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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733539/epigenetic-regulation-of-glutamic-acid-decarboxylase-67-in-a-hippocampal-circuit
#1
Sivan Subburaju, Andrew J Coleman, Miles G Cunningham, W Brad Ruzicka, Francine M Benes
GABAergic dysfunction in hippocampus, a key feature of schizophrenia (SZ), may contribute to cognitive impairment in this disorder. In stratum oriens (SO) of sector CA3/2 of the human hippocampus, a network of genes involved in the regulation of glutamic acid decarboxylase GAD67 has been identified. Several of the genes in this network including epigenetic factors histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) and death-associated protein 6 (DAXX), the GABAergic enzyme GAD65 as well as the kainate receptor (KAR) subunits GluR6 and 7 show significant changes in expression in this area in SZ...
October 12, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718219/molecular-heterogeneity-of-aggrecan-based-perineuronal-nets-around-five-subclasses-of-parvalbumin-expressing-neurons-in-the-mouse-hippocampus
#2
Jun Yamada, Shozo Jinno
Subsets of GABAergic neurons are surrounded by perineuronal nets (PNNs), which play a critical role in the regulation of neural plasticity and neuroprotection. Although the plant lectin Wisteria floribunda agglutinin (WFA) has been commonly used to label PNNs, WFA only detects N-acetyl-d-galactosamine on aggrecan, a member of the lectican family. In this study, we used WFA and the antibody against the core protein of aggrecan (ACAN) to investigate the molecular heterogeneity of aggrecan-based PNNs around five subclasses of parvalbumin-expressing (PV+) γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons in the CA1 and CA3 regions of the mouse hippocampus...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660076/impaired-function-of-%C3%AE-2-containing-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-on-oriens-lacunosum-moleculare-cells-causes-hippocampus-dependent-memory-impairments
#3
Elise Kleeman, Sakura Nakauchi, Hailing Su, Richard Dang, Marcelo A Wood, Katumi Sumikawa
Children of mothers who smoked during pregnancy are at significantly greater risk for cognitive impairments including memory deficits, but the mechanisms underlying this effect remain to be understood. In rodent models of smoking during pregnancy, early postnatal nicotine exposure results in impaired long-term hippocampus-dependent memory, functional loss of α2-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α2(∗) nAChRs) in oriens-lacunosum moleculare (OLM) cells, increased CA1 network excitation, and unexpected facilitation of long-term potentiation (LTP) at Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses...
December 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27586053/aberrant-expression-of-the-pore-forming-katp-channel-subunit-kir6-2-in-hippocampal-reactive-astrocytes-in-the-3xtg-ad-mouse-model-and-human-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Chelsea M Griffith, Mi-Xin Xie, Wen-Ying Qiu, Andrew A Sharp, Chao Ma, Aihua Pan, Xiao-Xin Yan, Peter R Patrylo
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by beta-amyloid (Aβ) deposition, neurofibrillary tangles and cognitive decline. Recent pharmacologic studies have found that ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels may play a role in AD and could be a potential therapeutic target. Interestingly, these channels are found in both neurons and astrocytes. One of the hallmarks associated with AD is reactive gliosis and a change in astrocytic function has been identified in several neuropathological conditions including AD...
November 12, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27455251/revisiting-the-lamotrigine-mediated-effect-on-hippocampal-gabaergic-transmission
#5
Yu-Yin Huang, Yu-Chao Liu, Cheng-Ta Lee, Yen-Chu Lin, Mong-Lien Wang, Yi-Ping Yang, Kaung-Yi Chang, Shih-Hwa Chiou
Lamotrigine (LTG) is generally considered as a voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channel blocker. However, recent studies suggest that LTG can also serve as a hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channel enhancer and can increase the excitability of GABAergic interneurons (INs). Perisomatic inhibitory INs, predominantly fast-spiking basket cells (BCs), powerfully inhibit granule cells (GCs) in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Notably, BCs express abundant Nav channels and HCN channels, both of which are able to support sustained action potential generation...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27423018/altered-expression-of-neuronal-ccr6-during-pilocarpine-induced-status-epilepticus-in-mice
#6
Jian-Xin Liu, Xia Cao, Yong Liu, Feng-Ru Tang
Chemokine and receptor systems play important roles in different animal models of status epileptics and epileptogenesis. Here, we identified protein and gene expression of chemokine receptor 6 in the hippocampus of Swiss mice with immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR respectively. Immunohistochemical study showed that CCR6 immunopositive product was localized in different subtypes of hippocampal interneurons, in apical dendrites of pyramidal neurons of CA1 area and other laminas of the hippocampus. Strongly stained CCR6 immunopositive product was found in calbindin, calretinin, parvalbumin immunopositive interneurons in the stratum oriens of CA1 area...
