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Tsuyoshi Tajika, Atsushi Yamamoto, Noboru Oya, Takanori Kitagawa, Hiroki Kobayashi, Hitoshi Shitara, Haku Iizuka, Kenji Takagishi, Hirotaka Chikuda
Background: Elucidating the relation between bone health condition and muscle strength can provide useful knowledge for Japan's super-aged society. This study ascertained the Speed Of Sound (SOS) of the calcaneus and upper and lower limb muscle strength in a general population. Methods: Medical examinations were conducted of 277 adult residents (100 men, 177 women; average age 67.1 years) of a mountain village. Bilateral hand grip and hand key pinch strength were measured...
2018: Open Orthopaedics Journal
Matthew J Czarny, Julie M Miller, Daniel Q Naiman, Chao-Wei Hwang, Rani K Hasan, Cynthia C Lemmon, Thomas Aversano
BACKGROUND: The CPORT-E trial showed the noninferiority of nonprimary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) at hospitals without cardiac surgery on-site (SoS) compared with hospitals with SoS for 6-week mortality and 9-month major adverse cardiac events (MACE). However, target vessel revascularization (TVR) was increased at non-SoS hospitals. Therefore, we aimed to determine the consistency of the CPORT-E trial findings across the spectrum of enrolled patients. METHODS: Post hoc subgroup analyses of 6-week mortality and 9-month MACE, defined as the composite of death, Q-wave myocardial infarction, or TVR, were performed...
March 2018: American Heart Journal
Daniela Ben-Tov, Anat Idan-Molakandov, Anat Hugger, Ilan Ben-Shlush, Markus Günl, Bo Yang, Björn Usadel, Smadar Harpaz-Saad
The production of hydrophilic mucilage along the course of seed coat epidermal cell differentiation is a common adaptation in angiosperms. Previous studies identified COBRA-LIKE 2 (COBL2), a member of the COBRA-LIKE gene family, as a novel component required for crystalline cellulose deposition in seed coat epidermal cells. In recent years, Arabidopsis seed coat epidermal cells (SCEs), also called mucilage secretory cells, have emerged as a powerful model system for the study of plant cell wall components biosynthesis, secretion, assembly and de-muro modification...
February 15, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Michael C Burns, Jennifer E Howes, Qi Sun, Andrew J Little, DeMarco V Camper, Jason R Abbott, Jason Phan, Taekyu Lee, Alex G Waterson, Olivia W Rossanese, Stephen W Fesik
K-RAS is mutated in approximately 30% of human cancers, resulting in increased RAS signaling and tumor growth. Thus, RAS is a highly validated therapeutic target, especially in tumors of the pancreas, lung and colon. Although directly targeting RAS has proven to be challenging, it may be possible to target other proteins involved in RAS signaling, such as the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Son of Sevenless (SOS). We have previously reported on the discovery of small molecules that bind to SOS1, activate SOS-mediated nucleotide exchange on RAS, and paradoxically inhibit ERK phosphorylation (Burns et al...
February 11, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
Jennifer E Howes, Denis T Akan, Michael C Burns, Olivia W Rossanese, Alex G Waterson, Stephen W Fesik
Oncogenic mutation of RAS results in aberrant cellular signaling and is responsible for more than 30% of all human tumors. Therefore, pharmacological modulation of RAS has attracted great interest as a therapeutic strategy. Our laboratory has recently discovered small molecules that activate Son of Sevenless (SOS)-catalyzed nucleotide exchange on RAS and inhibit downstream signaling. Here we describe how pharmacologically targeting SOS1 induced biphasic modulation of RAS-GTP and ERK phosphorylation levels, which we observed in a variety of cell lines expressing different RAS mutant isoforms...
February 13, 2018: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
Sebastian Preissl, Rongxin Fang, Hui Huang, Yuan Zhao, Ramya Raviram, David U Gorkin, Yanxiao Zhang, Brandon C Sos, Veena Afzal, Diane E Dickel, Samantha Kuan, Axel Visel, Len A Pennacchio, Kun Zhang, Bing Ren
Analysis of chromatin accessibility can reveal transcriptional regulatory sequences, but heterogeneity of primary tissues poses a significant challenge in mapping the precise chromatin landscape in specific cell types. Here we report single-nucleus ATAC-seq, a combinatorial barcoding-assisted single-cell assay for transposase-accessible chromatin that is optimized for use on flash-frozen primary tissue samples. We apply this technique to the mouse forebrain through eight developmental stages. Through analysis of more than 15,000 nuclei, we identify 20 distinct cell populations corresponding to major neuronal and non-neuronal cell types...
