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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564531/shaker-related-voltage-gated-potassium-channels-kv1-in-human-hippocampus
#1
Michael Willis, Irmgard Leitner, Klaus Seppi, Maria Trieb, Georg Wietzorrek, Josef Marksteiner, Hans-Günther Knaus
In this study, we investigated the tissue expression levels, alpha subunit composition and distribution of Shaker-related voltage-dependent potassium Kv1 channels in human hippocampus by combining western blotting experiments, toxin autoradiography, in vivo radioligand binding studies, immunoprecipitation and immunohistochemistry. Tissue expression of Kv1.1 and Kv1.2 α-subunits in human post-mortem brain tissue was confirmed in immunoblot analysis using a panel of specific monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies...
March 21, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29532891/age-dependent-changes-in-vesicular-glutamate-transporter-1-and-2-expression-in-the-gerbil-hippocampus
#2
Hyo Young Jung, Dae Young Yoo, Joon Ha Park, Jong Whi Kim, Jin Young Chung, Dae Won Kim, Moo-Ho Won, Yeo Sung Yoon, In Koo Hwang
Glutamate is a major excitatory neurotransmitter that is stored in vesicles located in the presynaptic terminal. Glutamate is transported into vesicles via the vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT). In the present study, the age‑associated changes of the major VGLUTs, VGLUT1 and VGLUT2, in the hippocampus were investigated, based on immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis at postnatal month 1 (PM1; adolescent), PM6, PM12 (adult group), PM18 and PM24 (the aged groups). VGLUT1 immunoreactivity was primarily detected in the mossy fibers, Schaffer collaterals and stratum lacunosum‑moleculare...
March 8, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487503/electrophysiological-and-morphological-characterization-of-chrna2-cells-in-the-subiculum-and-ca1-of-the-hippocampus-an-optogenetic-investigation
#3
Heather Nichol, Bénédicte Amilhon, Frédéric Manseau, Saishree Badrinarayanan, Sylvain Williams
The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha2 subunit (Chrna2) is a specific marker for oriens lacunosum-moleculare (OLM) interneurons in the dorsal CA1 region of the hippocampus. It was recently shown using a Chrna2-cre mice line that OLM interneurons can modulate entorhinal cortex and CA3 inputs and may therefore have an important role in gating, encoding, and recall of memory. In this study, we have used a combination of electrophysiology and optogenetics using Chrna2-cre mice to determine the role of Chrna2 interneurons in the subiculum area, the main output region of the hippocampus...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485232/gaba-a-receptor-subunit-expression-changes-in-the-human-alzheimer-s-disease-hippocampus-subiculum-entorhinal-cortex-and-superior-temporal-gyrus
#4
Andrea Kwakowsky, Beatriz Calvo-Flores Guzmán, Madhavi Pandya, Clinton Turner, Henry J Waldvogel, Richard L Faull
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. GABA type A receptors (GABAA Rs) are severely affected in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the distribution and subunit composition of GABAA Rs in the AD brain are not well understood. This is the first comprehensive study to show brain region- and cell layer-specific alterations in the expression of the GABAA R subunits α1-3, α5, β1-3 and γ2 in the human AD hippocampus, entorhinal cortex and superior temporal gyrus (STG)...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437952/septal-cholinergic-neurons-gate-hippocampal-output-to-entorhinal-cortex-via-oriens-lacunosum-moleculare-interneurons
#5
Juhee Haam, Jingheng Zhou, Guohong Cui, Jerrel L Yakel
Neuromodulation of neural networks, whereby a selected circuit is regulated by a particular modulator, plays a critical role in learning and memory. Among neuromodulators, acetylcholine (ACh) plays a critical role in hippocampus-dependent memory and has been shown to modulate neuronal circuits in the hippocampus. However, it has remained unknown how ACh modulates hippocampal output. Here, using in vitro and in vivo approaches, we show that ACh, by activating oriens lacunosum moleculare (OLM) interneurons and therefore augmenting the negative-feedback regulation to the CA1 pyramidal neurons, suppresses the circuit from the hippocampal area CA1 to the deep-layer entorhinal cortex (EC)...
