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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636838/searching-for-affective-and-cognitive-restoration-examining-the-restorative-effects-of-casual-video-game-play
#1
Michael A Rupp, Richard Sweetman, Alejandra E Sosa, Janan A Smither, Daniel S McConnell
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effects of a passive break, relaxation activity, and casual video game on affect, stress, engagement, and cognitive performance. BACKGROUND: Reducing stress and improving cognitive performance is critical across many domains. Previous studies investigated taking a break, relaxation techniques, or playing a game; however, these methods have not been compared within a single experiment. METHOD: Participants completed a baseline affective and cognitive assessment (ACA), which included the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, shortened version of the Dundee Stress State Questionnaire, and backward digit-span...
June 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635964/elastically-driven-intermittent-microscopic-dynamics-in-soft-solids
#2
Mehdi Bouzid, Jader Colombo, Lucas Vieira Barbosa, Emanuela Del Gado
Soft solids with tunable mechanical response are at the core of new material technologies, but a crucial limit for applications is their progressive aging over time, which dramatically affects their functionalities. The generally accepted paradigm is that such aging is gradual and its origin is in slower than exponential microscopic dynamics, akin to the ones in supercooled liquids or glasses. Nevertheless, time- and space-resolved measurements have provided contrasting evidence: dynamics faster than exponential, intermittency and abrupt structural changes...
June 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635612/consequences-of-lipopolysaccharide-and-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-administration-on-aortic-function-of-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#3
Barbara Kaprinay, Ruzena Sotnikova, Karel Frimmel, Jakub Krizak, Iveta Bernatova, Jana Navarova, Ludmila Okruhlicova
The aim of the work was to study the delayed effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration on endothelial function of the aorta of rats with genetic hypertension. Further, the possibility to ameliorate LPS-induced changes by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) was tested. Rats received a bolus of 1 mg/kg LPS i.p.; n-3 PUFA were administered in the dose of 30 mg/kg daily for 10 days p.o.. Ten days after receiving of LPS, the body weight gain of rats was statistically lower compared to control rats (p < 0...
July 2017: General Physiology and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634659/effects-of-single-moor-baths-on-physiological-stress-response-and-psychological-state-a-pilot-study
#4
M Stier-Jarmer, D Frisch, C Oberhauser, G Immich, M Kirschneck, A Schuh
Moor mud applications in the form of packs and baths are widely used therapeutically as part of balneotherapy. They are commonly given as therapy for musculoskeletal disorders, with their thermo-physical effects being furthest studied. Moor baths are one of the key therapeutic elements in our recently developed and evaluated 3-week prevention program for subjects with high stress level and increased risk of developing a burnout syndrome. An embedded pilot study add-on to this core project was carried out to assess the relaxing effect of a single moor bath...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632007/what-do-medical-students-do-for-self-care-a-student-centered-approach-to-well-being
#5
Erin E Ayala, Aisha M Omorodion, Dennis Nmecha, Jeffrey S Winseman, Hyacinth R C Mason
Phenomenon: Despite the promotion of medical student health and wellness through recent program and curricular changes, research continues to show that medical education is associated with decreased well-being in medical students. Although many institutions have sought to more effectively assess and improve self-care in medical students, no self-care initiatives have been designed using the explicit perspectives of students themselves. APPROACH: Using concept mapping methodology, the research team created a student-generated taxonomy of self-care behaviors taken from a national sample of medical students in response to a brainstorming prompt...