October 2016: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27357310/small-conductance-calcium-activated-potassium-type-2-channels-sk2-kca2-2-in-human-brain
#7
Michael Willis, Maria Trieb, Irmgard Leitner, Georg Wietzorrek, Josef Marksteiner, Hans-Günther Knaus
SK2 (KCa2.2) channels are voltage-independent Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels that regulate neuronal excitability in brain regions important for memory formation. In this study, we investigated the distribution and expression of SK2 channels in human brain by Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. Immunoblot analysis of human brain indicated expression of four distinct SK2 channel isoforms: the standard, the long and two short isoforms. Immunohistochemistry in paraffin-embedded post-mortem brain sections was performed in the hippocampal formation, amygdala and neocortex...
June 29, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27335395/excitatory-inputs-determine-phase-locking-strength-and-spike-timing-of-ca1-stratum-oriens-alveus-parvalbumin-and-somatostatin-interneurons-during-intrinsically-generated-hippocampal-theta-rhythm
#8
Carey Y L Huh, Bénédicte Amilhon, Katie A Ferguson, Frédéric Manseau, Susana G Torres-Platas, John P Peach, Stephanie Scodras, Naguib Mechawar, Frances K Skinner, Sylvain Williams
UNLABELLED: Theta oscillations are essential for learning and memory, and their generation requires GABAergic interneurons. To better understand how theta is generated, we explored how parvalbumin (PV) and somatostatin (SOM) interneurons in CA1 stratum oriens/alveus fire during hippocampal theta and investigated synaptic mechanisms underlying their behavior. Combining the use of transgenic mice to visually identify PV and SOM interneurons and the intact hippocampal preparation that can generate theta oscillations in vitro without cholinergic agonists, we performed simultaneous field and whole-cell recordings...
June 22, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27199256/patterns-of-cell-death-in-the-perinatal-mouse-forebrain
#9
Morgan Mosley, Charisma Shah, Kiriana A Morse, Stephen A Miloro, Melissa M Holmes, Todd H Ahern, Nancy G Forger
The importance of cell death in brain development has long been appreciated, but many basic questions remain, such as what initiates or terminates the cell death period. One obstacle has been the lack of quantitative data defining exactly when cell death occurs. We recently created a "cell death atlas," using the detection of activated caspase-3 (AC3) to quantify apoptosis in the postnatal mouse ventral forebrain and hypothalamus, and found that the highest rates of cell death were seen at the earliest postnatal ages in most regions...
May 19, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27184948/morphological-and-behavioral-characterization-of-adult-mice-deficient-for-srgap3
#10
Jonathan Bertram, Leif Koschützke, Jörg P Pfannmöller, Jennifer Esche, Laura van Diepen, Andreas W Kuss, Bianca Hartmann, Dusan Bartsch, Martin Lotze, Oliver von Bohlen Und Halbach
SrGAP3 belongs to the family of Rho GTPase proteins. These proteins are thought to play essential roles in development and in the plasticity of the nervous system. SrGAP3-deficient mice have recently been created and approximately 10 % of these mice developed a hydrocephalus and died shortly after birth. The others survived into adulthood, but displayed neuroanatomical alteration, including increased ventricular size. We now show that SrGAP3-deficient mice display increased brain weight together with increased hippocampal volume...
