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Intestinal barrier

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821057/a-cell-penetrating-peptide-mediated-chitosan-nanocarriers-for-improving-intestinal-insulin-delivery
#1
Lei Li, Liaoqing Yang, Manman Li, Liefeng Zhang
To overcome barriers for oral delivery of insulin, the chitosan(CS)-based nanocarriers with a novel cell penetrating peptide (SAR6EW) have been prepared and evaluated in this study. Characterization measurements showed that SAR6EW/CS/insulin-NPs displayed global particles with smooth surfaces and an average diameter about 150nm. The entrapment efficiency and loading rates of insulin were 75.36% and 7.58%, respectively. Insulin could be released constantly from SAR6EW/CS/insulin-NPs in vitro. Furthermore, SAR6EW/CS/insulin-NPs could facilitate the uptake of insulin and induce a significantly higher internalization of insulin via adding clathrin and caveolae mediated endocytosis...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819121/mucus-organisation-is-shaped-by-colonic-content-a-new-view
#2
J B J Kamphuis, M Mercier-Bonin, H Eutamène, V Theodorou
The colonic mucus barrier is commonly described as a continuous double layer covering the epithelium, separating the microbiota from the intestinal tissue. This model is currently considered valid throughout the colon. The colon is characterised by regional anatomo-functional specificities such as presence and consistency of contents and location. In this study, we characterised the organisation of the colonic mucus barrier in proximal and distal colon of rodents by histological and FISH staining, taking into account aforementioned specificities...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818751/nutritional-modulation-of-intestinal-drug-metabolizing-cytochrome-p450-by-butyrate-of-different-origin-in-chicken
#3
Anna Kulcsár, Gábor Mátis, Andor Molnár, Janka Petrilla, László Wágner, Hedvig Fébel, Ferenc Husvéth, Károly Dublecz, Zsuzsanna Neogrády
Intestinal cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes play key role in the first pass metabolism of orally ingested xenobiotics, providing a primary metabolic barrier, being of special importance in maintaining animal health and production. This study was aimed to investigate how intestinal drug-metabolizing CYPs can be modulated by nutritional factors in broiler chicken. We investigated the effects of the natural growth promoter (n-)butyrate of different origin (feed supplementation of protected or non-protected forms and/or inducing caecal microbial production by supporting higher level of dietary non-starch polysaccharides [NSP]) on the activity of duodenal CYPs...
August 1, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817727/pilot-study-of-lithium-to-restore-intestinal-barrier-function-in-severe-graft-versus-host-disease
#4
Gideon Steinbach, David M Hockenbery, Gerwin Huls, Terry Furlong, David Myerson, Keith R Loeb, Jesse R Fann, Christina Castilla-Llorente, George B McDonald, Paul J Martin
Severe intestinal graft-vs-host disease (GVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) causes mucosal ulceration and induces innate and adaptive immune responses that amplify and perpetuate GVHD and the associated barrier dysfunction. Pharmacological agents to target mucosal barrier dysfunction in GVHD are needed. We hypothesized that induction of Wnt signaling by lithium, an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK3), would potentiate intestinal crypt proliferation and mucosal repair and that inhibition of GSK3 in inflammatory cells would attenuate the deregulated inflammatory response to mucosal injury...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814067/neuro-immune-interactions-in-allergic-diseases-novel-targets-for-therapeutics
#5
Tiphaine Voisin, Amélie Bouvier, Isaac M Chiu
Recent studies have highlighted an emerging role for neuro-immune interactions in mediating allergic diseases. Allergies are caused by an overactive immune response to a foreign antigen. The peripheral sensory and autonomic nervous system densely innervates mucosal barrier tissues including the skin, respiratory tract and gastrointestinal (GI) tract that are exposed to allergens. It is increasingly clear that neurons actively communicate with and regulate the function of mast cells, dendritic cells, eosinophils, Th2 cells and type 2 innate lymphoid cells in allergic inflammation...
