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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665884/factors-influencing-horizontal-gene-transfer-in-the-intestine
#1
Ximin Zeng, Jun Lin
Antibiotic resistance (AR) is ancient. Use of antibiotics is a selective driving force that enriches AR genes and promotes the emergence of resistant pathogens. It also has been widely accepted that horizontal gene transfer (HGT) occurs everywhere and plays a critical role in the transmission of AR genes among bacteria. However, our understanding of HGT processes primarily build on extensive in vitro studies; to date, there is still a significant knowledge gap regarding in situ HGT events as well as the factors that influence HGT in different ecological niches...
December 2017: Animal Health Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655705/spatially-correlated-gene-expression-in-bacterial-groups-the-role-of-lineage-history-spatial-gradients-and-cell-cell-interactions
#2
Simon van Vliet, Alma Dal Co, Annina R Winkler, Stefanie Spriewald, Bärbel Stecher, Martin Ackermann
Gene expression levels in clonal bacterial groups have been found to be spatially correlated. These correlations can partly be explained by the shared lineage history of nearby cells, although they could also arise from local cell-cell interactions. Here, we present a quantitative framework that allows us to disentangle the contributions of lineage history, long-range spatial gradients, and local cell-cell interactions to spatial correlations in gene expression. We study pathways involved in toxin production, SOS stress response, and metabolism in Escherichia coli microcolonies and find for all pathways that shared lineage history is the main cause of spatial correlations in gene expression levels...
April 5, 2018: Cell Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655359/communication-biological-applications-of-coupled-cluster-frozen-density-embedding
#3
Johannes Heuser, Sebastian Höfener
We report the implementation of the Laplace-transform scaled opposite-spin (LT-SOS) resolution-of-the-identity second-order approximate coupled-cluster singles and doubles (RICC2) combined with frozen-density embedding for excitation energies and molecular properties. In the present work, we furthermore employ the Hartree-Fock density for the interaction energy leading to a simplified Lagrangian which is linear in the Lagrangian multipliers. This approximation has the key advantage of a decoupling of the coupled-cluster amplitude and multipliers, leading also to a significant reduction in computation time...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610148/the-interdependent-activation-of-son-of-sevenless-and-ras
#4
Pradeep Bandaru, Yasushi Kondo, John Kuriyan
The guanine-nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) Son-of-Sevenless (SOS) plays a critical role in metazoan signaling by converting Ras•GDP (guanosine diphosphate) to Ras•GTP (guanosine triphosphate) in response to tyrosine kinase activation. Structural studies have shown that SOS differs from other Ras-specific GEFs in that SOS is itself activated by Ras•GTP binding to an allosteric site, distal to the site of nucleotide exchange. The activation of SOS involves membrane recruitment and conformational changes, triggered by lipid binding, that open the allosteric binding site for Ras•GTP...
April 2, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606480/recovery-programme-for-icu-survivors-has-no-effect-on-relatives-quality-of-life-secondary-analysis-of-the-rapit-study
#5
Søs Bohart, Ingrid Egerod, Morten H Bestle, Dorthe Overgaard, Doris F Christensen, Janet F Jensen
BACKGROUND: Relatives of intensive care patients are at risk of developing symptoms of anxiety, depression and posttraumatic stress resulting in reduced health-related quality of life. Recovery programmes for patients have been implemented, but their effect on relatives is uncertain. AIM: To determine whether relatives benefit from a recovery programme intended for intensive care survivors. RESEARCH DESIGN: A randomised controlled trial of 181 adult relatives: intervention group (n = 87), control group (n = 94)...