October 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27178324/hiv-1-tat-causes-cognitive-deficits-and-selective-loss-of-parvalbumin-somatostatin-and-neuronal-nitric-oxide-synthase-expressing-hippocampal-ca1-interneuron-subpopulations
#11
William D Marks, Jason J Paris, Christina J Schier, Melissa D Denton, Sylvia Fitting, A Rory McQuiston, Pamela E Knapp, Kurt F Hauser
Memory deficits are characteristic of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) and co-occur with hippocampal pathology. The HIV-1 transactivator of transcription (Tat), a regulatory protein, plays a significant role in these events, but the cellular mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Within the hippocampus, diverse populations of interneurons form complex networks; even subtle disruptions can drastically alter synaptic output, resulting in behavioral dysfunction. We hypothesized that HIV-1 Tat would impair cognitive behavior and injure specific hippocampal interneuron subtypes...
December 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27052581/associative-spike-timing-dependent-potentiation-of-the-basal-dendritic-excitatory-synapses-in-the-hippocampus-in-vivo
#12
Thomas K Fung, Clayton S Law, L Stan Leung
Spike timing-dependent plasticity in the hippocampus has rarely been studied in vivo. Using extracellular potential and current source density analysis in urethane-anesthetized adult rats, we studied synaptic plasticity at the basal dendritic excitatory synapse in CA1 after excitation-spike (ES) pairing; E was a weak basal dendritic excitation evoked by stratum oriens stimulation, and S was a population spike evoked by stratum radiatum apical dendritic excitation. We hypothesize that positive ES pairing-generating synaptic excitation before a spike-results in long-term potentiation (LTP) while negative ES pairing results in long-term depression (LTD)...
June 1, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26926429/gap-junctions-between-ca3-pyramidal-cells-contribute-to-network-synchronization-in-neonatal-hippocampus
#13
Svetlana M Molchanova, Johanna Huupponen, Sari E Lauri, Tomi Taira
Direct electrical coupling between neurons through gap junctions is prominent during development, when synaptic connectivity is scarce, providing the additional intercellular connectivity. However, functional studies of gap junctions are hampered by the unspecificity of pharmacological tools available. Here we have investigated gap-junctional coupling between CA3 pyramidal cells in neonatal hippocampus and its contribution to early network activity. Four different gap junction inhibitors, including the general blocker carbenoxolone, decreased the frequency of network activity bursts in CA3 area of hippocampus of P3-6 rats, suggesting the involvement of electrical connections in the generation of spontaneous network activity...
August 2016: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26812044/toward-dissecting-the-etiology-of-schizophrenia-hdac1-and-daxx-regulate-gad67-expression-in-an-in-vitro-hippocampal-gaba-neuron-model
#14
S Subburaju, A J Coleman, W B Ruzicka, F M Benes
Schizophrenia (SZ) is associated with GABA neuron dysfunction in the hippocampus, particularly the stratum oriens of sector CA3/2. A gene expression profile analysis of human postmortem hippocampal tissue followed by a network association analysis had shown a number of genes differentially regulated in SZ, including the epigenetic factors HDAC1 and DAXX. To characterize the contribution of these factors to the developmental perturbation hypothesized to underlie SZ, lentiviral vectors carrying short hairpin RNA interference (shRNAi) for HDAC1 and DAXX were used...
January 26, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26624466/diversity-of-hemerodromia-meigen-1822-diptera-empididae-in-thailand-the-tip-of-a-tropical-iceberg
#15
Adrian R Plant
The genus Hemerodromia in Thailand is revised and full descriptions and keys are provided for all 25 species. Twenty new species are recognised: H. alphalutea sp. nov., H. anisoserrata sp. nov., H. anomala sp. nov., H. attenuata sp. nov., H betalutea sp. nov., H. conspecta sp. nov., H. deltalutea sp. nov., H. deminuta sp. nov., H. demissa sp. nov., H. epsilutea sp. nov., H. etalutea sp. nov., H. gammalutea sp. nov., H. isochita sp. nov., H. namtokhinpoon sp. nov., H. ocellata sp. nov., H. oriens sp. nov., H...