February 7, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311476/ectopic-mossy-fiber-pathfinding-in-the-hippocampus-caused-the-abnormal-neuronal-transmission-in-the-mouse-models-of-psychiatric-disease
#6
Soichiro Nakahara, Mitsuyuki Matsumoto, Hiroyuki Ito, Katsunori Tajinda
Appropriate axonal pathfinding is a necessary step for the function of neuronal circuits. The mossy fibers (MFs) in the hippocampus of CaMKIIα heterozygous knockout (CaMKIIα-hKO) psychiatric model mice project onto not only the stratum lucidum but also the stratum oriens region in the CA3, which is a projection pattern distinct from that in normal mice. Thus, we examined the electrophysiological properties of the MF-CA3 connection in this mutant mouse on field recordings and found a lower synaptic connection...
2018: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240824/high-abundance-of-arfgap1-found-in-the-mossy-fibers-in-hilus-of-the-dentate-gyrus-region-of-the-mouse-brain
#7
Sergiy Chornyy, Anna Parnis, Michael Shmoish, Dan Cassel
The Arf GTPase-activating protein ArfGAP1 and its brain-specific isoform ArfGAP1B play an important role in neurotransmission. Here we analyzed the distribution of ArfGAP1 in the mouse brain. We found high levels of ArfGAP1 in the mouse dentate gyrus where it displayed especially elevated level in the polymorph layer (hilus). Importantly, the ArfGAP1 signal follows the pathway of the granular cell axons so-called mossy fibers which extend from the dentate gyrus to CA3 via stratum lucidum and partially stratum oriens...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228131/synaptic-potentiation-at-basal-and-apical-dendrites-of-hippocampal-pyramidal-neurons-involves-activation-of-a-distinct-set-of-extracellular-and-intracellular-molecular-cues
#8
Patrycja Brzdak, Olga Wójcicka, Monika Zareba-Koziol, Daniel Minge, Christian Henneberger, Jakub Wlodarczyk, Jerzy W Mozrzymas, Tomasz Wójtowicz
In the central nervous system, several forms of experience-dependent plasticity, learning and memory require the activity-dependent control of synaptic efficacy. Despite substantial progress in describing synaptic plasticity, mechanisms related to heterogeneity of synaptic functions at local circuits remain elusive. Here we studied the functional and molecular aspects of hippocampal circuit plasticity by analyzing excitatory synapses at basal and apical dendrites of mouse hippocampal pyramidal cells (CA1 region) in acute brain slices...
December 8, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213058/interplay-between-global-and-pathway-specific-synaptic-plasticity-in-ca1-pyramidal-cells
#9
Sven Berberich, Jörg Pohle, Marie Pollard, Janet Barroso-Flores, Georg Köhr
Mechanisms underlying information storage have been depicted for global cell-wide and pathway-specific synaptic plasticity. Yet, little is known how these forms of plasticity interact to enhance synaptic competition and network stability. We examined synaptic interactions between apical and basal dendrites of CA1 pyramidal neurons in mouse hippocampal slices. Bursts (50 Hz) of three action potentials (AP-bursts) paired with preceding presynaptic stimulation in stratum radiatum specifically led to LTP of the paired pathway in adult mice (P75)...
December 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106556/location-matters-distinct-dna-methylation-patterns-in-gabaergic-interneuronal-populations-from-separate-microcircuits-within-the-human-hippocampus
#10
W Brad Ruzicka, Sivan Subburaju, Joseph T Coyle, Francine M Benes
Recent studies describe distinct DNA methylomes among phenotypic subclasses of neurons in the human brain, but variation in DNA methylation between common neuronal phenotypes distinguished by their function within distinct neural circuits remains an unexplored concept. Studies able to resolve epigenetic profiles at the level of microcircuits are needed to illuminate chromatin dynamics in the regulation of specific neuronal populations and circuits mediating normal and abnormal behaviors. The Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip was used to assess genome-wide DNA methylation in stratum oriens GABAergic interneurons sampled by laser-microdissection from two discrete microcircuits along the trisynaptic pathway in postmortem human hippocampus from eight control, eight schizophrenia, and eight bipolar disorder subjects...