March 29, 2018: Intensive & Critical Care Nursing: the Official Journal of the British Association of Critical Care Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603674/an-ultra-low-cost-smartphone-octochannel-spectrometer-for-mobile-health-diagnostics
#6
Li-Ju Wang, Nicole Naudé, Yu-Chung Chang, Anne Crivaro, Malek Kamoun, Ping Wang, Lei Li
With the rapid development and proliferation of mobile devices with powerful computing power and the ability of integrating sensors into mobile devices, the potential impact of mobile health (mHealth) diagnostics on the public health is drawing researchers' attention. We developed a Smartphone Octo-channel Spectrometer (SOS) as a mHealth diagnostic tool. The SOS has nanoscale wavelength resolution, is self-illuminated from the smartphone itself, and is ultra-low cost (less than $20). A user interface controls the optical sensing parameters and precise alignment...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600754/in-vitro-cytotoxicity-and-genotoxicity-analysis-of-ten-tannery-chemicals-using-sos-umu-tests-and-high-content-in-vitro-micronucleus-tests
#7
Zehao Huang, Na Li, Kaifeng Rao, Cuiting Liu, Zijian Wang, Mei Ma
BACKGROUND: More than 2,000 chemicals have been used in the tannery industry. Although some tannery chemicals have been reported to have harmful effects on both human health and the environment, only a few have been subjected to genotoxicity and cytotoxicity evaluations. OBJECTIVE: This study focus on cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of ten tannery chemicals widely used in China. MATERIALS AND METHODS: DNA-damaging effects were measured using the SOS/umu test with Salmonella typhimurium TA1535/pSK1002...
March 30, 2018: Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590289/associations-of-bariatric-surgery-with-changes-in-interpersonal-relationship-status-results-from-2-swedish-cohort-studies
#8
Gustaf Bruze, Tobias E Holmin, Markku Peltonen, Johan Ottosson, Kajsa Sjöholm, Ingmar Näslund, Martin Neovius, Lena M S Carlsson, Per-Arne Svensson
Importance: Bariatric surgery is a life-changing treatment for patients with severe obesity, but little is known about its association with interpersonal relationships. Objectives: To investigate if relationship status is altered after bariatric surgery. Design, Setting, and Participants: Changes in relationship status after bariatric surgery were examined in 2 cohorts: (1) the prospective Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) study, which recruited patients undergoing bariatric surgery from September 1, 1987, to January 31, 2001, and compared their care with usual nonsurgical care in matched obese control participants; and (2) participants from the Scandinavian Obesity Surgery Registry (SOReg), a prospective, electronically captured register that recruited patients from January 2007 through December 2012 and selected comparator participants from the general population matched on age, sex, and place of residence...
March 28, 2018: JAMA Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574939/reconstruction-of-undersampled-radial-free-breathing-3d-abdominal-mri-using-stacked-convolutional-auto-encoders
#9
Jun Lv, Kun Chen, Ming Yang, Jue Zhang, Xiaoying Wang
PURPOSE: Free-breathing 3D abdominal imaging is a challenging task for MRI, as respiratory motion severely degrades image quality. One of the most promising self-navigation techniques is the 3D golden-angle radial stack-of-stars (SOS) sequence, which has advantages in terms of speed, resolution and allowing free breathing. However, streaking artifacts are still clearly observed in reconstructed images when undersampling is applied. This work presents a novel reconstruction approach based on a stacked convolutional auto-encoder (SCAE) network to solve this problem...
March 24, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570859/oral-lorazepam-can-be-substituted-for-intravenous-midazolam-when-weaning-paediatric-intensive-care-patients-off-sedation
#10
Anna C van der Vossen, Merel van Nuland, Erwin G Ista, Saskia N de Wildt, Lidwien M Hanff
AIM: Intravenous sedatives used in the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) need to be tapered after prolonged use to prevent iatrogenic withdrawal syndrome (IWS). We evaluated the occurrence of IWS and the levels of sedation before and after conversion from intravenous midazolam to oral lorazepam. METHODS: This was a retrospective, observational, single cohort study of children under the age of 18 admitted to the PICU of the Erasmus MC-Sophia Children's Hospital, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, between January 2013 and December 2014...
