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Relaxation response

David B MacManus, Baptiste Pierrat, Jeremiah G Murphy, Michael D Gilchrist
The brain is a complex organ made up of many different functional and structural regions consisting of different types of cells such as neurons and glia, as well as complex anatomical geometries. It is hypothesized that the different regions of the brain exhibit significantly different mechanical properties which may be attributed to the diversity of cells within individual brain regions. The regional viscoelastic properties of P56 mouse brain tissue, up to 70 μm displacement, are presented and discussed in the context of traumatic brain injury, particularly how the different regions of the brain respond to mechanical loads...
October 21, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
X Liu, S Yang, C-W Yu, C-Y Chen, K Wu
Reversible histone acetylation and deacetylation at the N-terminus of histone tails play a crucial role in regulation of gene activity. Hyperacetylation of histones relaxes chromatin structure and is associated with transcriptional activation, whereas hypoacetylation of histones induces chromatin compaction and gene repression. Histone acetylation and deacetylation are catalyzed by histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs), respectively. Emerging evidences revealed that plant HATs and HDACs play essential roles in regulation of gene expression in plant development and plant responses to environmental stresses...
2016: Enzymes
Ganna Gryn'ova, Michelle L Coote, Clemence Corminboeuf
The electronic configuration of the molecule is the foundation of its structure and reactivity. The spin state is one of the key characteristics arising from the ordering of electrons within the molecule's set of orbitals. Organic molecules that have open-shell ground states and interesting physicochemical properties, particularly those influencing their spin alignment, are of immense interest within the up-and-coming field of molecular electronics. In this advanced review, we scrutinize various qualitative rules of orbital occupation and spin alignment, viz...
November 2015: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Computational Molecular Science
Takeshi Kinoshita, Masashi Tawa, Tomoaki Suzuki, Yoshinari Aimi, Tohru Asai, Tomio Okamura
OBJECTIVES: The present study was designed to evaluate the association between chronic kidney disease and the endothelial function of internal thoracic artery (ITA) grafts in patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery. An isometric tension study was performed in ITA strips obtained during surgery. Concentration-response curves for acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside were constructed in ITA strips partially precontracted with phenylephrine under the inhibition of cyclooxygenase...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Melanie L Bell, Diane L Fairclough, Mallorie H Fiero, Phyllis N Butow
BACKGROUND: The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) is a widely used questionnaire in health research, but there is little guidance on how to handle missing items. We aimed to investigate approaches to handling item non-response, varying sample size, proportion of subjects with missing items, proportion of missing items per subject, and the missingness mechanism. METHODS: We performed a simulation study based on anxiety and depression data among cancer survivors and patients...
October 22, 2016: BMC Research Notes
N Gamkrelidze, N Pavliashvili, R Otarashvili
This study describes hematocrit values and quantitative changes in plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels according to the severity of crush syndrome (CS) compression and decompression periods. The experiments were carried out on 50 randomly selected 200-250 gr mass Wistar rats with the use of the standard crush syndrome modeling method. The plasma level of ET-1 was determined by the immuneenzyme method with the use of ELISA REDEAR URIT 660. Hematocrit was determined using the standard method and measured according to tube column divisions...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
Annika Clamor, Julian Koenig, Julian F Thayer, Tania M Lincoln
Arousal and the way it is coped with are relevant to the emergence of psychotic symptoms. Heart rate variability (HRV) stems from autonomic responses to environmental demands such as stress and is an index of physiological arousal, adaptability, and homeostatic reflexes forming autonomic balance. A randomized-controlled between-subjects trial that compared HRV-biofeedback (BF) to an active relaxation and to a waiting control condition was conducted in a sample with attenuated subclinical psychotic symptoms (N = 84)...
October 11, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Francesca Bomboi, Flavio Romano, Manuela Leo, Javier Fernandez-Castanon, Roberto Cerbino, Tommaso Bellini, Federico Bordi, Patrizia Filetici, Francesco Sciortino
DNA is acquiring a primary role in material development, self-assembling by design into complex supramolecular aggregates, the building block of a new-materials world. Using DNA nanoconstructs to translate sophisticated theoretical intuitions into experimental realizations by closely matching idealized models of colloidal particles is a much less explored avenue. Here we experimentally show that an appropriate selection of competing interactions enciphered in multiple DNA sequences results into the successful design of a one-pot DNA hydrogel that melts both on heating and on cooling...