January 15, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992200/effects-of-radiation-from-contaminated-soil-and-moss-in-fukushima-on-embryogenesis-and-egg-hatching-of-the-aphid-prociphilus-oriens
#11
Shin-Ichi Akimoto, Yang Li, Tetsuji Imanaka, Hitoshi Sato, Ken Ishida
Radiation contaminated soils are widespread around the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, and such soils raise concerns over its harmful effect on soil-dwelling organisms. We evaluated the effects of contaminated soil and moss sampled in Fukushima on the embryogenesis and hatching of aphid eggs, along with the measurement of the egg exposure dose. Cs-137 concentration in soil and moss from Fukushima ranged from 2200 to 3300 Bq/g and from 64 to 105 Bq/g, respectively. Eggs of the eriosomatine aphid Prociphilus oriens that were collected from a non-contaminated area were directly placed on the soil and moss for four or three months during diapause and then incubated until hatching...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957665/heterophilic-type-ii-cadherins-are-required-for-high-magnitude-synaptic-potentiation-in-the-hippocampus
#12
Raunak Basu, Xin Duan, Matthew R Taylor, E Anne Martin, Shruti Muralidhar, Yueqi Wang, Luke Gangi-Wellman, Sujan C Das, Masahito Yamagata, Peter J West, Joshua R Sanes, Megan E Williams
Hippocampal CA3 neurons form synapses with CA1 neurons in two layers, stratum oriens (SO) and stratum radiatum (SR). Each layer develops unique synaptic properties but molecular mechanisms that mediate these differences are unknown. Here, we show that SO synapses normally have significantly more mushroom spines and higher-magnitude long-term potentiation (LTP) than SR synapses. Further, we discovered that these differences require the Type II classic cadherins, cadherins-6, -9, and -10. Though cadherins typically function via trans-cellular homophilic interactions, our results suggest presynaptic cadherin-9 binds postsynaptic cadherins-6 and -10 to regulate mushroom spine density and high-magnitude LTP in the SO layer...
September 27, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890156/the-microbiota-influences-cell-death-and-microglial-colonization-in-the-perinatal-mouse-brain
#13
Alexandra Castillo-Ruiz, Morgan Mosley, Arlene J George, Lamiyah F Mussaji, Evan F Fullerton, Elara M Ruszkowski, Andrew J Jacobs, Andrew T Gewirtz, Benoit Chassaing, Nancy G Forger
The mammalian fetus develops in a largely sterile environment, and direct exposure to a complex microbiota does not occur until birth. We took advantage of this to examine the effect of the microbiota on brain development during the first few days of life. The expression of anti- and pro-inflammatory cytokines, developmental cell death, and microglial colonization in the brain were compared between newborn conventionally colonized mice and mice born in sterile, germ-free (GF) conditions. Expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin 1β and tumor necrosis factor α was markedly suppressed in GF newborns...
January 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843045/hippocampal-mechanisms-in-impaired-spatial-learning-and-memory-in-male-offspring-of-rats-fed-a-low-protein-isocaloric-diet-in-pregnancy-and-or-lactation
#14
L A Reyes-Castro, E Padilla-Gómez, N J Parga-Martínez, D C Castro-Rodríguez, G L Quirarte, S Díaz-Cintra, P W Nathanielsz, E Zambrano
Maternal nutritional challenges during fetal and neonatal development result in developmental programming of multiple offspring organ systems including brain maturation and function. A maternal low-protein diet during pregnancy and lactation impairs associative learning and motivation. We evaluated effects of a maternal low-protein diet during gestation and/or lactation on male offspring spatial learning and hippocampal neural structure. Control mothers (C) ate 20% casein and restricted mothers (R) 10% casein, providing four groups: CC, RR, CR, and RC (first letter pregnancy, second lactation diet)...