2015: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26594149/estrogen-administration-modulates-hippocampal-gabaergic-subpopulations-in-the-hippocampus-of-trimethyltin-treated-rats
#16
Valentina Corvino, Valentina Di Maria, Elisa Marchese, Wanda Lattanzi, Filippo Biamonte, Fabrizio Michetti, Maria Concetta Geloso
Given the well-documented involvement of estrogens in the modulation of hippocampal functions in both physiological and pathological conditions, the present study investigates the effects of 17-beta estradiol (E2) administration in the rat model of hippocampal neurodegeneration induced by trimethyltin (TMT) administration (8 mg/kg), characterized by loss of pyramidal neurons in CA1, CA3/hilus hippocampal subfields, associated with astroglial and microglial activation, seizures and cognitive impairment. After TMT/saline treatment, ovariectomized animals received two doses of E2 (0...
2015: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26503764/memory-impairment-in-aged-primates-is-associated-with-region-specific-network-dysfunction
#17
A Thomé, D T Gray, C A Erickson, P Lipa, C A Barnes
Age-related deficits in episodic memory result, in part, from declines in the integrity of medial temporal lobe structures, such as the hippocampus, but are not thought to be due to widespread loss of principal neurons. Studies in rodents suggest, however, that inhibitory interneurons may be particularly vulnerable in advanced age. Optimal encoding and retrieval of information depend on a balance of excitatory and inhibitory transmission. It is not known whether a disruption of this balance is observed in aging non-human primates, and whether such changes affect network function and behavior...
September 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26464997/metaplastic-regulation-of-ca1-schaffer-collateral-pathway-plasticity-by-hebbian-mglur1a-mediated-plasticity-at-excitatory-synapses-onto-somatostatin-expressing-interneurons-1-2-3
#18
Cristina Vasuta, Julien Artinian, Isabel Laplante, Sarah Hébert-Seropian, Karim Elayoubi, Jean-Claude Lacaille
Cortical GABAergic interneurons represent a highly diverse neuronal type that regulates neural network activity. In particular, interneurons in the hippocampal CA1 oriens/alveus (O/A-INs) area provide feedback dendritic inhibition to local pyramidal cells and express somatostatin (SOM). Under relevant afferent stimulation patterns, they undergo long-term potentiation (LTP) of their excitatory synaptic inputs through multiple induction and expression mechanisms. However, the cell-type specificity of these different forms of LTP and their specific contribution to the dynamic regulation of the CA1 network remain unclear...
July 2015: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26460479/cadherin-13-a-risk-gene-for-adhd-and-comorbid-disorders-impacts-gabaergic-function-in-hippocampus-and-cognition
#19
O Rivero, M M Selten, S Sich, S Popp, L Bacmeister, E Amendola, M Negwer, D Schubert, F Proft, D Kiser, A G Schmitt, C Gross, S M Kolk, T Strekalova, D van den Hove, T J Resink, N Nadif Kasri, K P Lesch
Cadherin-13 (CDH13), a unique glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored member of the cadherin family of cell adhesion molecules, has been identified as a risk gene for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and various comorbid neurodevelopmental and psychiatric conditions, including depression, substance abuse, autism spectrum disorder and violent behavior, while the mechanism whereby CDH13 dysfunction influences pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders remains elusive. Here we explored the potential role of CDH13 in the inhibitory modulation of brain activity by investigating synaptic function of GABAergic interneurons...
2015: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26446209/induction-of-anti-hebbian-ltp-in-ca1-stratum-oriens-interneurons-interactions-between-group-i-metabotropic-glutamate-receptors-and-m1-muscarinic-receptors
#20
Caroline Le Duigou, Etienne Savary, Dimitri M Kullmann, Richard Miles
UNLABELLED: An anti-Hebbian form of LTP is observed at excitatory synapses made with some hippocampal interneurons. LTP induction is facilitated when postsynaptic interneurons are hyperpolarized, presumably because Ca(2+) entry through Ca(2+)-permeable glutamate receptors is enhanced. The contribution of modulatory transmitters to anti-Hebbian LTP induction remains to be established. Activation of group I metabotropic receptors (mGluRs) is required for anti-Hebbian LTP induction in interneurons with cell bodies in the CA1 stratum oriens...
October 7, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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