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Yongqing Yang, Yan Guo
Salt stress is a major environmental factor limiting plant growth and productivity. A better understanding of the mechanisms mediating salt resistance will help researchers design ways to improve crop performance under adverse environmental conditions. Salt stress can lead to ionic stress, osmotic stress, and secondary stresses, particularly oxidative stress, in plants. Therefore, to adapt to salt stress, plants rely on signals and pathways that re-establish cellular ionic, osmotic, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
Yashovardhan Agarwal
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization and the World Bank's "World Report on Disability" reported that over 1 billion people have various kinds of disability worldwide while Indian Census 2011 reported about 26 million in India. The United Nations Convention states, "The Rights of Persons with Disabilities (PwD) include accessibility to Information, Transportation, Environment, Communication Technology and Services". OBJECTIVE: This article takes forward the reason of making the "EasenAccess" (EnA) Android-based app to empower PwD with wheelchair-accessibility information, communication sentences and sending SOS signals with location...
June 14, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
Farhad Khimani, George B McDonald, Howard M Shulman, Brian Betts, Frederick Locke, Hugo Fernandez, Claudio Anasetti, Joseph Pidala
Sirolimus-based graft vs. host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis is associated with higher incidence of veno-occlusive disease/sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (VOD/SOS) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). However, whether the clinical manifestations and prognosis of VOD/SOS differs when diagnosed in the setting of sirolimus-based GVHD prophylaxis is not well studied. To address this question, we examined presenting features and treatment outcome of VOD/SOS cases identified in a large retrospective cohort of consecutive HCT procedures (n = 818 total, sirolimus (SIR)/tacrolimus (TAC) n = 308, and methotrexate (MTX) or mycophenolate mofetil (MMF)/TAC n = 510)...
June 12, 2018: Bone Marrow Transplantation
Mathilde Egelund Christensen, Signe Sparre Beck-Nielsen, Christine Dalgård, Søs Dragsbæk Larsen, Sine Lykkedegn, Henriette Boye Kyhl, Steffen Husby, Henrik Thybo Christesen
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Long standing vitamin D deficiency in children causes rickets with growth impairment. We investigated whether sub-ischial leg length (SLL) is shorter, and cephalo-caudal length:length (CCL:L) ratio and sitting height:height (SH:H) ratio larger, with lower cord s-25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) in the population-based prospective Odense Child Cohort, Denmark. METHODS: We included healthy singletons born to term with available measures of cord 25OHD and anthropometrics up to three years' age...
2018: PloS One
Heejeong Lee, Dong Gun Lee
Arenicin-1, a 21-mer antimicrobial peptide exerts significant broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity with membrane-active mechanisms. However, owing to multiple mechanisms of cell death, the antibacterial mechanism of arenicin-1 requires detailed analysis. In the present study, arenicin-1-treated bacteria underwent an apoptosis-like response, which was mechanistically and morphologically similar to eukaryotic apoptosis. Changes in the physiological status of arenicin-1-treated bacterial cells involved accumulation of reactive oxygen species, imbalance of intracellular calcium gradients, disruption of membrane potential, bacterial caspase-like protein activation, and DNA damage...
June 7, 2018: Current Genetics
Beata Wikiera, Agata Mierzwicka, Aleksander Basiak, Jowita Halupczok-Żyła, Diana Jędrzejuk, Magdalena Cabała, Anna Noczyńska, Marek Bolanowski, Kornel Mikołajczyk, Zenon P Halaba
BACKGROUND: Studies using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) demonstrate a reduction in bone mineral density (BMD) in children and adolescents with Turner syndrome (TS). However, these studies do not take into account changes in bone size, which influence BMD in the case of short-statured patients. Phalangeal quantitative ultrasound (phQUS) measurements have shown an ability to reveal changes due to skeletal growth, aging, and bone and mineral disorders. There is limited data on bone mineral status in girls with TS assessed by 2 different techniques, i...
June 4, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Nancy A Kernan, Paul G Richardson, Angela R Smith, Brandon M Triplett, Joseph H Antin, Leslie Lehmann, Yoav Messinger, Wei Liang, Robin Hume, William Tappe, Robert J Soiffer, Stephan A Grupp
BACKGROUND: Hepatic veno-occlusive disease/sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (VOD/SOS) is a potentially fatal complication of conditioning for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) but can occur after nontransplant-associated chemotherapy. Following HSCT, VOD/SOS with multi-organ dysfunction (MOD) may be associated with >80% mortality. Defibrotide is approved to treat severe hepatic VOD/SOS post-HSCT in patients aged >1 month in the European Union and hepatic VOD/SOS with renal or pulmonary dysfunction post-HSCT in the United States...