February 16, 2017: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630447/evidence-for-chemical-vapor-induced-2h-to-1t-phase-transition-in-mox2-x%C3%A2-%C3%A2-se-s-transition-metal-dichalcogenide-films
#6
Adam L Friedman, Aubrey T Hanbicki, F Keith Perkins, Glenn G Jernigan, James C Culbertson, Paul M Campbell
Electron-donors can impart charge to the surface of transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) films while interacting with the film via a weak physisorption bond, making them ideal for vapor and gas sensors. We expose monolayer MoS2 and MoSe2 films to strong electron-donor chemical vapor analytes. After analyzing the resultant behavior and taking into consideration doping effects, we conclude that exposure to strong electron-donors could be a method of inducing the semiconductor-metal 2H-1T TMD phase transition...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630432/down-regulation-of-kca2-3-channels-causes-erectile-dysfunction-in-mice
#7
Simon Comerma-Steffensen, Attila Kun, Elise R Hedegaard, Susie Mogensen, Christian Aalkjaer, Ralf Köhler, Birgitte Mønster Christensen, Ulf Simonsen
Modulation of endothelial calcium-activated K(+) channels has been proposed as an approach to restore arterial endothelial cell function in disease. We hypothesized that small-conductance calcium-activated K(+) channels (KCa2.3 or SK3) contributes to erectile function. The research was performed in transgenic mice with overexpression (KCa2.3 (T/T(-Dox))) or down-regulation (KCa2.3 (T/T(+Dox))) of the KCa2.3 channels and wild-type C57BL/6-mice (WT). QPCR revealed that KCa2.3 and KCa1.1 channels were the most abundant in mouse corpus cavernosum...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628950/flexible-fused-azomethine-boron-complex-thermochromic-luminescence-and-thermosalient-behaviors-in-structural-transitions-between-crystalline-polymorphs
#8
Shunsuke Ohtani, Masayuki Gon, Kazuo Tanaka, Yoshiki Chujo
This manuscript reports the multi-functional boron complex presenting aggregation-induced emission (AIE), crystallization-induced emission enhancement (CIEE) and thermosalient behaviors accompanying thermochromic luminescence during crystal-crystal transitions by employing the fused azomethine ligand. In particular, we propose that these properties can be explained by molecular "flexibility" toward external stimuli including temperature changes and photo-excitation, and two types of crystal polymorphs having different absorption and luminescent properties were obtained...
June 19, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626434/the-effect-of-diaphragmatic-breathing-on-attention-negative-affect-and-stress-in-healthy-adults
#9
Xiao Ma, Zi-Qi Yue, Zhu-Qing Gong, Hong Zhang, Nai-Yue Duan, Yu-Tong Shi, Gao-Xia Wei, You-Fa Li
A growing number of empirical studies have revealed that diaphragmatic breathing may trigger body relaxation responses and benefit both physical and mental health. However, the specific benefits of diaphragmatic breathing on mental health remain largely unknown. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of diaphragmatic breathing on cognition, affect, and cortisol responses to stress. Forty participants were randomly assigned to either a breathing intervention group (BIG) or a control group (CG). The BIG received intensive training for 20 sessions, implemented over 8 weeks, employing a real-time feedback device, and an average respiratory rate of 4 breaths/min, while the CG did not receive this treatment...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625113/men-with-a-terminal-illness-relax-their-criteria-for-facial-attractiveness
#10
Dariusz P Danel, Agnieszka E Siennicka, Pawel Fedurek, Tomasz Frackowiak, Piotr Sorokowski, Ewa A Jankowska, Boguslaw Pawlowski
According to the life history paradigm, in life-threatening conditions, sexual selection criteria are relaxed in order to increase the probability of a last resort reproduction, ultimately contributing to reproductive success. This should be reflected in loosened mating preferences - a process observed in nonhuman animals. Studies investigating this aspect in humans, however, are scarce. This study explored the aesthetic preferences towards facial and nonfacial stimuli in terminally ill patients with heart failure (HF) and their healthy, same-sex peers...
July 2017: American Journal of Men's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624852/vasoconstrictor-responsiveness-in-contracting-human-muscle-influence-of-contraction-frequency-contractile-work-and-metabolic-rate
#11
Nicholas T Kruse, William E Hughes, Kenichi Ueda, Darren P Casey
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to examine whether independent effects exist between contractile work and metabolic demand (VO2m) on vasoconstrictor responsiveness (i.e., functional sympatholysis) under different contraction durations matched for total contractile work in exercising human skeletal muscle. METHODS: Ten young men performed rhythmic forearm contractions at 10 and 15% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) which consisted of muscle contractions using the same duty cycle but altering the duration of the contraction-relaxation cycles of exercise and included: 1) fast frequency contractions at 10% MVC (FFC10%) using a contraction relaxation cycle at 1:2 s; 2) slow frequency contractions at 10% MVC (SFC10%) at 2:4 s; and 3) SFC at 15% MVC (SFC15%) at 2:4 s...
