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Relaxation response

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659942/evolutionary-associations-of-endosymbiotic-ciliates-shed-light-on-the-timing-of-the-marsupial-placental-split
#1
Peter Vdacný
Trichostome ciliates are among the most conspicuous protists in the gastrointestinal tract of a large variety of vertebrates. However, little is still known about phylogeny of the trichostome/vertebrate symbiotic systems, evolutionary correlations between trichostome extrinsic traits, and character-dependent diversification of trichostomes. These issues were investigated here, using the relaxed molecular clock technique along with stochastic mapping of character evolution, and binary-state speciation and extinction models...
April 11, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659701/gain-of-function-mutation-of-atdice1-encoding-a-putative-endoplasmic-reticulum-localized-membrane-protein-causes-defects-in-anisotropic-cell-elongation-by-disturbing-cell-wall-integrity-in-arabidopsis
#2
Phi-Yen Le, Hyung-Woo Jeon, Min-Ha Kim, Eung-Jun Park, Hyoshin Lee, Indeok Hwang, Kyung-Hwan Han, Jae-Heung Ko
Background and Aims: Anisotropic cell elongation depends on cell wall relaxation and cellulose microfibril arrangement. The aim of this study was to characterize the molecular function of AtDICE1 encoding a novel transmembrane protein involved in anisotropic cell elongation in Arabidopsis. Methods: Phenotypic characterizations of transgenic Arabidopsis plants mis-regulating AtDICE1 expression with different pharmacological treatments were made, and biochemical, cell biological and transcriptome analyses were performed...
April 5, 2018: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658546/influence-of-molecular-weight-between-crosslinks-on-the-mechanical-properties-of-polymers-formed-via-ring-opening-metathesis
#3
Tyler R Long, Robert M Elder, Erich D Bain, Kevin A Masser, Timothy W Sirk, Jian H Yu, Daniel B Knorr, Joseph L Lenhart
The apparent molecular weight between crosslinks (Mc,a) in a polymer network plays a fundamental role in the network mechanical response. We systematically varied Mc,a independent of strong noncovalent bonding by using ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) to co-polymerize dicyclopentadiene (DCPD) with a chain extender that increases Mc,a or a di-functional crosslinker that decreases Mc,a. We compared the ROMP series quasi-static modulus (E), tensile yield stress (σy), and fracture toughness (KIC and GIC) in the glassy regime with literature data for more polar thermosets...
April 16, 2018: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657351/habitat-heterogeneity-induces-rapid-changes-in-the-feeding-behaviour-of-generalist-arthropod-predators
#4
Karin Staudacher, Oskar Rennstam Rubbmark, Klaus Birkhofer, Gerard Malsher, Daniela Sint, Mattias Jonsson, Michael Traugott
The "habitat heterogeneity hypothesis" predicts positive effects of structural complexity on species coexistence. Increasing habitat heterogeneity can change the diversity (number of species, abundances) and the functional roles of communities. The latter, however, is not well understood as species and individuals may respond very differently and dynamically to a changing environment.Here, we experimentally test how habitat heterogeneity affects generalist arthropod predators, including epigaeic spiders, carabid and staphylinid beetles, under natural conditions by assessing their diversity and directly measuring their trophic interactions (which provide a proxy for their functional roles)...
March 2018: Functional Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655699/scutellarin-protects-against-vascular-endothelial-dysfunction-and-prevents-atherosclerosis-via-antioxidation
#5
Jiao Mo, Renhua Yang, Fan Li, Xiaochao Zhang, Bo He, Yue Zhang, Peng Chen, Zhiqiang Shen
BACKGROUND: Scutellarin is the major constituent responsible for the clinical benefits of Erigeron breviscapus (Vant.) Hand.-Mazz which finds a long history of ethnopharmacological use in Traditional Chinese Medicine. Scutellarin as a pure compound is now under investigation for its protections against various tissue injuries. PURPOSE: This study aims to examine the effects of scutellarin on oxidative stress-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction and endothelial cell damage, and then to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of scutellarin in preventing atherosclerosis in rats...