March 23, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568103/incidence-of-end-stage-renal-disease-following-bariatric-surgery-in-the-swedish-obese-subjects-study
#11
A Shulman, M Peltonen, C D Sjöström, J C Andersson-Assarsson, M Taube, K Sjöholm, C W le Roux, L M S Carlsson, P-A Svensson
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a major public health problem leading to co-morbidities such as diabetes, hypertension and kidney failure. Bariatric surgery results in pronounced and maintained weight loss and prevention of obesity-related diseases and their complications. Most studies of bariatric surgery on kidney disease show improvements after surgery. However, long-term studies analyzing hard end-points are lacking. Here we report on the long-term effects of bariatric surgery compared to usual obesity care on incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) alone and in combination with chronic kidney disease stage 4 (CKD4/ESRD)...
February 26, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565279/overexpression-of-a-sbp-box-gene-vpsbp16-from-chinese-wild-vitis-species-in-arabidopsis-improves-salinity-and-drought-stress-tolerance
#12
Hongmin Hou, Hui Jia, Qin Yan, Xiping Wang
Salinity and drought are two major abiotic stresses that limit grape productivity. Responses to stress in grape are known to be regulated by several families of transcription factors. However, little is known about the role of grape Squamosa promoter binding protein (SBP)-box transcription factor genes in response to abiotic stress. To better understand the functions of the grape SBP-box genes in abiotic stress tolerance, a full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) sequence of the putative SBP-box transcription factor gene, VpSBP16 was amplified from Chinese wild grapevine Vitis pseudoreticulata clone "Baihe-35-1"...
March 22, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556766/breast-density-assessment-with-hand-held-ultrasound-a-novel-biomarker-to-assess-breast-cancer-risk-and-to-tailor-screening
#13
Sergio J Sanabria, Orcun Goksel, Katharina Martini, Serafino Forte, Thomas Frauenfelder, Rahel A Kubik-Huch, Marga B Rominger
OBJECTIVES: To assess feasibility and diagnostic accuracy of a novel hand-held ultrasound (US) method for breast density assessment that measures the speed of sound (SoS), in comparison to the ACR mammographic (MG) categories. METHODS: ACR-MG density (a=fatty to d=extremely dense) and SoS-US were assessed in the retromamillary, inner and outer segments of 106 women by two radiographers. A conventional US system was used for SoS-US. A reflector served as timing reference for US signals transmitted through the breasts...
March 19, 2018: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555373/recf-uvrd-recx-and-recn-proteins-suppress-dna-degradation-at-dna-double-strand-breaks-in-escherichia-coli
#14
Isidoro Feliciello, Davor Zahradka, Ksenija Zahradka, Siniša Ivanković, Nikolina Puc, Damir Đermić
Double strand breaks (DSBs) in E. coli chromosome (such as those induced by gamma rays) are repaired by recombination repair, during which a certain amount of DNA gets degraded. We monitored DNA degradation in gamma-irradiated cells to assess processing of DSBs. DNA degradation in irradiated cells is regulated by RecA protein concentration and its affinity of ssDNA binding, as well as by exonucleases that trim 3'-terminated ss tails. Here we determined the effects of proteins that affect formation and stability of RecA nucleofilaments on DNA degradation and cell survival...
March 16, 2018: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548608/influenza-vaccine-effectiveness-to-prevent-influenza-related-hospitalizations-and-serious-outcomes-in-canadian-adults-over-the-2011-12-through-2013-14-influenza-seasons-a-pooled-analysis-from-the-canadian-immunization-research-network-cirn-serious-outcomes
#15
Michaela K Nichols, Melissa K Andrew, Todd F Hatchette, Ardith Ambrose, Guy Boivin, William Bowie, Ayman Chit, Gael Dos Santos, May ElSherif, Karen Green, Francois Haguinet, Scott A Halperin, Barbara Ibarguchi, Jennie Johnstone, Kevin Katz, Phillipe Lagacé-Wiens, Joanne M Langley, Jason LeBlanc, Mark Loeb, Donna MacKinnon-Cameron, Anne McCarthy, Janet E McElhaney, Allison McGeer, Andre Poirier, Jeff Powis, David Richardson, Anne Schuind, Makeda Semret, Vivek Shinde, Stephanie Smith, Daniel Smyth, Grant Stiver, Geoffrey Taylor, Sylvie Trottier, Louis Valiquette, Duncan Webster, Lingyun Ye, Shelly A McNeil
BACKGROUND: Ongoing assessment of influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) is critical to inform public health policy. This study aimed to determine the VE of trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) for preventing influenza-related hospitalizations and other serious outcomes over three consecutive influenza seasons. METHODS: The Serious Outcomes Surveillance (SOS) Network of the Canadian Immunization Research Network (CIRN) conducted active surveillance for influenza in adults ≥16 years (y) of age during the 2011/2012, 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 seasons in hospitals across Canada...
