advances in polarizer technology and the current transition towards the widely available (129)Xe gas, this method is ready for translation to the clinic. Currently, hyperpolarized (HP) noble gas lung MRI is limited to selected academic institutions; yet, the promising results from initial clinical trials have drawn the attention of the pulmonary medicine community...
September 16, 2016: European Journal of Radiology
Ronja M Malinowski, Kasper W Lipsø, Mathilde H Lerche, Jan H Ardenkjær-Larsen
Signal enhancement by hyperpolarization is a way of overcoming the low sensitivity in magnetic resonance; MRI in particular. One of the most well-known methods, dissolution Dynamic Nuclear Polarization, has been used clinically in cancer patients. One way of ensuring a low bioburden of the hyperpolarized product is by use of a closed fluid path that constitutes a barrier to contamination. The fluid path can be filled with the pharmaceuticals, i.e. imaging agent and solvents, in a clean room, and then stored or immediately used at the polarizer...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
Atsuomi Kimura, Yukiko Yamauchi, Shota Hodono, Neil James Stewart, Osamu Hosokawa, Yu Hagiwara, Hirohiko Imai, Hideaki Fujiwara
PURPOSE: The purpose of this work was to investigate disease progression and treatment response in a murine model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) using a preclinical hyperpolarized (129) Xe (HPXe) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) strategy. METHODS: COPD phenotypes were induced in 32 mice by 10 weeks of exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Efficacy of ethyl pyruvate (EP), an anti-inflammatory drug, was investigated by administering EP to 16 of the 32 mice after 6 weeks of CS and LPS exposure...
September 30, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Esben S S Hansen, Neil J Stewart, Jim M Wild, Hans Stødkilde-Jørgensen, Christoffer Laustsen
PURPOSE: A decline in cortico-medullary osmolality gradient of the kidney may serve as an early indicator of pathological disruption of the tubular reabsorption process. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of hyperpolarized (13) C,(15) N2 -urea MRI as a biomarker of renal function in healthy porcine kidneys resembling the human physiology. METHODS: Five healthy female Danish domestic pigs (weight 30 kg) were scanned at 3 Tesla (T) using a (13) C 3D balanced steady-state MR pulse sequence following injection of hyperpolarized (13) C,(15) N2 -urea via a femoral vein catheter...
September 26, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Lukas Ebner, Mu He, Rohan S Virgincar, Timothy Heacock, Suryanarayanan S Kaushik, Matthew S Freemann, H Page McAdams, Monica Kraft, Bastiaan Driehuys
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate ventilation in mild to moderate asthmatic patients and age-matched controls using hyperpolarized (HP) Xenon magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and correlate findings with pulmonary function tests (PFTs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This single-center, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant prospective study was approved by our institutional review board. Thirty subjects (10 young asthmatic patients, 26 ± 6 years; 3 males, 7 females; 10 older asthmatic patients, 64 ± 6 years; 3 males, 7 females; 10 healthy controls) were enrolled...
September 22, 2016: Investigative Radiology
Yanfei Wang, Ivan J Dmochowski
Molecular imaging holds considerable promise for elucidating biological processes in normal physiology as well as disease states, by determining the location and relative concentration of specific molecules of interest. Proton-based magnetic resonance imaging ((1)H MRI) is nonionizing and provides good spatial resolution for clinical imaging but lacks sensitivity for imaging low-abundance (i.e., submicromolar) molecular markers of disease or environments with low proton densities. To address these limitations, hyperpolarized (hp) (129)Xe NMR spectroscopy and MRI have emerged as attractive complementary methodologies...
October 18, 2016: Accounts of Chemical Research
Charles H Cunningham, Justin Y Lau, Albert P Chen, Benjamin J Geraghty, William J Perks, Idan Roifman, Graham A Wright, Kim A Connelly
RATIONALE: Altered cardiac energetics is known to play an important role in the progression towards heart failure. A non-invasive method for imaging metabolic markers that could be used in longitudinal studies would be useful for understanding therapeutic approaches that target metabolism. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the first hyperpolarized (13)C metabolic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the human heart. METHODS AND RESULTS: Four healthy subjects underwent conventional proton cardiac MRI followed by (13)C imaging and spectroscopic acquisition immediately following intravenous administration of a 0...
September 15, 2016: Circulation Research
Mu He, Bastiaan Driehuys, Loretta G Que, Yuh-Chin T Huang
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Ventilation heterogeneity is impossible to detect with spirometry. Alternatively, pulmonary ventilation can be imaged three-dimensionally using inhaled (129)Xe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To date, such images have been quantified primarily based on ventilation defects. Here, we introduce a robust means to transform (129)Xe MRI scans such that the underlying ventilation distribution and its heterogeneity can be quantified. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Quantitative (129)Xe ventilation MRI was conducted in 12 younger (24...
September 8, 2016: Academic Radiology
Per Mose Nielsen, Esben Søvsø Szocska Hansen, Thomas Stokholm Nørlinger, Rikke Nørregaard, Lotte Bonde Bertelsen, Hans Stødkilde Jørgensen, Christoffer Laustsen
PURPOSE: The aim of this work was to investigate whether hyperpolarized (13) C,(15) N2 -urea can be used as an imaging marker of renal injury in renal unilateral ischemic reperfusion injury (IRI), given that urea is correlated with the renal osmotic gradient, which describes the renal function. METHODS: Hyperpolarized three-dimensional balanced steady-state (13) C magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) experiments alongside kidney function parameters and quantitative polymerase chain reaction measurements were performed in rats subjected to unilateral renal ischemia for 60-minute and 24-hour reperfusion...