June 6, 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Edit Zenténius, Johanna C Andersson-Assarsson, Lena M S Carlsson, Per-Arne Svensson, Ingrid Larsson
OBJECTIVE: The Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) study was designed to compare outcomes in patients with obesity treated by bariatric surgery and a matched control group given usual care. The aim of this study was to analyze self-reported weight-loss methods and weight changes over 10 years in the SOS control group. METHODS: Self-reported weight-loss methods in the control group (n = 2,037; 71% women; 48.7 ± 6.3 years; BMI 40.1 ± 4.7 kg/m2 ) were analyzed at baseline and after 0...
June 6, 2018: Obesity
Gopal Selvakumar, Charlotte C Shagol, Kiyoon Kim, Seunggab Han, Tongmin Sa
BACKGROUND: The interaction between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and AMF spore associated bacteria (SAB) were previously found to improve mycorrhizal symbiotic efficiency under saline stress, however, the information about the molecular basis of this interaction remain unknown. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the response of maize plants to co-inoculation of AMF and SAB under salinity stress. RESULTS: The co-inoculation of AMF and SAB significantly improved plant dry weight, nutrient content of shoot and root tissues under 25 or 50 mM NaCl...
June 5, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
Elizabeth M Thompson, Jennifer L Sollinger, Emmanuel C Opara, Christopher A Adin
Currently, islet isolation is performed using harsh collagenases that cause nonspecific injury to both islets and exocrine tissue, negatively affecting the outcome of cell transplantation. We evaluated a novel islet isolation protocol utilizing high concentrations of glucose to cause selective osmotic shock (SOS). Islets have a membrane glucose transporter that allows adaptation to changes in glucose concentrations while exocrine tissue can be selectively destroyed by these osmolar shifts. Canine pancreata were obtained within 15 min after euthanasia from animals ( n = 6) euthanized for reasons unrelated to this study...
March 2018: Cell Transplantation
Camilla Højland Knudsen, Emilía S Ásgrímsdóttir, Karim Rahimi, Katherine P Gill, Søs Frandsen, Susanne Hvolbøl Buchholdt, Muwan Chen, Jørgen Kjems, Fabia Febbraro, Mark Denham
Gene editing in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) has been significantly enhanced by the discovery and development of CRISPR Cas9, a programmable nuclease system that can introduce targeted double-stranded breaks. The system relies on the optimal selection of a sgRNA sequence with low off-targets and high efficiency. We designed an improved monomeric red fluorescent protein reporter, GEmCherry2, for assessing CRISPR Cas9 activity and for optimizing sgRNA. By incorporating an out-of-frame sequence to the N-terminal of the red fluorescent protein mCherry, we created a visual tool for assessing the indel frequency after cutting with CRISPR Cas9...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
Christine Blume, Renata Del Giudice, Malgorzata Wislowska, Dominik P J Heib, Manuel Schabus
While it is a well-established finding that subject's own names (SON) or familiar voices are salient during wakefulness, we here investigated processing of environmental stimuli during sleep including deep N3 and REM sleep. Besides the effects of sleep depth we investigated how sleep-specific EEG patterns (i.e. sleep spindles and slow oscillations [SOs]) relate to stimulus processing. Using 256-channel EEG we studied processing of auditory stimuli by means of event-related oscillatory responses (de-/synchronisation, ERD/ERS) and potentials (ERPs) in N = 17 healthy sleepers...
May 30, 2018: NeuroImage
Asim Najibi, Lars Goerigk
Orbital optimization (OO) has been suggested as a way to solve some short-comings of second-order Møller-Plesset (MP2) variants and double-hybrid density functionals (DHDFs). A closer inspection of the literature, however, shows that the only two studies on OO-DHDFs were limited to three non-empirical PBE-based functionals, which are known to be of only mediocre accuracy. Herein, we provide a more in-depth analysis of OO-DHDFs with the main focus being on main-group thermochemistry, kinetics, and noncovalent interactions...
May 31, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Pilar Liceras-Boillos, David Jimeno, Rósula García-Navas, L Francisco Lorenzo-Martín, Mauricio Menacho-Marquez, Carmen Segrelles, Carmela Gómez, Nuria Calzada, Rocío Fuentes-Mateos, Jesús M Paramio, Xosé R Bustelo, Fernando C Baltanás, Eugenio Santos
Using Sos1-KO, Sos2-KO and Sos1/2-DKO mice, we assessed the functional role of Sos1 and Sos2 in skin homeostasis under physiological and/or pathological conditions. Sos1 depletion resulted in significant alterations of skin homeostasis including reduced keratinocyte proliferation, altered hair follicle and blood vessel integrity in dermis, and reduced adipose tissue in hypodermis. These defects worsened significantly when both Sos1 and Sos2 were absent. Simultaneous Sos1/2 disruption led to severe impairment of the ability to repair skin wounds as well as to almost complete ablation of the neutrophil-mediated inflammatory response in the injury site...
