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hippo follicle

Jaimin S Shah, Reem Sabouni, Kamaria C Cayton Vaught, Carter M Owen, David F Albertini, James H Segars
PURPOSE: Mammalian oogenesis and folliculogenesis share a dynamic connection that is critical for gamete development. For maintenance of quiescence or follicular activation, follicles must respond to soluble signals (growth factors and hormones) and physical stresses, including mechanical forces and osmotic shifts. Likewise, mechanical processes are involved in cortical tension and cell polarity in oocytes. Our objective was to examine the contribution and influence of biomechanical signaling in female mammalian gametogenesis...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
Ikko Kawashima, Kazuhiro Kawamura
The ovary is an interesting organ that shows major structural changes within a short period of time during each reproductive cycle. Follicle development is controlled by local paracrine and systemic endocrine factors. Many hormonal and molecular analyses have been conducted to find the mechanisms underlying structural changes in ovaries, However, exact mechanisms still remain to be determined. Recent development of mechanobiology facilitates the understanding on the contribution of physical forces and changes in the mechanical properties of cells and tissues to physiology and pathophysiology...
February 2018: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine
Rachel K Severin, Xinwei Li, Kun Qian, Andreas C Mueller, Lynn Petukhova
Knowledge about genetic drivers of disease increases the efficiency of interpreting patient DNA sequence and helps to identify and prioritize biological points of intervention. Discoveries of genes with single mutations exerting substantial phenotypic impact reliably provide new biological insight, although such approaches tend to generate knowledge that is disjointed from the complexity of biological systems governed by elaborate networks. Here we sought to facilitate diagnostic sequencing for hair disorders and assess the underlying biology by compiling an archive of 684 genes discovered in studies of monogenic disorders and identifying molecular annotations enriched by them...
November 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
Ta-Hsing Hsu, Chia-Yu Yang, Tsung-Han Yeh, Yi-Chia Huang, Tsu-Wei Wang, Jenn-Yah Yu
The Hippo pathway is conserved and plays important roles in organ size control. The core components of the Hippo pathway are two kinases Hippo (Hpo), Warts (Wts), and a transcription-co-activator Yorkie (Yki). Yki activity is regulated by phosphorylation, which affects its nuclear localization and stability. To determine the role of the Hippo pathway in stem cells, we examine follicle stem cells (FSCs) in the Drosophila ovary. Yki is detected in the nucleus of FSCs. Knockdown of yki in the follicle cell lineage leads to a disruption of the follicular epithelium...
June 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
Xiaowei Lu, Song Guo, Yuan Cheng, Jae-Hong Kim, Yi Feng, Yun Feng
Previous studies showed that the protein kinase B (Akt)-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and Hippo signaling Yes-associated protein (YAP) pathways play important roles in promoting follicle growth. Additionally, other studies demonstrated that 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an upstream regulatory element of mTOR and YAP. Here, we used AMPK inhibitor (Compound C) to in vitro cultured ovaries from 10-day-old mice followed by in vivo grafting into adult hosts or to in situ treated ovaries of 3-week-old mice by intrabursal injection followed by gonadotropin stimulation...
May 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
Haifeng Ye, Xiaoyan Li, Tuochen Zheng, Chuan Hu, Zezheng Pan, Jian Huang, Jia Li, Wei Li, Yuehui Zheng
OBJECTIVE: To improve the separation, identification and cultivation of ovarian germline stem cells (OGSCs), to clarify the relationship between the Hippo signaling pathway effector YAP1 and the proliferation and differentiation of OGSCs in vitro and to identify the major contribution of Hippo signaling to ovarian function. METHODS: Two-step enzymatic separation processes and magnetic separation were used to isolate and identify OGSCs by determining the expression of Mvh, Oct4, Nanog, Fragilis and Stella markers...
2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Zhichao Lyu, Ning Qin, Thobela Louis Tyasi, Hongyan Zhu, Dehui Liu, Shuguo Yuan, Rifu Xu
The Hippo/MST signaling pathway is a critical player in controlling cell proliferation, self-renewal, differentiation, and apoptosis of most tissues and organs in diverse species. Previous studies have shown that Salvador homolog 1 (SAV1), a scaffolding protein which functions in the signaling system is expressed in mammalian ovaries and play a vital role in governing the follicle development. But the exact biological effects of chicken SAV1 in prehierarchical follicle development remain poorly understood. In the present study, we demonstrated that the SAV1 protein is predominantly expressed in the oocytes and undifferentiated granulosa cells in the various sized prehierarchical follicles of hen ovary, and the endogenous expression level of SAV1 mRNA appears down-regulated from the primordial follicles to the largest preovulatory follicles (F2-F1) by immunohistochemistry and real-time RT-PCR, respectively...