March 15, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655683/bronchodilator-effects-of-lignosus-rhinocerotis-extract-on-rat-isolated-airways-is-linked-to-the-blockage-of-calcium-entry
#6
Mei-Kee Lee, Kuan-Hon Lim, Paul Millns, Suresh Kumar Mohankumar, Szu-Ting Ng, Chon-Seng Tan, Sue-Mian Then, Yvonne Mbaki, Kang-Nee Ting
BACKGROUND: Lignosus rhinocerotis (Cooke) Ryvarden is a popular medicinal mushroom used for centuries in Southeast Asia to treat asthma and chronic cough. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of this mushroom on airways patency. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The composition of L. rhinocerotis TM02 cultivar was analyzed. Organ bath experiment was employed to study the bronchodilator effect of Lignosus rhinocerotis cold water extract (CWE) on rat isolated airways...
March 15, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652505/dissecting-nanosecond-dynamics-in-membrane-proteins-with-dipolar-relaxation-upon-tryptophan-photoexcitation
#7
Erik Frotscher, Georg Krainer, Michael Schlierf, Sandro Keller
The structural dynamics of proteins on the nanosecond timescale can be probed with dipolar relaxation in response to photoexcitation of intrinsic tryptophan (Trp) residues. For membrane proteins, however, the complexity due to overlapping contributions from the protein itself, the membrane mimic, and the aqueous solvent impairs detailed analysis and interpretation. To disentangle these contributions, we measured time-resolved emission spectra of Trp in the protein Mistic in detergent micelles of various polarities...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649785/albumin-biofunctionalization-to-minimize-the-staphylococcus-aureus-adhesion-on-solid-substrates
#8
María Laura Martín, Valeria Pfaffen, Laura E Valenti, Carla E Giacomelli
Staphylococcus aureus has become the most common opportunistic microorganism related to nosocomial infections due to the bacteria capacity to form biofilms on biomedical devices and implants. Since bacterial adhesion is the first step in this pathogenesis, it is evident that inhibiting such a process will reduce the opportunity for bacterial colonization on the devices. This work is aimed at optimizing a surface biofunctionalization strategy to inhibit the adhesion of S. aureus on solid substrates. The first part of the work deals with the albumin adsorption-desorption process, studied by a factorial design of experiments to explore a wide range of experimental factors (protein concentration, pH, flow rate and adsorption time) and responses (initial adsorption rate, adsorbed amount, desorbed extent) for hydrophilic and hydrophobic substrates, with a reduced number of experiments...
April 3, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643537/-preparation-and-characterization-of-citric-acid-modified-superparamagnetic-iron-oxide-nanoparticles
#9
H Wang, X Y Qin, Z Y Li, Z Z Zheng, T Y Fan
OBJECTIVE: To prepare and characterize citric acid (CA)-modified super paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) for magnetic targeting, hyperthermia and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: CA-modified SPIONs (CA-SPIONs) were prepared by co-precipitation method and then the magnetic responsiveness, morphology, particle size, infrared feature, weight percentage of CA, magnetic property and X-ray diffraction pattern of CA-SPIONs were respectively characterized by magnet, transmission electron microscope, laser particle size analyzer, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetry-differential thermal analyzer, vibrating sample magnetometer and X-ray diffractometer (XRD)...
April 18, 2018: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627825/effect-of-cb1-ligands-on-neurogenic-and-myogenic-contractile-responses-in-the-guinea-pig-ileum
#10
Josef Donnerer, Ingrid Liebmann
This study aimed at investigating whether the synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist (+)-WIN 55212-2 has neurogenic and myogenic relaxant effects on the longitudinal muscle-myenteric plexus (LMMP) strip of the guinea-pig ileum. (+)-WIN 55212-2, 1-1,000 nmol/L, concentration-dependently inhibited both the electrical stimulation-induced cholinergic twitch responses as well as the myogenic smooth muscle contractions in the LMMP preparation. SR-141716A (rimonabant) 1-1,000 nmol/L, the cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist, being without effect on its own, antagonized the (+)-WIN 55212-2-induced effects...