June 1, 2017: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812548/bacteroidales-recruit-il-6-producing-intraepithelial-lymphocytes-in-the-colon-to-promote-barrier-integrity
#6
K A Kuhn, H M Schulz, E H Regner, E L Severs, J D Hendrickson, G Mehta, A K Whitney, D Ir, N Ohri, C E Robertson, D N Frank, E L Campbell, S P Colgan
Interactions between the microbiota and distal gut are important for the maintenance of a healthy intestinal barrier; dysbiosis of intestinal microbial communities has emerged as a likely contributor to diseases that arise at the level of the mucosa. Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) are positioned within the epithelial barrier, and in the small intestine they function to maintain epithelial homeostasis. We hypothesized that colon IELs promote epithelial barrier function through the expression of cytokines in response to interactions with commensal bacteria...
August 16, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811479/membrane-free-culture-and-real-time-barrier-integrity-assessment-of-perfused-intestinal-epithelium-tubes
#7
Sebastiaan J Trietsch, Elena Naumovska, Dorota Kurek, Meily C Setyawati, Marianne K Vormann, Karlijn J Wilschut, Henriëtte L Lanz, Arnaud Nicolas, Chee Ping Ng, Jos Joore, Stefan Kustermann, Adrian Roth, Thomas Hankemeier, Annie Moisan, Paul Vulto
In vitro models that better reflect in vivo epithelial barrier (patho-)physiology are urgently required to predict adverse drug effects. Here we introduce extracellular matrix-supported intestinal tubules in perfused microfluidic devices, exhibiting tissue polarization and transporter expression. Forty leak-tight tubules are cultured in parallel on a single plate and their response to pharmacological stimuli is recorded over 125 h using automated imaging techniques. A study comprising 357 gut tubes is performed, of which 93% are leak tight before exposure...
August 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811235/sodium-butyrate-ameliorates-s100-fca-induced-autoimmune-hepatitis-through-regulation-of-intestinal-tight-junction-and-toll-like-receptor-signaling-pathway
#8
Jin-Lu Wu, Jia-Yun Zou, En-De Hu, Da-Zhi Chen, Lu Chen, Feng-Bin Lu, Lan-Man Xu, Ming-Hua Zheng, Hui Li, Yu Huang, Xiao-Ya Jin, Yue-Wen Gong, Zhuo Lin, Xiao-Dong Wang, Ming-Fang Zhao, Yong-Ping Chen
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Recent investigation revealed that dysbiosis in the gut flora and disruption of permeability of intestinal barrier are possible causes for the development of autoimmune hepatitis. Supplementation of sodium butyrate has been suggested to protect liver injury from disrupted permeability of small intestine. In current study, we employed S100/Freund's complete adjuvant induced autoimmune hepatitis to investigate therapeutic efficacy of sodium butyrate and its mechanism in the liver and upper small intestine...
August 12, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808163/a-role-for-fimh-in-extraintestinal-pathogenic-escherichia-coli-invasion-and-translocation-through-the-intestinal-epithelium
#9
Nina M Poole, Sabrina I Green, Anubama Rajan, Luz E Vela, Xi-Lei Zeng, Mary K Estes, Anthony W Maresso
The translocation of bacteria across the intestinal epithelium of immunocompromised patients can lead to bacteremia and life-threatening sepsis. Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC), so named because this pathotype infects tissues distal to the intestinal tract, is a frequent cause of such infections, is often multidrug resistant, and chronically colonizes a sizable portion of the healthy population. Although several virulence factors and their roles in pathogenesis are well described for ExPEC that cause urinary tract infections and meningitis, they have not been linked to translocation through intestinal barriers, a fundamentally distant yet important clinical phenomenon...
August 14, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807632/development-of-an-in-vitro-co-culture-model-to-mimic-the-human-intestine-in-healthy-and-diseased-state
#10
Angela A M Kämpfer, Patricia Urbán, Sabrina Gioria, Nilesh Kanase, Vicki Stone, Agnieszka Kinsner-Ovaskainen
The intestine forms the largest interface between the environment and the human organism. Its integrity and functioning are crucial for the uptake of nutrients while preventing access of harmful antigens. Inflammatory conditions can significantly change the normal functioning of the intestine. In vitro models that adequately reproduce both healthy and inflamed intestinal tissue could provide a useful tool for studying the mechanisms of intestinal inflammation and investigating new therapeutic drugs. We established a co-culture of Caco-2 and PMA-differentiated THP-1 cells that mimics the intestine in healthy and controlled inflamed states...