June 17, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622803/lab-on-paper-chip-integrated-with-si-gnrs-for-electroanalysis-of-diazepam
#12
Jagriti Narang, Chaitali Singhal, Ashish Mathur, Manika Khanuja, Ankur Varshney, Kartikey Garg, Tulika Dahiya, C S Pundir
We describe herein the fabrication of an electrochemical microfluidic paper based device (EμPAD) for the detection of diazepam, a sedative, anxiety-relieving and muscle-relaxing drug. To achieve it, silica coated gold nanorods (Si@GNRs) were synthesized and drop casted on an electrochemical microfluidic paper based device (EμPAD) for the detection of diazepam. The synthesized composites were characterized by recording its images in scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM)...
August 8, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620011/dietary-restriction-but-not-angiotensin-ii-type-1-receptor-blockade-improves-dna-damage-related-vasodilator-dysfunction%C3%A2-in-rapidly-aging-ercc1-%C3%AE-mice
#13
Haiyan Wu, Bibi S van Thiel, Paula Katherine Bautista-Nino, Erwin Reiling, Matej Durik, Frank P J Leijten, Yanto Ridwan, Renata M C Brandt, Harry van Steeg, Martijn E T Dollé, Wilbert P Vermeij, Jan H J Hoeijmakers, Jeroen Essers, Ingrid van der Pluijm, A H Jan Danser, Anton J M Roks
DNA damage is an important contributor to endothelial dysfunction and age-related vascular disease. Recently, we demonstrated in a DNA repair-deficient, prematurely aging mouse model ( Ercc1(∆/-) mice) that dietary restriction (DR) strongly increases life- and health span, including ameliorating endothelial dysfunction, by preserving genomic integrity. In this mouse mutant displaying prominent accelerated, age-dependent endothelial dysfunction we investigated the signaling pathways involved in improved endothelium-mediated vasodilation by DR, and explore the potential role of the renin-angiotensin system ...
June 15, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618541/qualitative-changes-in-phase-response-curve-and-synchronization-at-the-saddle-node-loop-bifurcation
#14
Janina Hesse, Jan-Hendrik Schleimer, Susanne Schreiber
Prominent changes in neuronal dynamics have previously been attributed to a specific switch in onset bifurcation, the Bogdanov-Takens (BT) point. This study unveils another, relevant and so far underestimated transition point: the saddle-node-loop bifurcation, which can be reached by several parameters, including capacitance, leak conductance, and temperature. This bifurcation turns out to induce even more drastic changes in synchronization than the BT transition. This result arises from a direct effect of the saddle-node-loop bifurcation on the limit cycle and hence spike dynamics...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617952/systolic-ca-2-i-regulates-diastolic-levels-in-rat-ventricular-myocytes
#15
R Sankaranarayanan, K Kistamas, D J Greensmith, L A Venetucci, D A Eisner
[Ca(2+) ]i must be low enough in diastole so that the ventricle is relaxed and can refill with blood. Interference with this will impair relaxation. The factors responsible for regulation of diastolic [Ca(2+) ]i , in particular the relative roles of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and surface membrane are unclear. We investigated the effects on diastolic [Ca(2+) ]i that result from the changes of Ca cycling known to occur in heart failure. Experiments were performed using Fluo-3 in voltage-clamped rat ventricular myocytes...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617599/effects-of-adulteration-technique-on-the-nir-detection-of-melamine-in-milk-powder
#16
Peter F Scholl, Marti M Bergana, Betsy Jean Yakes, Zhuohong Xie, Steven Zbylut, Gerard Downey, Magdi M Mossoba, Joseph Edward Jablonski, Robert Magaletta, Stephen E Holroyd, Martin Buehler, Jianwei Qin, William Jeffrey Hurst, Joseph H LaPointe, Dean E Roberts, Carol Zrybko, Andrew Mackey, Jason D Holton, Greg A Israelson, Anitra Payne, Moon S Kim, Kuanglin Chao, Jeffrey C Moore