March 13, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547508/the-use-of-biosensors-to-explore-the-potential-of-probiotic-strains-to-reduce-the-sos-response-and-mutagenesis-in-bacteria
#16
Vladimir Anatolievich Chistyakov, Evgeniya Valer'evna Prazdnova, Maria Sergeevna Mazanko, Anzhelica Borisovna Bren
A model system based on the Escherichia coli MG1655 (pRecA-lux) Lux-biosensor was used to evaluate the ability of the fermentates of eight probiotic strains to reduce the SOS response stimulated by ciprofloxacin in bacteria and mutagenesis mediated by it. Preliminary attempts to estimate the chemical nature of active components of the fermentates were conducted.
March 16, 2018: Biosensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536929/perceptual-errors-in-pediatric-radiology
#17
REVIEW
George A Taylor
Perceptual errors are common contributors to missed diagnoses in the clinical practice of radiology. While the physical attributes of an image such as image resolution, signal-to-noise characteristics, and anatomic complexity are major causes of poor conspicuity of pathologic lesions, there are major interrelated cognitive contributors to visual errors. The first is satisfaction of search (SOS), where the detection of an abnormality results in premature termination of further search. Another form of incomplete search pattern is visual isolation, where a radiologist's search pattern is truncated to the main areas of an image, while little or no attention is given to peripheral areas...
September 26, 2017: Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529312/dna-lesions-proximity-modulates-damage-tolerance-pathways-in-escherichia-coli
#18
Élodie Chrabaszcz, Luisa Laureti, Vincent Pagès
The genome of all organisms is constantly threatened by numerous agents that cause DNA damage. When the replication fork encounters an unrepaired DNA lesion, two DNA damage tolerance pathways are possible: error-prone translesion synthesis (TLS) that requires specialized DNA polymerases, and error-free damage avoidance that relies on homologous recombination (HR). The balance between these two mechanisms is essential since it defines the level of mutagenesis during lesion bypass, allowing genetic variability and adaptation to the environment, but also introduces the risk of generating genome instability...
February 26, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528570/quantitative-proteomic-analysis-of-staphylococcus-aureus-treated-with-punicalagin-a-natural-antibiotic-from-pomegranate-that-disrupts-iron-homeostasis-and-induces-sos
#19
Bret Cooper, Nazrul Islam, Yunfeng Xu, Hunter S Beard, Wesley M Garrett, Ganyu Gu, Xiangwu Nou
Staphylococcus aureus, a bacterial, food-borne pathogen of humans, can contaminate raw fruits and vegetables. While physical and chemical methods are available to control S. aureus, scientists are searching for inhibitory phytochemicals from plants. One promising compound from pomegranate is punicalagin, a natural antibiotic. To get a broader understanding of the inhibitory effect of punicalagin on S. aureus growth, we used high-throughput mass spectrometry and quantitative isobaric labeling to investigate the proteome of S...
March 12, 2018: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526594/memory-consolidation-is-linked-to-spindle-mediated-information-processing-during-sleep
#20
Scott A Cairney, Anna Á Váli Guttesen, Nicole El Marj, Bernhard P Staresina
How are brief encounters transformed into lasting memories? Previous research has established the role of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, along with its electrophysiological signatures of slow oscillations (SOs) and spindles, for memory consolidation [1-4]. In related work, experimental manipulations have demonstrated that NREM sleep provides a window of opportunity to selectively strengthen particular memory traces via the delivery of auditory cues [5-10], a procedure known as targeted memory reactivation (TMR)...
March 19, 2018: Current Biology: CB
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