October 21, 2016: Nature Communications
Riccardo Bientinesi, Cesare Mancuso, Maria Martire, Pier Francesco Bassi, Emilio Sacco, Diego Currò
Voltage-gated type 7 K(+) (KV7 or KCNQ) channels regulate the contractility of various smooth muscles. With this study, we aimed to assess the role of KV7 channels in the regulation of human detrusor contractility, as well as the gene and protein expression of KV7 channels in this tissue. For these purposes, the isolated organ technique, RT-qPCR, and Western blot were used, respectively. XE-991, a selective KV7 channel blocker, concentration-dependently contracted the human detrusor; mean EC50 and Emax of XE-991-induced concentration-response curve were 14...
October 19, 2016: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
Ipsita Mohanty, Sujit Suklabaidya, Subas Chandra Parija
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to characterize the α1-adrenoceptor (α1-AR) subtypes and evaluate the effect of acidosis on α1-AR function and expression in goat superior mesenteric artery (GSMA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: GSMA rings were mounted in a thermostatically controlled (37.0°C ± 0.5°C) organ bath containing 20 ml of modified Krebs-Henseleit solution, maintained at pHo of 7.4, 6.8, 6.0, 5.5, 5.0, and 4.5. Noradrenaline (NA)- and phenylephrine (PE)-induced contractile response was elicited in the absence or presence of endothelium and prazosin at pHo of 7...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
Stephen B Smith, Zhaobin Xu, Tatiana Novitskaya, Bo Zhang, Elena Chepurko, Xin-An Pu, Debra G Wheeler, Mark Ziolo, Richard J Gumina
AIMS: Prior work suggests that ischemic preconditioning increases the level of CD39 in the heart and contributes to cardiac protection. Therefore, we examined if targeted cardiac expression of CD39 protects against myocardial injury. MAIN METHODS: Mice with cardiac-specific expression of human CD39 (αMHC/hCD39-Tg) were generated, characterized and subjected to left coronary artery ischemia-reperfusion injury and infarct size at 24h following injury quantified. KEY FINDINGS: αMHC/hCD39-Tg mice have increased in cardiac ATPase and ADPase activity compared to WT littermates...
October 15, 2016: Life Sciences
Thashi Chang, Bethan Lang, Angela Vincent
BACKGROUND: Stiff person syndrome is a highly disabling, progressive autoimmune disorder of the central nervous system characterized by muscle rigidity and spasms. Stiff person syndrome is rare, but is believed to be under diagnosed with only 14 cases been reported among a 1.7 billion population in South Asia. We report the first authenticated case from Sri Lanka. CASE PRESENTATION: A 55-year-old Sri Lankan female presented with difficulty in walking and recurrent falls due to progressive muscular rigidity in her lower limbs and trunk with superimposed muscle spasms that occurred in response to unexpected noise, startle or emotional upset...
October 18, 2016: BMC Research Notes
Josef Donnerer, Ingrid Liebmann
Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC, mustard oil, 50-200 µmol/l), depending on specific dosages, inhibited the cholinergic twitch response in the longitudinal muscle-myenteric plexus (LMMP) strip of the guinea-pig ileum. AITC also induced short-lasting contractile responses, and decreases of the basal tone of the LMMP strip at low concentrations and increases at high concentrations. Hexamethonium, a blocker of nicotinic ganglionic transmission, was able to prevent the AITC-evoked inhibitory effect, an effect that was also observed with the opioid antagonist naloxone...