August 11, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805232/the-protective-effect-of-heme-oxygenase-1-against-intestinal-barrier-dysfunction-in-cholestatic-liver-injury-is-associated-with-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-inhibition
#11
Lijing Zhang, Zhenling Zhang, Bojia Liu, Yanling Jin, Yan Tian, Yi Xin, Zhijun Duan
Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is reported to protect against liver injury, but little is known about its effect on the intestinal barrier in cholestatic liver injury. In this study, we investigated the effects of HO-1 and its enzymatic by-product on intestinal barrier dysfunction in bile duct ligation (BDL) rats and explored the possible mechanism. The HO-1 inducer cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP) and carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-2 (CORM-2) were used; the expression levels of tight junction (TJ) proteins, intestinal inflammation and NF-κB p65 were measured...
August 9, 2017: Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804910/t-cell-protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-prevents-stat1-induction-of-claudin-2-expression-in-intestinal-epithelial-cells
#12
Moorthy Krishnan, Declan F McCole
T cell protein tyrosine phosphatase (TCPTP) dephosphorylates a number of substrates, including JAK-STAT (signal transducer and activator of transcription) signaling proteins, which are activated by interferon (IFN)-γ, a major proinflammatory cytokine involved in conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease. A critical function of the intestinal epithelium is formation of a selective barrier to luminal contents. The structural units of the epithelium that regulate barrier function are the tight junctions (TJs), and the protein composition of the TJ determines the tightness of the barrier...
August 14, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803860/intestinal-permeability-changes-systemic-endotoxemia-inflammatory-serum-markers-and-sepsis-after-whipple-s-operation-for-carcinoma-of-the-pancreas-head
#13
Mario Schietroma, Beatrice Pessia, Francesco Carlei, Gianfranco Amicucci
POURPOSE: The aim was to evaluate the relationship between failure of gut barrier function, inflammatory markers and septic complications after pancreatoduodenectomy for pancreatic adenocarcinoma. METHODOLOGY: 44 patients were enrolled in this prospective observational clinical study and underwent curative open pancreatoduodenectomy for adenocarcinoma of the head of the pancreas. All patients underwent assessment of intestinal permeability using the lactulose/manitol excretions ratios (L/M ratio), endotoxemia, IL-1β, IL-6, CRP, and elastase levels before surgery and on postoperative days 1, 3 and 7...
July 29, 2017: Pancreatology: Official Journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795875/animal-models-for-studying-epithelial-barriers-in-neonatal-necrotizing-enterocolitis-inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-colorectal-cancer
#14
Tiaosi Xing, Rolando Camacho Salazar, Yan-Hua Chen
The intestinal epithelial cells line the luminal surface of the entire gastrointestinal tract which is crucial for the absorption of nutrients and prevention of pathogens entering from the external environment. The epithelial barrier plays an important role in organ development, disease pathogenesis, and aging. The major component of an epithelial barrier is the single columnar epithelium and tight junctions. Tight junctions are located at the most apical region of the junctional complex and contain many integral membrane proteins, such as occludin, the claudin family, and junctional adhesion molecules (JAMs)...
July 20, 2017: Tissue Barriers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795125/the-microbiome-activates-cd4-t-cell-mediated-immunity-to%C3%A2-compensate-for-increased-intestinal-permeability
#15
Karen L Edelblum, Gil Sharon, Gurminder Singh, Matthew A Odenwald, Anne Sailer, Severine Cao, Sarina Ravens, Irene Thomsen, Kamal El Bissati, Rima McLeod, Chen Dong, Sandeep Gurbuxani, Immo Prinz, Sarkis K Mazmanian, Jerrold R Turner
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Despite a prominent association, chronic intestinal barrier loss is insufficient to induce disease in human subjects or experimental animals. We hypothesized that compensatory mucosal immune activation might protect individuals with increased intestinal permeability from disease. We used a model in which intestinal barrier loss is triggered by intestinal epithelial-specific expression of constitutively active myosin light chain kinase (CA-MLCK). Here we asked whether constitutive tight junction barrier loss impacts susceptibility to enteric pathogens...
