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Relaxation response

Hirotake Ishida, Shin-Ya Saito, Eita Hishinuma, Tomoaki Kitayama, Tomohisa Ishikawa
Our previous studies have shown that α1 -adrenoceptors, in addition to α2 -adrenoceptors, are involved in enhanced contraction of cutaneous blood vessels during cooling. The present study aimed to elucidate the mechanism underlying it. In tail and iliac arteries isolated from rats, isometric contraction was measured using a myograph and the phosphorylation level of myosin phosphatase target subunit 1 (MYPT1) was quantified by western blotting. The phenylephrine-induced contraction was enhanced by cooling to 24°C in tail arteries, but was suppressed in iliac arteries...
February 16, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Tian-Ran Zhou, Jing-Jing Huang, Zi-Tong Huang, Hong-Ying Cao, Bo Tan
AIM: To elucidate the mechanism of patchouli alcohol (PA) in treatment of rat models of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D). METHODS: We studied the effects of PA on colonic spontaneous motility using its cumulative log concentration (3 × 10-7 mol/L to 1 × 10-4 mol/L). We then determined the responses of the proximal and distal colon segments of rats to the following stimuli: (1) carbachol (1 × 10-9 mol/L to 1 × 10-5 mol/L); (2) neurotransmitter antagonists including Nω -nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (10 μmol/L) and (1R*, 2S*)-4-[2-Iodo-6-(methylamino)-9H-purin-9-yl]-2-(phosphonooxy)bicyclo[3...
February 14, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Jose L Calvo-Gallego, Jaime Domínguez, Tomás Gómez Cía, Gorka Gómez Ciriza, Javier Martínez-Reina
Knowing the mechanical properties of human adipose tissue is key to simulate surgeries such as liposuction, mammoplasty and many plastic surgeries in which the subcutaneous fat is present. One of the most important surgeries, for its incidence, is the breast reconstruction surgery that follows a mastectomy. In this case, achieving a deformed shape similar to the healthy breast is crucial. The reconstruction is most commonly made using autologous tissue, taken from the patient's abdomen. The amount of autologous tissue and its mechanical properties have a strong influence on the shape of the reconstructed breast...
February 10, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Ana P Davel, Qing Lu, M Elizabeth Moss, Sitara Rao, Imran J Anwar, Jennifer J DuPont, Iris Z Jaffe
BACKGROUND: The incidence of obesity is rising, particularly among women. Microvascular dysfunction is more common with female sex, obesity, and hyperlipidemia and predicts adverse cardiovascular outcomes, but the molecular mechanisms are unclear. Because obesity is associated with mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) activation, we tested the hypothesis that MR in endothelial cells contribute to sex differences in resistance vessel dysfunction in response to cardiometabolic risk factors. METHODS AND RESULTS: Male and female endothelial cell-specific MR knockout mice and MR-intact littermates were randomized to high-fat-diet-induced obesity or obesity with hyperlipidemia induced by adeno-associated virus-based vector targeting transfer of the mutant stable form (DY mutation) of the human PCSK9 (proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9) gene and compared with control diet...
February 16, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
Sofia André Dias, Emmanuelle Planus, Christelle Angely, Luc Lotteau, Renaud Tissier, Marcel Filoche, Bruno Louis, Gabriel Pelle, Daniel Isabey
During total liquid ventilation, lung cells are exposed to perfluorocarbon (PFC) whose chemophysical properties highly differ from standard aqueous cell feeding medium (DMEM). We herein perform a systematic study of structural and mechanical properties of A549 alveolar epithelial cells in order to characterize their response to PFC exposure, using DMEM as control condition. Changes in F-actin structure, focal adhesion density and glycocalyx distribution are evaluated by confocal fluorescent microscopy. Changes in cell mechanics and adhesion are measured by multiscale magnetic twisting cytometry (MTC)...
February 15, 2018: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
Ariane Migliato Martinelli, Carla Nascimento Dos Santos Rodrigues, Thiago Francisco de Moraes, Gerson Jhonatan Rodrigues
PURPOSE: In endothelial cells, investigate if the soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) activation or stimulation is able to potentiate the relaxation in vessels. METHODS: Aortic and coronary rings with and without endothelium were placed in a myograph and cumulative concentration-effect curves for DETA-NO or ataciguat were performed. Nitric oxide (NO) were measured by fluorescence or by selective electrode in human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVECs) in response to some treatments, including ataciguat, 8-Br-cGMP and A23187...