April 6, 2018: Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627324/from-excitation-to-intracellular-ca-2-movements-in-skeletal-muscle-basic-aspects-and-related-clinical-disorders
#11
REVIEW
Bruno Allard
In skeletal muscle fiber, excitation-contraction coupling corresponds to the sequence of events occurring from action potential firing to initiation of contraction by an increase in cytosolic Ca2+ . These events are elicited in response to excitation of the motor neuron which induces trains of action potentials in the muscle cell that spread along the sarcolemma and in depth along the T-tubule membrane. Depolarization of the T-tubule membrane induces a conformational change in a protein complex, called the dihydropyridine receptor, which opens a calcium channel anchored in the membrane of the sarcoplasmic reticulum, called the ryanodine receptor, in charge of release of Ca2+ ions that activate contractile proteins...
March 9, 2018: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626856/nonlinear-dielectric-spectroscopy-of-propylene-carbonate-derivatives
#12
R Casalini, C M Roland
Nonlinear dielectric measurements were carried out on two strongly polar liquids, 4-vinyl-1,3-dioxolan-2-one (VPC) and 4-ethyl-1,3-dioxolan-2-one (EPC), having chemical structures differing from propylene carbonate (PC) only by the presence of a pendant group. Despite their polarity, the compounds are all non-associated, "simple" liquids. From the linear component of the dielectric response, the α relaxation peak breadth was found to be invariant at a fixed value of the relaxation time, τα . From spectra from the nonlinear component, the number of dynamically correlated molecules was determined; it was also constant at fixed τα ...
April 7, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626378/physiological-and-psychological-effects-of-gardening-activity-in-older-adults
#13
Ahmad Hassan, Chen Qibing, Jiang Tao
AIM: Gardening has long been one of most enjoyable pastimes among older adults. Whether gardening activities contribute to the well-being of older adults is a major question. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to clarify the psychophysiological relaxing effects of gardening activities on older adults living in modern institutional care. METHODS: The study participants were 40 older women aged 79.5 ± 8.09 years (mean ± SD). A cross-over study design was used to investigate the physiological and psychological responses to environments with and without plants...
April 6, 2018: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625273/botany-ethnomedicines-phytochemistry-and-pharmacology-of-himalayan-paeony-paeonia-emodi-royle
#14
REVIEW
Mushtaq Ahmad, Khafsa Malik, Akash Tariq, Guolin Zhang, Ghulam Yaseen, Neelam Rashid, Shazia Sultana, Muhammad Zafar, Kifayat Ullah, Muhammad Pukhtoon Zada Khan
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Himalayan paeony (Paeonia emodi Royle.) is an important species used to treat various diseases. This study aimed to compile the detailed traditional medicinal uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicological investigations on P. emodi. This study also highlights taxonomic validity, quality of experimental designs and shortcomings in previously reported information on Himalayan paeony. METHODS: The data was extracted from unpublished theses (Pakistan, China, India and Nepal), and different published research articles confined to pharmacology, phytochemistry and antimicrobial activities using different databases through specific keywords...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621688/influence-of-strain-rate-on-indentation-response-of-porcine-brain
#15
Long Qian, Hongwei Zhao, Yue Guo, Yuanshang Li, Mingxing Zhou, Liguo Yang, Zhiwei Wang, Yifan Sun
Knowledge of brain tissue mechanical properties may be critical for formulating hypotheses about some specific diseases mechanisms and its accurate simulations such as traumatic brain injury (TBI) and tumor growth. Compared to traditional tests (e.g. tensile and compression), indentation shows superiority by virtue of its pinpoint and nondestructive/quasi-nondestructive. As a viscoelastic material, the properties of brain tissue depend on the strain rate by definition. However most efforts focus on the aspect of velocity in the field of brain indentation, rather than strain rate...