October 19, 2016: Pharmacology
Pierre Paradis, Suellen C Coelho, Sofiane Ouerd, Júlio C Fraulob-Aquino, Stefan Offermanns, Ernesto L Schiffrin
OBJECTIVE: The mechanisms of blood pressure (BP) regulation by endothelin (ET)-1 produced by endothelial cells are complex and remain unclear. Recently, we developed a transgenic mouse with tamoxifen-inducible endothelium-restricted human ET-1 overexpression (ieET-1) using Cre/loxP technology. ieET-1 mice exhibited a BP increase after three weeks of induction in an ET type A receptor-dependent manner, in absence of evident vascular injury. It is unknown whether long-term exposure to ET-1 overexpression results in persistent BP elevation and vascular injury...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Pierre Paradis, Sofiane Ouerd, Noureddine Idris-Khodja, Michelle Trindade, Suellen C Coelho, Karin A Jandeleit-Dahm, Ernesto L Schiffrin
OBJECTIVE: The prognosis of type-1 diabetes remains poor and is primarily related to the increased risk of vascular complications. Overproduction of reactive oxygen species by NADPH oxidase (NOX) is believed to play an important role in diabetes-related vascular injury. NOX1 may play a role in the macrovascular disease, whereas NOX4 may have protective actions. Nevertheless, their role in diabetic microangiopathy is less well understood. We hypothesized that deletion of Nox1 would prevent diabetes-induced endothelial dysfunction and vascular remodeling of small arteries whereas Nox4 would exaggerate vascular injury...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Anthony Heagerty
There is now a considerable body of evidence to suggest that the fat cells that surround blood vessels (perivascular adipose tissue, PVAT) can influence profoundly arterial tone by releasing vasodilator adipokines which can act locally in a paracrine fashion. In healthy lean individuals the primary vasodilator released appears to be adiponectin and there is a complex interation between autonomic nerve firing in PVAT and the release of nitric oxide from adipocytes and an increased bioavailability of adiponectin...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Meghan MacKenzie, Richard Hall
PURPOSE: Knowledge of how alterations in pharmacogenomics and pharmacogenetics may affect drug therapy in the intensive care unit (ICU) has received little study. We review the clinically relevant application of pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics to drugs and conditions encountered in the ICU. SOURCE: We selected relevant literature to illustrate the important concepts contained within. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two main approaches have been used to identify genetic abnormalities - the candidate gene approach and the genome-wide approach...
October 17, 2016: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
Kuen-Lin Chen, Yao-Wei Yeh, Jian-Ming Chen, Yu-Jie Hong, Tsung-Lin Huang, Zu-Yin Deng, Chiu-Hsien Wu, Su-Hsien Liao, Li-Min Wang
Magnetoplasmonic nanoparticles, composed of a plasmonic layer and a magnetic core, have been widely shown as promising contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) applications. However, their application in low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LFNMR) research remains scarce. Here we synthesised γ-Fe2O3/Au core/shell (γ-Fe2O3@Au) nanoparticles and subsequently used them in a homemade, high-Tc, superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) LFNMR system. Remarkably, we found that both the proton spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) and proton spin-spin relaxation time (T2) were influenced by the presence of γ-Fe2O3@Au nanoparticles...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Justin Parreno, Sneha Raju, Po-Han Wu, Rita A Kandel
Chondrocyte culture as a monolayer for cell number expansion results in dedifferentiation whereby expanded cells acquire contractile features and increased actin polymerization status. This study determined whether the actin polymerization based signaling pathway, myocardin-related transcription factor-a (MRTF-A) is involved in regulating this contractile phenotype. Serial passaging of chondrocytes in monolayer culture to passage 2 resulted in increased gene and protein expression of the contractile molecules alpha-smooth muscle actin, transgelin and vinculin compared to non-passaged, primary cells...
October 14, 2016: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
Li-Jie Wang, Wei-Dong Liu, Liang Zhang, Ke-Tao Ma, Lei Zhao, Wen-Yan Shi, Wen-Wen Zhang, Ying-Zi Wang, Li Li, Jun-Qiang Si
Niflumic acid (NFA) is a novel gap junction (GJ) inhibitor. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of NFA on GJ communication and the expression of connexin (Cx) in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) of mesenteric arterioles of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Whole‑cell patch clamp recording demonstrated that NFA at 1x10‑4 M significantly inhibited the inward current and its effect was reversible. The time for charging and discharging of cell membrane capacitance (Cinput) reduced from 9...
September 26, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
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