February 12, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Yao Cheng, Xiuxiu Zhang, Tianyang Sun, Qiuying Tian, Wen-Hao Zhang
Seed germination is sensitive to salt stress, and abscisic acid (ABA) and Ca2+ are involved in the regulation of seed germination under salt stress. Ca2+ influx mediated by glutamate receptors (GLRs) plays important roles in many physiological processes in plants. Here, we investigated the correlation of GLRs, Ca2+ and ABA during seed germination in response to salt stress by using Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type and T-DNA insertion knockout mutants of glutamate receptors homolog3.4. We demonstrated that atglr3...
February 7, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Daniel W Zumofen, Michel Roethlisberger, Rita Achermann, Schatlo Bawarjan, Martin N Stienen, Christian Fung, Donato D'Alonzo, Nicolai Maldaner, Andrea Ferrari, Marco V Corniola, Daniel Schoeni, Johannes Goldberg, Daniele Valsecchi, Thomas Robert, Rodolfo Maduri, Martin Seule, Jan-Karl Burkhardt, Serge Marbacher, Philippe Bijlenga, Kristine A Blackham, Heiner C Bucher, Luigi Mariani, Raphael Guzman
Grading scales yield objective measure of the severity of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and serve as to guide treatment decisions and for prognostication. The purpose of this cohort study was to determine what factors govern a patient's disease-specific admission scores in a representative Central European cohort. The Swiss Study of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage includes anonymized data from all tertiary referral centers serving subarachnoid hemorrhage patients in Switzerland. The 2009-2014 dataset was used to evaluate the impact of patient and aneurysm characteristics on the patients' status at admission using descriptive and multivariate regression analysis...
February 10, 2018: Neurosurgical Review
Philipp Köster, Lukas Wallrad, Kai H Edel, Mohammad Faisal, Abdulrahman A Alatar, Jörg Kudla
Soil salinity adversely affects plant growth, crop yield and the composition of ecosystems. Salinity stress impacts on plants by combined effects of Na+ toxicity and osmotic perturbance. Plants have evolved elaborate mechanisms to counteract the detrimental consequences of salinity. Here we reflect on recent advances in our understanding of plant salt tolerance mechanisms. We discuss the embedding of the salt tolerance mediating SOS pathway in plant hormonal and developmental adaptation. Moreover, we review newly accumulating evidence indicating a crucial role of a transpiration dependent salinity tolerance pathway, that is centered around the function of the NADPH oxidase RBOHF and its role in endodermal and Casparian strip differentiation...
February 7, 2018: Plant Biology
Vishvanath Tiwari, Monalisa Tiwari, Deepika Biswas
Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the ESKAPE pathogen, which causes pneumonia, urinary tract infections, and is linked to high degree of morbidity and mortality. One-way antibiotic and disinfectant resistance is acquired by the activation of RecA-mediated DNA repair (SOS-response) that maintain ROS-dependent DNA damage caused by these anti-bacterial molecules. To increase the efficacy of different anti-microbial, there is a need to design an inhibitor against RecA of A. baumannii. We have performed homology modeling to generate the structure of RecA, followed by model refinement and validation...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Antibiotics
G Pomares, H Coudane, F Dap, G Dautel
INTRODUCTION: While published data on functional outcomes after upper limb amputations are plentiful, epidemiology data are relatively rare. This led us to performing an epidemiology study of traumatic upper limb amputations at our facility. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This retrospective study spanned a 10-year period of cases seen at the SOS Main (Hand emergency center) of the Nancy University Hospital in France. Patients who suffered traumatic amputation of the upper limb were identified and divided into two groups: replantation and surgical amputation...
February 1, 2018: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
Anxin Wang, Ying Cui, Xia Meng, Zhaoping Su, Yibin Cao, Yuling Yang, Changcheng Liu, Liye Dai, Youxin Wang, Yilong Wang
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) has a defined role in the genesis and development of atherosclerosis, however, whether it is related to severity of neurological deficits is rarely reported. The aim of our study was to investigate the potential association between oxLDL and the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score among patients with acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: Between January 2014 and October 2014, we recruited 4111 patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS), who were admitted within 7 days-43 hospitals in China, and participated in the SOS-Stroke Study...
January 27, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Yung-Ting Hsiao, Ming-Jen Fan, An-Cheng Huang, Jin-Cherng Lien, Jen-Jyh Lin, Jaw-Chyun Chen, Te-Chun Hsia, Rick Sai-Chuen Wu, Jing-Gung Chung
Deguelin, a rotenoid, is isolated from a natural plant species, and has biological activities including antitumor function. In the present study, we investigated the effect of deguelin on the cell adhesion, migration and invasion of NCI-H292 human lung cancer cells in vitro. Cell viability was analyzed by using flow cytometer. Cell adhesion was determined by using the cell-matrix adhesion assay. Wound healing assay was used to examine cell migration. Cell migration and invasion were investigated using a Boyden chamber assay...