November 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Nicholas Whiting, Jingzhe Hu, Niki M Zacharias, Ganesh L R Lokesh, David E Volk, David G Menter, Rajesha Rupaimoole, Rebecca Previs, Anil K Sood, Pratip Bhattacharya
Silicon-based nanoparticles are ideally suited for use as biomedical imaging agents due to their biocompatibility, biodegradability, and simple surface chemistry that facilitates drug loading and targeting. A method of hyperpolarizing silicon particles using dynamic nuclear polarization, which increases magnetic resonance imaging signals by several orders-of-magnitude through enhanced nuclear spin alignment, has recently been developed to allow silicon particles to function as contrast agents for in vivo magnetic resonance imaging...
July 2016: Journal of Medical Imaging
Shota Hodono, Hirohiko Imai, Yukiko Yamauchi, Ayano Kawamura, Hironobu Matsumoto, Shintaro Okumura, Hideaki Fujiwara, Atsuomi Kimura
The use of a quenching gas, isobutene, with a low vapor pressure was investigated to enhance the utility of hyperpolarized (129) Xe (HP Xe) MRI. Xenon mixed with isobutene was hyperpolarized using a home-built apparatus for continuously producing HP Xe. The isobutene was then readily liquefied and separated almost totally by continuous condensation at about 173 K, because the vapor pressure of isobutene (0.247 kPa) is much lower than that of Xe (157 kPa). Finally, the neat Xe gas was continuously delivered to mice by spontaneous inhalation...
October 2016: NMR in Biomedicine
Laura L Walkup, Robert P Thomen, Teckla G Akinyi, Erin Watters, Kai Ruppert, John P Clancy, Jason C Woods, Zackary I Cleveland
BACKGROUND: Hyperpolarized (129)Xe is a promising contrast agent for MRI of pediatric lung function, but its safety and tolerability in children have not been rigorously assessed. OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility, safety and tolerability of hyperpolarized (129)Xe gas as an inhaled contrast agent for pediatric pulmonary MRI in healthy control subjects and in children with cystic fibrosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventeen healthy control subjects (ages 6-15 years, 11 boys) and 11 children with cystic fibrosis (ages 8-16 years, 4 boys) underwent (129)Xe MRI, receiving up to three doses of (129)Xe gas prepared by either a commercially available or a homebuilt (129)Xe polarizer...
August 5, 2016: Pediatric Radiology
Aaron M Coffey, Roman V Shchepin, Milton L Truong, Ken Wilkens, Wellington Pham, Eduard Y Chekmenev
An open-source hyperpolarizer producing (13)C hyperpolarized contrast agents using parahydrogen induced polarization (PHIP) for biomedical and other applications is presented. This PHIP hyperpolarizer utilizes an Arduino microcontroller in conjunction with a readily modified graphical user interface written in the open-source processing software environment to completely control the PHIP hyperpolarization process including remotely triggering an NMR spectrometer for efficient production of payloads of hyperpolarized contrast agent and in situ quality assurance of the produced hyperpolarization...
August 16, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Kirill V Kovtunov, Alexey S Romanov, Oleg G Salnikov, Danila A Barskiy, Eduard Y Chekmenev, Igor V Koptyug
(1)H MRI of gases can potentially enable functional lung imaging to probe gas ventilation and other functions. In this work, (1)H MR images of hyperpolarized and thermally polarized propane gas were obtained using UTE (ultrashort echo time) pulse sequence. A 2D image of thermally polarized propane gas with ~0.9×0.9 mm(2) spatial resolution was obtained in less than 2 seconds, demonstrating that even non-hyperpolarized hydrocarbon gases can be successfully utilized for conventional proton MRI. The experiments were also performed with hyperpolarized propane gas and demonstrated acquisition of high-resolution multi-slice FLASH 2D images in ca...
March 2016: Tomography: a Journal for Imaging Research
Robert P Thomen, Laura L Walkup, David J Roach, Zackary I Cleveland, John P Clancy, Jason C Woods
BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disease which carries high morbidity and mortality from lung-function decline. Monitoring disease progression and treatment response in young patients is desirable, but serial imaging via CT is often considered prohibitive, and detailed functional information cannot be obtained using conventional imaging techniques. Hyperpolarized (129)Xe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can depict and quantify regional ventilation, but has not been investigated in pediatrics...
July 28, 2016: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
Shingo Matsumoto
Tumors develop a characteristic microenvironment depending on their specific genetic mutations. The direct products of mutant genes and the resulting microenvironmental changes provoke metabolic changes in the tumor. If noninvasive imaging techniques including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could be used to detect such microenvironmental and metabolic changes in tumors, we might be able to provide more effective treatment strategies for individual tumors in patients. In addition to conventional imaging techniques, this review article introduces quantitative 3D oxygen imaging using electron paramagnetic resonance imaging (EPRI) and hyperpolarized (13)C metabolic MRI and shows how these imaging techniques can help to monitor and predict tumor response to various treatments including radiation therapy and antiangiogenic agents...
2016: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
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