The U.S. Pharmacopeia has led an international collaborative project to develop a tool-box of screening methods and reference standards for the detection of milk powder adulteration. During the development of adulterated milk powder reference standards, blending methods used to combine melamine and milk had unanticipated strong effects on the NIR spectrum of melamine. The prominent absorbance band at 1468 nm of melamine was retained when it was dry-blended with skim milk powder but disappeared in wet-blended mixtures, where spray dried milk powder samples were prepared from solution...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617485/non-trivial-rheological-exponents-in-sheared-yield-stress-fluids
#17
Elisabeth Agoritsas, Kirsten Martens
In this work we discuss possible physical origins of non-trivial exponents in the athermal rheology of soft materials at low but finite driving rates. A key ingredient in our scenario is the presence of a self-consistent mechanical noise that stems from the spatial superposition of long-range elastic responses to localized plastically deforming regions. We study analytically a mean-field model, in which this mechanical noise is accounted for by a stress diffusion term coupled to the plastic activity. Within this description we show how a dependence of the shear modulus and/or the local relaxation time on the shear rate introduces corrections to the usual mean-field prediction, concerning the Herschel-Bulkley-type rheological response of exponent 1/2...
June 15, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613887/electrical-tuning-of-exciton-plasmon-polariton-coupling-in-monolayer-mos2-integrated-with-plasmonic-nanoantenna-lattice
#18
Bumsu Lee, Wenjing Liu, Carl H Naylor, Joohee Park, Stephanie C Malek, Jacob S Berger, A T Charlie Johnson, Ritesh Agarwal
Active control of light-matter interactions in semiconductors is critical for realizing next generation optoelectronic devices with real-time control of the system's optical properties and hence functionalities via external fields. The ability to dynamically manipulate optical interactions by applied fields in active materials coupled to cavities with fixed geometrical parameters opens up possibilities of controlling the lifetimes, oscillator strengths, effective mass, and relaxation properties of a coupled exciton-photon (or plasmon) system...
June 15, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612936/sensory-feedback-from-the-urethra-evokes-state-dependent-lower-urinary-tract-reflexes-in-rat
#19
Zachary C Danziger, Warren M Grill
Lower urinary tract reflexes are mediated by peripheral afferents from the bladder (primarily in the pelvic nerve) and the urethra (in the pudendal and pelvic nerves) to maintain continence or initiate micturition. If fluid enters the urethra at low bladder volumes, reflexes relax the bladder and evoke external urethral sphincter (EUS) contraction (guarding reflex) to maintain continence. Conversely, urethral flow at high bladder volumes, excites the bladder (micturition reflex) and relaxes the EUS (augmenting reflex)...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612233/targeting-the-pgd2-crth2-dp1-signaling-pathway-in-asthma-and-allergic-disease-current-status-and-future-perspectives
#20
Maciej Kupczyk, Piotr Kuna
Prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) released by degranulating mast cells is believed to play a key role in orchestrating mechanisms of inflammation in allergies and asthma. The biological effects of PGD2 are mediated by D-prostanoid (DP1), CRTH2 (DP2), and thromboxane prostanoid (TP) receptors. The CRTH2 receptor is involved in induction of migration and activation of T helper type 2 (Th2) lymphocytes, eosinophils, and basophils; up-regulation of adhesion molecules; and promotion of pro-inflammatory Th2-type cytokines (interleukin [IL]-4, 5, 13), whereas the DP receptor is associated with relaxation of smooth muscles, vasodilation, inhibition of cell migration, and apoptosis of eosinophils...
June 13, 2017: Drugs
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