May 29, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biology
Delphine Arbelet-Bonnin, Ibtissem Ben Hamed-Laouti, Patrick Laurenti, Chedly Abdelly, Karim Ben Hamed, François Bouteau
We recently identified two behaviours in cultured cells of the salt accumulating halophyte Cakile maritima: one related to a sustained depolarization due to Na+ influx through the non-selective cation channels leading to programmed cell death of these cells, a second one related to a transient depolarization allowing cells to survive (Ben Hamed-Laouti, 2016). In this study, we considered at the cellular level mechanisms that could participate to the exclusion of Na+ out of the cell and thus participate in the regulation of the internal contents of Na+ and cell survival...
July 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Jörg Schubert, Michael Dechant
Thrombotic microangiopathies are almost devastating diseases leading to death at high frequency if untreated. They consist of at least five distinct entities, TTP, HUS, aHUS, TMA due to drug interference, systemic disease or post therapy TMA. Around 10 years ago there was only one established therapeutic approach as plasmapheresis. Meanwhile, there are new drugs been licensed or within licensing process. Patients with atypical HUS can be treated successfully by the Complement inhibitor Eculizumab. In addition, there is a new inhibitor of von-Willebrand-Polymerisation available...
June 2018: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Qingsong Li, Jianwei Yu, Weizhu Chen, Xiaoyan Ma, Guoxin Li, Guoyuan Chen, Jing Deng
The mechanism and toxicity of TCS degradation by ClO2 was investigated. Intermediate products during the oxidation process were identified by GC/MS and LC/MS. A microtox bioassay and a SOS/umu assay were employed to evaluate the acute toxicity and genotoxicity of the resulting solutions during the chlorination process. The results showed that the reaction between TCS and ClO2 was of second-order overall. The pseudo first-order rate constants (kobs ) exhibited significant dependence on solution pH and chlorine dioxide concentration, with the apparent second-order rate constant, kapp , being 7...
May 14, 2018: Chemosphere
Yosuke Homma, Takashi Shiga, Hiraku Funakoshi, Dai Miyazaki, Atsushi Sakurai, Yoshio Tahara, Ken Nagao, Naohiro Yonemoto, Arino Yaguchi, Naoto Morimura
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the association between the timing of first epinephrine administration (EA) and the neurological outcomes following out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs) with both initial shockable and non-shockable rhythms. METHODS: This was a post-hoc analysis of a multicenter prospective cohort study (SOS-KANTO 2012), which registered OHCA patients in the Kanto region of Japan from January 2012 to March 2013. We included consecutive adult OHCA patients who received epinephrine...
May 21, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Mutsumi Nishida, Kaoru Kahata, Eiko Hayase, Akio Shigematsu, Megumi Sato, Yusuke Kudo, Satomi Omotehara, Takahito Iwai, Junichi Sugita, Hitoshi Shibuya, Chikara Shimizu, Takanori Teshima
BACKGROUND: Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS)/hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD) is a well-documented complication after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Transabdominal ultrasonography (US) enables to visualize blood flow abnormalities and is therefore useful for the diagnosis of SOS/VOD. We herein prospectively evaluated accuracy of a novel ultrasonographic diagnostic scoring system of SOS/VOD based on US findings. METHODS: We carried out US in 106 patients on day 14 and when SOS/VOD was suspected after allogeneic HSCT...
May 24, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Grzegorz Tomasz Kowalik, Jennifer Anne Steeden, David Atkinson, Javier Montalt-Tordera, Kristian Havmand Mortensen, Vivek Muthurangu
PURPOSE: In this study, a golden ratio stack of spiral (GRASS) sequence that used both golden step and golden angle ordering was implemented. The aim was to demonstrate that GRASS acquisitions could be flexibly reconstructed as both cardiac-gated and time-resolved angiograms. METHODS: Image quality of time-resolved and cardiac-gated reconstructions of the GRASS sequence were compared to 3 conventional stack of spirals (SoS) acquisitions in an in silico model. In 10 patients, the GRASS sequence was compared to conventional breath hold angiography (BH-MRA) in terms of image quality and for vessel measurement...
May 25, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
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