2016: PloS One
Delphine Fagegaltier, Ilaria Falciatori, Benjamin Czech, Stephane Castel, Norbert Perrimon, Amanda Simcox, Gregory J Hannon
Germline genes often become re-expressed in soma-derived human cancers as "cancer/testis antigens" (CTAs), and piRNA (PIWI-interacting RNA) pathway proteins are found among CTAs. However, whether and how the piRNA pathway contributes to oncogenesis in human neoplasms remain poorly understood. We found that oncogenic Ras combined with loss of the Hippo tumor suppressor pathway reactivates a primary piRNA pathway in Drosophila somatic cells coincident with oncogenic transformation. In these cells, Piwi becomes loaded with piRNAs derived from annotated generative loci, which are normally restricted to either the germline or the somatic follicle cells...
July 15, 2016: Genes & Development
Dashun Huang, Xiaojiao Li, Li Sun, Ping Huang, Hao Ying, Hui Wang, Jiarui Wu, Haiyun Song
The Hippo signalling pathway has a crucial role in growth control during development, and its dysregulation contributes to tumorigenesis. Recent studies uncover multiple upstream regulatory inputs into Hippo signalling, which affects phosphorylation of the transcriptional coactivator Yki/YAP/TAZ by Wts/Lats. Here we identify the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway as a new upstream branch of the Hippo pathway. In Drosophila, overexpression of MAPKK gene licorne (lic), or MAPKKK gene Mekk1, promotes Yki activity and induces Hippo target gene expression...
August 2016: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
Kazuhiro Kawamura, Nanami Kawamura, Aaron J W Hsueh
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Premature ovarian failure (POF) is diagnosed by amenorrhea before 40 years of age. Owing to exhaustion of follicles in POF ovaries, egg donation is the only option. Although menstrual cycles cease in POF patients, some of them still contain residual dormant follicles in ovaries. Recently, we developed a new infertility treatment and named it as in-vitro activation (IVA), which enables POF patients to conceive using their own eggs by activation of residual dormant follicles...
June 2016: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Jia Li, Fangyue Zhou, Tuochen Zheng, Zezheng Pan, Xia Liang, Jian Huang, Liping Zheng, Yuehui Zheng
BACKGROUND: The Hippo signaling pathway plays fundamental roles in stem cell maintenance in a variety of tissues and has thus implications for stem cell biology. Key components of this recently discovered pathway have been shown to be associated with primordial follicle activation. However, whether the Hippo signaling pathway plays a role in the development of Ovarian Germline Stem Cells (OGSCs) during physiological and pathological ovarian aging in mice is unknown. METHODS: Mice at the age of 7 days (7D), or of 2, 10, or 20 months (2M, 10M, 20M) and mice at 2M treated with TPT and CY/BUS drugs were selected as physiological and pathological ovarian aging models, respectively...
2015: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Tianyanxin Sun, Melissa E Pepling, Francisco J Diaz
The Hippo signaling pathway is essential for regulating proliferation and apoptosis in mammalian cells. The LATS1 kinase is a core member of the Hippo signaling pathway that phosphorylates and inactivates the transcriptional co-activators YAP1 and WWTR1. Deletion of Lats1 results in low neonate survival and ovarian stromal tumors in surviving adults, but the effects of Lats1 on early follicular development are not understood. Here, the expression of Hippo pathway components including Wwtr1, Stk4, Stk3, Lats2, and Yap1 transcripts were decreased by 50% in mouse ovaries between 2 and 8 days of age while expression was maintained from 8 days to 21 days and after priming with eCG...
July 2015: Biology of Reproduction
Ramiro Iglesias-Bartolome, Daniela Torres, Romina Marone, Xiaodong Feng, Daniel Martin, May Simaan, Min Chen, Lee S Weinstein, Susan S Taylor, Alfredo A Molinolo, J Silvio Gutkind
Genomic alterations in GNAS, the gene coding for the Gαs heterotrimeric G protein, are associated with a large number of human diseases. Here, we explored the role of Gαs on stem cell fate decisions by using the mouse epidermis as a model system. Conditional epidermal deletion of Gnas or repression of PKA signalling caused a remarkable expansion of the stem cell compartment, resulting in rapid basal-cell carcinoma formation. In contrast, inducible expression of active Gαs in the epidermis caused hair follicle stem cell exhaustion and hair loss...
June 2015: Nature Cell Biology
Nashwa Elshaer, Maria-Dolors Piulachs
BACKGROUND INFORMATION: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signalling is crucial for the regulation of multiple developmental processes. Its function in relation to insect oogenesis has been thoroughly studied in the fly Drosophila melanogaster, which possesses ovaries of the highly modified meroistic type. Conversely, studies in other insect species with different ovary types are scarce. We have studied EGFR functions in the oogenesis of the cockroach Blattella germanica, a phylogenetically basal insect with panoistic ovaries...