2018: Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences: a Publication of the Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences
I Kriuchevskyi, J P Wittmer, H Meyer, O Benzerara, J Baschnagel
We investigate by means of molecular dynamics simulation a coarse-grained polymer glass model focusing on (quasistatic and dynamical) shear-stress fluctuations as a function of temperature T and sampling time Δt. The linear response is characterized using (ensemble-averaged) expectation values of the contributions (time averaged for each shear plane) to the stress-fluctuation relation μ_{sf} for the shear modulus and the shear-stress relaxation modulus G(t). Using 100 independent configurations, we pay attention to the respective standard deviations...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
David O López, Josep Salud, María Rosario de la Fuente, Nerea Sebastián, Sergio Diez-Berart
In the present work, a detailed analysis of the glassy behavior and the relaxation dynamics of the liquid crystal dimer α-(4-cyanobiphenyl-4'-yloxy)-ω-(1-pyrenimine-benzylidene-4'-oxy) heptane (CBO7O.Py) throughout both nematic and smectic-A mesophases by means of broadband dielectric spectroscopy has been performed. CBO7O.Py shows three different dielectric relaxation modes and two glass transition (T_{g}) temperatures: The higher T_{g} is due to the freezing of the molecular motions responsible for the relaxation mode with the lowest frequency (μ_{1L}); the lower T_{g} is due to the motions responsible for the two relaxation modes with highest frequencies (μ_{1H} and μ_{2}), which converge just at their corresponding T_{g}...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
Zsigmond Varga, James W Swan
The normal modes and relaxation rates of weak colloidal gels are investigated in calculations using different models of the hydrodynamic interactions between suspended particles. The relaxation spectrum is computed for freely draining, Rotne-Prager-Yamakawa, and accelerated Stokesian dynamics approximations of the hydrodynamic mobility in a normal mode analysis of a harmonic network representing several colloidal gels. We find that the density of states and spatial structure of the normal modes are fundamentally altered by long-ranged hydrodynamic coupling among the particles...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
Marcus Joachim Herzig, Radu Tutuian
Esophageal achalasia is a primary smooth muscle motility disorder specified by aperistalsis of the tubular esophagus in combination with a poorly relaxing and occasionally hypertensive lower esophageal sphincter (LES). These changes occur secondary to the destruction of the neural network coordinating esophageal peristalsis and LES relaxation (plexus myentericus). There are limited data on segmental involvement of the esophagus in adults. We report on the case of a 54-year-old man who presented initially with complete aperistalsis limited to the distal esophagus...
2018: Clujul Medical (1957)
Najeh Rekik, Jamal Suleiman, Paul Blaise, Marek Janusz Wojcik
The aim of this paper is to revisit the quantum spectral density (SD) of weak H-bonds treated without taking into account the relaxation mechanism, as performed using the linear response theory. Within the framework of the strong anharmonic coupling theory, and in the adiabatic approximation, we assimilated that the simplified expression of the classical SD, in absence of damping, is considered to be I_{Cl}(ω)=Re[∫₀^{∞}G_{Cl}(t)e^{-iΩt}dt] in which the classical-like autocorrelation function (ACF) is given by G_{Cl}(t)=tr{ρ(β) {μ(0)}{μ(t)}^{†}}...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Arkajo Majumdar, Rup Kumar Kar
Plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPase and NADPH oxidase (NOX) are two key enzymes responsible for cell wall relaxation during elongation growth through apoplastic acidification and production of ˙OH radical via O2˙-, respectively. Our experiments revealed a putative feed-forward loop between these enzymes in growing roots of Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek seedlings. Thus, NOX activity was found to be dependent on proton gradient generated across PM by H+-ATPase as evident from pharmacological experiments using carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP; protonophore) and sodium ortho-vanadate (PM H+-ATPase inhibitor)...
February 12, 2018: Protoplasma
Krystian Sycz, Adam M Wojciechowski, Wojciech Gawlik
We report on the creation, observation and optimization of superposition states of cold atoms. In our experiments, rubidium atoms are prepared in a magneto-optical trap and later, after switching off the trapping fields, Faraday rotation of a weak probe beam is used to characterize atomic states prepared by application of appropriate light pulses and external magnetic fields. We discuss the signatures of polarization and alignment of atomic spin states and identify main factors responsible for deterioration of the atomic number and their coherence and present means for their optimization, like relaxation in the dark with the strobed probing...