March 28, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621141/correcting-calcium-dysregulation-in-chronic-heart-failure-using-serca2a-gene-therapy
#16
REVIEW
T Jake Samuel, Ryan P Rosenberry, Seungyong Lee, Zui Pan
Chronic heart failure (CHF) is a major contributor to cardiovascular disease and is the leading cause of hospitalization for those over the age of 65, which is estimated to account for close to seventy billion dollars in healthcare costs by 2030 in the US alone. The successful therapies for preventing and reversing CHF progression are urgently required. One strategy under active investigation is to restore dysregulated myocardial calcium (Ca2+ ), a hallmark of CHF. It is well established that intracellular Ca2+ concentrations are tightly regulated to control efficient myocardial systolic contraction and diastolic relaxation...
April 5, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620560/unique-autonomic-responses-to-pain-in-yoga-practitioners
#17
Valerie Cotton, Lucie A Low, Chantal Villemure, M Catherine Bushnell
OBJECTIVES: Autonomic nervous system activity is associated with neurobehavioral aspects of pain. Yogis use breathing, relaxation and mindfulness to tolerate pain, which could influence autonomic responses. To evaluate how the link between autonomic responses and pain is altered by other factors, we compared perceptual and autonomic responses to pain between yogis and controls. METHODS: Nineteen yogis and 15 controls rated warm and painfully hot stimuli (1-cm thermode on calf), with visual anticipatory cues indicating certainly painful, certainly non-painful or uncertainly either painful or non-painful...
April 3, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619783/estimation-of-the-effect-site-equilibration-rate-constant-using-the-time-to-peak-effect-of-muscle-relaxants-measured-by-train-of-four-stimulation-during-general-anesthesia-induction
#18
Se Yeon Park, Hyun Jung Kim, Yun Suk Choi, So-Hui Yun, Jong Cook Park
BACKGROUND: The concept of the effect-site concentration of anesthetic agents is important. The effect compartment model can be explained using the concepts of effect-site concentration and effect-site equilibration rate constant ( k e0 ). This study confirms that the time-to-peak effect ( tpe ) can be measured easily in clinical practice by applying a priming dose and train-of-four (TOF) during general anesthesia induction, and k e0 can be calculated from the tpe of the four muscle relaxants that are commonly used in general anesthesia...
April 2018: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619333/role-of-opioids-as-coinduction-agent-with-propofol-and-their-effect-on-apnea-time-recovery-time-and-sedation-score
#19
Manisha Bhatt Dwivedi, Anisha Puri, Sankalp Dwivedi, Harinder Deol
Background: Laryngeal mask airway (LMA) is a supraglottic device which requires lesser depth of anaesthesia, evokes lesser hemodynamic response and causes lesser stimulation of airway as compared to traditional definitive airway device endotracheal tube. Its placement is possible without muscle relaxants thereby allowing maintenance of anaesthesia on spontaneous respiration thus preventing apnoea or minimizing apnoea time. Propofol, the commonly used induction agent, causes cardiorespiratory depression at higher induction doses...
January 2018: International Journal of Critical Illness and Injury Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618971/novel-neurostimulation-of-autonomic-pelvic-nerves-overcomes-bladder-sphincter-dyssynergia
#20
Wendy Yen Xian Peh, Roshini Mogan, Xin Yuan Thow, Soo Min Chua, Astrid Rusly, Nitish V Thakor, Shih-Cheng Yen
The disruption of coordination between smooth muscle contraction in the bladder and the relaxation of the external urethral sphincter (EUS) striated muscle is a common issue in dysfunctional bladders. It is a significant challenge to overcome for neuromodulation approaches to restore bladder control. Bladder-sphincter dyssynergia leads to undesirably high bladder pressures, and poor voiding outcomes, which can pose life-threatening secondary complications. Mixed pelvic nerves are potential peripheral targets for stimulation to treat dysfunctional bladders, but typical electrical stimulation of pelvic nerves activates both the parasympathetic efferent pathway to excite the bladder, as well as the sensory afferent pathway that causes unwanted sphincter contractions...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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