August 2015: Biology of the Cell
Georgina C Fletcher, Ahmed Elbediwy, Ichha Khanal, Paulo S Ribeiro, Nic Tapon, Barry J Thompson
The Spectrin cytoskeleton is known to be polarised in epithelial cells, yet its role remains poorly understood. Here, we show that the Spectrin cytoskeleton controls Hippo signalling. In the developing Drosophila wing and eye, loss of apical Spectrins (alpha/beta-heavy dimers) produces tissue overgrowth and mis-regulation of Hippo target genes, similar to loss of Crumbs (Crb) or the FERM-domain protein Expanded (Ex). Apical beta-heavy Spectrin binds to Ex and co-localises with it at the apical membrane to antagonise Yki activity...
April 1, 2015: EMBO Journal
Yuan Cheng, Yi Feng, Lina Jansson, Yorino Sato, Masashi Deguchi, Kazuhiro Kawamura, Aaron J Hsueh
Hippo signaling pathway consists of conserved serine/threonine kinases to maintain optimal organ sizes. Studies have demonstrated that fragmentation of murine ovaries increases actin polymerization and disrupts Hippo signaling, leading to nuclear translocation of Hippo signaling effector Yes-associated protein (YAP) in ovarian follicles and follicle growth. For patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome showing follicle arrest, ovarian wedge resection and laser drilling promote follicle growth. Because these damaging procedures likely involve actin polymerization, we tested whether actin polymerization-promoting drugs could promote YAP translocation and stimulate follicle growth...
June 2015: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Cheng Xiang, Jia Li, Liaoliao Hu, Jian Huang, Tao Luo, Zhisheng Zhong, Yuehui Zheng, Liping Zheng
BACKGROUND: The Hippo signaling pathway, a highly conserved cell signaling system, exists in most multicellular organisms and regulates cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. It has been reported that the members of Hippo signaling are expressed in mammalian ovaries, but the exact functions of this pathway in primordial follicle development remains unclear. METHODS: To analyze the spatio-temporal correlation between the core component of Hippo pathway and the size of primordial follicle pool, Western blot, Real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry were used, and the expression and localization of MST1, LATS2 and YAP1 mRNA and protein were examined in 3 d, 1 m, 5 m, 16 m postnatal mice ovary and the culture model of mice primordial follicle in vitro...
2015: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Kenneth Kin Lam Wong, Wenyang Li, Yanru An, Yangyang Duan, Zhuoheng Li, Yibin Kang, Yan Yan
Emerging evidence suggests functional regulation of the Hippo pathway by the actin cytoskeleton, although the detailed molecular mechanism remains incomplete. In a genetic screen, we identified a requirement for β-Spectrin in the posterior follicle cells for the oocyte repolarization process during Drosophila mid-oogenesis. β-spectrin mutations lead to loss of Hippo signaling activity in the follicle cells. A similar reduction of Hippo signaling activity was observed after β-Spectrin knockdown in mammalian cells...
March 6, 2015: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Nao Suzuki, Nobuhito Yoshioka, Seido Takae, Yodo Sugishita, Midori Tamura, Shu Hashimoto, Yoshiharu Morimoto, Kazuhiro Kawamura
STUDY QUESTION: Is ovarian tissue cryopreservation using vitrification followed by in vitro activation (IVA) of dormant follicles a potential approach for infertility treatment of patients with primary ovarian insufficiency (POI)? SUMMARY ANSWER: Our vitrification approach followed by IVA treatment is a potential infertility therapy for POI patients whose ovaries contain residual follicles. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Akt (protein kinase B) stimulators [PTEN (phosphatase with TENsin homology deleted in chromosome 10) inhibitor and phosphatidyinositol-3-kinase (PI3 kinase) stimulator] activate dormant primordial follicles in vitro and ovarian fragmentation disrupts the Hippo signaling pathway, leading to the promotion of follicle growth...
March 2015: Human Reproduction
Paula Irles, Maria-Dolors Piulachs
During insect oogenesis, the follicular epithelium undergoes both cell proliferation and apoptosis, thus modulating ovarian follicle growth. The Hippo pathway is key in these processes, and has been thoroughly studied in the meroistic ovaries of Drosophila melanogaster. However, nothing is known about the role of the Hippo pathway in primitive panoistic ovaries. This work examines the mRNA expression levels of the main components of the Hippo pathway in the panoistic ovary of the basal insect species Blattella germanica, and demonstrates the function of Hippo through RNAi...
2014: PloS One
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