January 2018: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842418/dedicated-hippocampal-inhibitory-networks-for-locomotion-and-immobility
#15
Moises Arriaga, Edward B Han
Network activity is strongly tied to animal movement; however, hippocampal circuits selectively engaged during locomotion or immobility remain poorly characterized. Here we examined whether distinct locomotor states are encoded differentially in genetically defined classes of hippocampal interneurons. To characterize the relationship between interneuron activity and movement, we used in vivo, two-photon calcium imaging in CA1 of male and female mice, as animals performed a virtual-reality (VR) track running task...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838810/the-activation-of-nmda-receptors-alters-the-structural-dynamics-of-the-spines-of-hippocampal-interneurons
#16
Marta Pérez-Rando, Esther Castillo-Gómez, María Bellés, Héctor Carceller, Juan Nácher
N-Methyl-d-Aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are present in both pyramidal neurons and interneurons of the hippocampus. These receptors play a key role in the structural plasticity of excitatory neurons, but to date little is known about their influence on the remodeling of interneurons. Among hippocampal interneurons, the somatostatin expressing cells in the CA1 stratum oriens are of special interest because of their functional importance and structural characteristics: they display dendritic spines, which change their density in response to different stimuli...
September 29, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815330/homer1a-protein-expression-in-schizophrenia-bipolar-disorder-and-major-depression
#17
Stefan L Leber, Ida C Llenos, Christine L Miller, Jeannette R Dulay, Johannes Haybaeck, Serge Weis
In recent years, there was growing interest in postsynaptic density proteins in the central nervous system. Of the most important candidates of this specialized region are proteins belonging to the Homer protein family. This family of scaffolding proteins is suspected to participate in the pathogenesis of a variety of diseases. The present study aims to compare Homer1a expression in the hippocampus and cingulate gyrus of patients with major psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression...
October 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751858/distinct-localization-of-snap47-protein-in-gabaergic-and-glutamatergic-neurons-in-the-mouse-and-the-rat-hippocampus
#18
Agnieszka Münster-Wandowski, Heike Heilmann, Felix Bolduan, Thorsten Trimbuch, Yuchio Yanagawa, Imre Vida
Synaptosomal-associated protein of 47 kDa (SNAP47) isoform is an atypical member of the SNAP family, which does not contribute directly to exocytosis and synaptic vesicle (SV) recycling. Initial characterization of SNAP47 revealed a widespread expression in nervous tissue, but little is known about its cellular and subcellular localization in hippocampal neurons. Therefore, in the present study we applied multiple-immunofluorescence labeling, immuno-electron microscopy and in situ hybridization (ISH) and analyzed the localization of SNAP47 in pre- and postsynaptic compartments of glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons in the mouse and rat hippocampus...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722015/trpv1-regulates-excitatory-innervation-of-olm-neurons-in-the-hippocampus
#19
Joaquin I Hurtado-Zavala, Binu Ramachandran, Saheeb Ahmed, Rashi Halder, Christiane Bolleyer, Ankit Awasthi, Markus A Stahlberg, Robin J Wagener, Kristin Anderson, Ryan M Drenan, Henry A Lester, Julie M Miwa, Jochen F Staiger, Andre Fischer, Camin Dean
TRPV1 is an ion channel activated by heat and pungent agents including capsaicin, and has been extensively studied in nociception of sensory neurons. However, the location and function of TRPV1 in the hippocampus is debated. We found that TRPV1 is expressed in oriens-lacunosum-moleculare (OLM) interneurons in the hippocampus, and promotes excitatory innervation. TRPV1 knockout mice have reduced glutamatergic innervation of OLM neurons. When activated by capsaicin, TRPV1 recruits more glutamatergic, but not GABAergic, terminals to OLM neurons in vitro...
July 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659763/nmda-receptors-regulate-the-structural-plasticity-of-spines-and-axonal-boutons-in-hippocampal-interneurons
#20
Marta Perez-Rando, Esther Castillo-Gómez, Ramon Guirado, José Miguel Blasco-Ibañez, Carlos Crespo, Emilio Varea, Juan Nacher
N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are present in both pyramidal neurons and interneurons of the hippocampus. These receptors play an important role in the adult structural plasticity of excitatory neurons, but their impact on the remodeling of interneurons is unknown. Among hippocampal interneurons, somatostatin-expressing cells located in the stratum oriens are of special interest because of their functional importance and structural characteristics: they display dendritic spines, which change density in response to different stimuli...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
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