February 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ellen H G Backus, Jenée D Cyran, Maksim Grechko, Yuki Nagata, Mischa Bonn
Time-resolved and two-dimensional sum frequency generation (TR-SFG and 2D-SFG) spectroscopies are promising tools in the experimental study of molecular dynamics, specifically at interfaces. Most implementations of TR/2D-SFG spectroscopy rely on a pump-probe scheme, where an excitation pulse excites a fraction of interfacial molecules into the first excited state of a specific vibrational mode, and a subsequent SFG probe pair detects the time-dependent changes of the surface vibrational response. In steady state SFG spectroscopy, phase-resolved detection (also known as heterodyne-detection), as opposed to SFG intensity measurements, has been shown to be useful in unraveling the steady-state response of interfacial vibrations...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Brandi Wynne, Hicham Labazi, Victor Lima, Fernando Carneiro, R Clinton Webb, Rita C Tostes, Fernanda Regina Giachini
The endothelium is crucial for the maintenance of vascular tone by releasing several vasoactive substances, including nitric oxide (NO). Systemic mean arterial pressure (MAP) is primarily regulated by the resistance vasculature, which has been shown to exhibit increased vascular reactivity, and decreased vasorelaxation during hypertension. Here, we aimed to determine the mechanism for mesenteric artery vasorelaxation of the spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rat (SHRSP). We hypothesized that eNOS is up-regulated in SHRSP vessels, increasing NO production to compensate for the endothelial dysfunction...
February 10, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Hyewon Moon, Jung-Hee Jang, Tae Chang Jang, Gyu Hwan Park
Carbon monoxide (CO) is well-known as toxic gas and intrinsic signaling molecule such as neurotransmitter and blood vessel relaxant. Recently, it has been reported that low concentration of CO exerts therapeutic actions under various pathological conditions including liver failure, heart failure, gastric cancer, and cardiac arrest. However, little has been known about the effect of CO in neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson's disease (PD). To test whether CO could exert a beneficial action during oxidative cell death in PD, we examined the effects of CO on 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced cell death in C6 glioma cells...
February 12, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Julio David Vega-Torres, Elizabeth Haddad, Jeong Bin Lee, Priya Kalyan-Masih, Wanda I Maldonado George, Leonardo López Pérez, Darla M Piñero Vázquez, Yaría Arroyo Torres, José M Santiago Santana, Andre Obenaus, Johnny D Figueroa
BACKGROUND: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and obesity are highly prevalent in adolescents. Emerging findings from our laboratory and others are consistent with the novel hypothesis that obese individuals may be predisposed to developing PTSD. Given that aberrant fear responses are pivotal in the pathogenesis of PTSD, the objective of this study was to determine the impact of an obesogenic Western-like high-fat diet (WD) on neural substrates associated with fear. METHODS: Adolescent Lewis rats (n = 72) were fed with either the experimental WD (41...
February 8, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Anees A Banday, Mustafa F Lokhandwala
Reactive oxygen species induce vascular dysfunction and hypertension by directly interacting with nitric oxide (NO) which leads to NO inactivation. In addition to a decrease in NO bioavailability, there is evidence that oxidative stress can also modulate NO signaling during hypertension. Here, we investigated the effect of oxidative stress on NO signaling molecules cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) and vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) which are known to mediate vasodilatory actions of NO. Male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were provided with tap water (control), 30 mM L-buthionine sulfoximine (BSO, a pro-oxidant), 1 mM tempol (T, an antioxidant) and BSO + T for 3 wks...
February 9, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
Hamilton Kakwere, Maria Elena Materia, Alberto Curcio, Mirko Prato, Ayyappan Sathya, Simone Nitti, Teresa Pellegrino
We demonstrate a versatile approach for the preparation of dually responsive smart inorganic heterostructures (HSs) with the potential for exploitation in nanomedicine. We utilize Au-FexOy dimers as templates for generating smart inorganic HSs with a pH-responsive coating and a thermo-responsive coating attached to iron oxide and gold nanoparticles (NPs), respectively. First, a thiol-modified thermo-responsive (PNIPAAM-co-PEGA) polymer could be selectively attached to the gold domain by ligand exchange. The sequential attachment of a catechol-modified initiator to the iron oxide surface enables the in situ polymerization of a pH-responsive (PDMAEA) polymer...
February 9, 2018: Nanoscale
Jiancai Xu, Baifei Shen, Xiaomei Zhang, Yin Shi, Liangliang Ji, Lingang Zhang, Tongjun Xu, Wenpeng Wang, Xueyan Zhao, Zhizhan Xu
Extreme-ultravoilet (XUV) attosecond pulses with durations of a few tens of attosecond have been successfully applied for exploring ultrafast electron dynamics at the atomic scale. But their weak intensities limit the further application in demonstrating nonlinear responses of inner-shell electrons. Optical attosecond pulses will provide sufficient photon flux to initiate strong-field processes. Here we proposed a novel method to generate an ultra-intense isolated optical attosecond pulse through relativistic multi-cycle laser pulse interacting with a designed gas-foil target...
February 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
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