September 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792444/role-of-microbial-modulation-in-management-of-atopic-dermatitis-in-children
#16
REVIEW
Lies Hulshof, Belinda Van't Land, Aline B Sprikkelman, Johan Garssen
The pathophysiology of atopic dermatitis (AD) is multifactorial and is a complex interrelationship between skin barrier, genetic predisposition, immunologic development, skin microbiome, environmental, nutritional, pharmacological, and psychological factors. Several microbial modulations of the intestinal microbiome with pre- and/or probiotics have been used in AD management, with different clinical out-come (both positive, as well as null findings). This review provides an overview of the clinical evidence from trials in children from 2008 to 2017, aiming to evaluate the effect of dietary interventions with pre- and/or pro-biotics for the treatment of AD...
August 9, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783595/surfactants-enhance-recovery-of-poorly-soluble-drugs-during-microdialysis-sampling-implications-for-in-vitro-dissolution-permeation-studies
#17
Sebastian Koplin, Mont Kumpugdee-Vollrath, Annette Bauer-Brandl, Martin Brandl
Aim of this project was to investigate the applicability of a recently developed in vitro microdialysis-sampling approach in connection with a dissolution-/permeation (D/P) system, especially the impact of surfactants within the perfusion fluid. The D/P-system is based on side-by-side chambers, separated by a barrier that simulates the intestinal barrier. Here, in contrast to conventional D/P-systems, the dissolution of the drug (donor chamber concentration) is followed by microdialysis sampling. This approach appears promising, because it is expected not to disturb the dynamic interplay between drug-dissolution (-release) and drug permeation...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783107/the-role-of-sphingolipids-on-innate-immunity-to-intestinal-salmonella-infection
#18
REVIEW
Fu-Chen Huang
Salmonella spp. remains a major public health problem for the whole world. To reduce the use of antimicrobial agents and drug-resistant Salmonella, a better strategy is to explore alternative therapy rather than to discover another antibiotic. Sphingolipid- and cholesterol-enriched lipid microdomains attract signaling proteins and orchestrate them toward cell signaling and membrane trafficking pathways. Recent studies have highlighted the crucial role of sphingolipids in the innate immunity against infecting pathogens...
August 7, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783045/macrophage-derived-il-10-mediates-mucosal-repair-by-epithelial-wisp-1-signaling
#19
Miguel Quiros, Hikaru Nishio, Philipp A Neumann, Dorothee Siuda, Jennifer C Brazil, Veronica Azcutia, Roland Hilgarth, Monique N O'Leary, Vicky Garcia-Hernandez, Giovanna Leoni, Mingli Feng, Gabriela Bernal, Holly Williams, Priya H Dedhia, Christian Gerner-Smidt, Jason Spence, Charles A Parkos, Timothy L Denning, Asma Nusrat
In response to injury, epithelial cells migrate and proliferate to cover denuded mucosal surfaces and repair the barrier defect. This process is orchestrated by dynamic crosstalk between immune cells and the epithelium; however, the mechanisms involved remain incompletely understood. Here, we report that IL-10 was rapidly induced following intestinal mucosal injury and was required for optimal intestinal mucosal wound closure. Conditional deletion of IL-10 specifically in CD11c-expressing cells in vivo implicated macrophages as a critical innate immune contributor to IL-10-induced wound closure...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782582/development-and-in-vitro-characterization-of-a-papain-loaded-mucolytic-self-emulsifying-drug-delivery-system-sedds
#20
Christina Leichner, Claudia Menzel, Flavia Laffleur, Andreas Bernkop-Schnürch
The aim of the study was to create a self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) with mucolytic properties based on incorporated papain for improved mucus permeation. In order to increase the lipophilicity of the enzyme and to dissolve it in SEDDS, hydrophobic ion pairing with sodium deoxycholate in a molar ratio of 20:1 (surfactant: enzyme) was performed. The yield of precipitated papain was 86.8±2.7% and the ion pair was loaded into the formulations to 1% (m/m). Suitable formulations were chosen according to their properties to dissolve the ion pair and characterized regarding droplet size and polydispersity index...
August 3, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
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