2018: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
Cristiano de Silva Souza, Jane Mara Block
The effect of the partial replacement of cocoa butter (CB) by cocoa butter equivalent (CBE) in the release of volatile compounds in dark chocolate was studied. The fatty acid profile, triacylglyceride composition, solid fat content (SFC) and melting point were determined in CB and CBE. Chocolate with CB (F1) and with different content of CBE (5 and 10%-F2 and F3, respectively) were prepared. Plastic viscosity and Casson flow limit, particle size distribution and release of volatile compounds using a solid phase microextraction with gas chromatography (SMPE-GC) were determined in the chocolate samples...
February 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
David S Fike, Jason Denton, Matt Walk, Jennifer Kish, Ira Gorman
BACKGROUND: The American Physical Therapy Association (APTA) has been working toward a vision of increasing professional focus on societal level health. However, performance of social responsibility and related behaviors by physical therapists remains relatively poorly integrated into practice. Promoting a focus on societal outreach is necessary for all healthcare professionals to impact the health of their communities. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to document the validity of the 14-item Societal Outreach Scale (SOS) for use with practicing physical therapists...
January 30, 2018: Physical Therapy
Rupesh Raina, Ghada A Abusin, Prashant Vijayaraghavan, Jeffery J Auletta, Linda Cabral, Hasan Hashem, Beth A Vogt, Kenneth R Cooke, Rolla F Abu-Arja
Maintaining fluid balance, pre- and post-MA-HCT is essential and usually requires frequent administration of diuretics. Hepatic sinusoidal obstructive syndrome is potentially life-threatening, especially when associated with AKI and MOF. This study describes six patients who developed AKI-associated SOS and diuretic-resistant FO who subsequently underwent CRRT using standardized management guidelines for fluid balance post-HCT. Retrospective chart review was done for HCT patients between September 2011 and October 2013 at a tertiary care children's hospital...
February 1, 2018: Pediatric Transplantation
Alireza Saeedi, Mostafa Jannesari, Shahriar Gharibzadeh, Fatemeh Bakouie
Self-organized criticality (SOC) and stochastic oscillations (SOs) are two theoretically contradictory phenomena that are suggested to coexist in the brain. Recently it has been shown that an accumulation-release process like sandpile dynamics can generate SOC and SOs simultaneously. We considered the effect of the network structure on this coexistence and showed that the sandpile dynamics on a small-world network can produce two power law regimes along with two groups of SOs-two peaks in the power spectrum of the generated signal simultaneously...
January 30, 2018: Neural Computation
Laura C Bohorquez, Katarina Surdova, Martijs J Jonker, Leendert W Hamoen
The DNA binding protein WhiA is conserved in Gram-positive bacteria, and is also present in the genetically simple, cell wall-lacking, mycoplasmas. The protein shows homology to eukaryotic homing endonucleases but lacks nuclease activity. WhiA was first characterized in streptomycetes, where it regulates expression of key differentiation genes, including the cell division gene ftsZ essential for sporulation. For Bacillus subtilis it was shown that WhiA is essential when certain cell division genes are deleted...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
Hannah Brooks, Carrie D Llewellyn, Tom Nadarzynski, Fernando Castilho Pelloso, Felipe De Souza Guilherme, Alex Pollard, Christina J Jones
BACKGROUND: Significant health disparities between sexual minority individuals (that is, lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender [LGBT]) and heterosexual individuals have been demonstrated. AIM: To understand the barriers and facilitators to sexual orientation (SO) disclosure experienced by LGBT adults in healthcare settings. DESIGN AND SETTING: Mixed methods systematic review, including qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods papers following PRISMA guidelines...
January 29, 2018: British Journal of General Practice: the Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners
Yongjun Wei, David Bergenholm, Michael Gossing, Verena Siewers, Jens Nielsen
BACKGROUND: Cocoa butter (CB) extracted from cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao) is the main raw material for chocolate production, but CB supply is insufficient due to the increased chocolate demand and limited CB production. CB is mainly composed of three different kinds of triacylglycerols (TAGs), 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (POP, C16:0-C18:1-C16:0), 1-palmitoyl-3-stearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (POS, C16:0-C18:1-C18:0) and 1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (SOS, C18:0-C18:1-C18:0). In general, Saccharomyces cerevisiae produces TAGs as storage lipids, which consist of C16 and C18 fatty acids...
January 25, 2018: Microbial Cell Factories
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