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Intestinal barrier

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316376/the-role-of-intestinal-alkaline-phosphatase-in-inflammatory-disorders-of-gastrointestinal-tract
#1
REVIEW
Jan Bilski, Agnieszka Mazur-Bialy, Dagmara Wojcik, Janina Zahradnik-Bilska, Bartosz Brzozowski, Marcin Magierowski, Tomasz Mach, Katarzyna Magierowska, Tomasz Brzozowski
Over the past few years, the role of intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) as a crucial mucosal defence factor essential for maintaining gut homeostasis has been established. IAP is an important apical brush border enzyme expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and secreted both into the intestinal lumen and into the bloodstream. IAP exerts its effects through dephosphorylation of proinflammatory molecules including lipopolysaccharide (LPS), flagellin, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) released from cells during stressful events...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316127/melatonin-pretreatment-improves-gastric-mucosal-blood-flow-and-maintains-intestinal-barrier-function-during-hemorrhagic-shock-in-dogs
#2
Christian Vollmer, Andreas P M Weber, Martin Wallenfang, Till Hoffmann, Tabea Mettler-Altmann, Richard Truse, Inge Bauer, Olaf Picker, Alexander M Mathes
OBJECTIVE: Melatonin improves hepatic perfusion after hemorrhagic shock and may reduce stress-induced gastric lesions. This study was designed to investigate whether pretreatment with melatonin may influence gastric mucosal microcirculatory perfusion (μflow), oxygenation (μHbO2 ) or intestinal barrier function during physiological and hemorrhagic conditions in dogs. METHODS: In a randomized cross-over study, five anesthetized foxhounds received melatonin 100 μg/kg or vehicle (ethanol 5%) intravenously in the absence or presence of hemorrhagic shock (60 min, -20% blood volume)...
March 18, 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316036/targeting-the-microbiome-in-heart-failure
#3
REVIEW
Allyson Zabell, W H Wilson Tang
Heart failure is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the world today. While there have been major advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of heart failure over the past decades, disease progression remains inevitable in the majority of patients and effective therapies to prevent heart failure are still lacking. Research has turned to better understand the gut microbiome because alterations in their ecosystems have been associated with various downstream chronic conditions including cardiovascular diseases...
April 2017: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315470/the-nitric-oxide-synthase-2-pathway-is-targeted-by-both-pro-and-anti-inflammatory-treatments-in-the-immature-human-intestine
#4
Emanuela Ferretti, Eric Tremblay, Marie-Pier Thibault, David Grynspan, Karolina M Burghardt, Marcos Bettolli, Corentin Babakissa, Emile Levy, Jean-François Beaulieu
BACKGROUND AND AIM: NO synthase 2 (NOS2) was recently identified as one the most overexpressed genes in intestinal samples of premature infants with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). NOS2 is widely implicated in the processes of epithelial cell injury/apoptosis and host immune defense but its specific role in inflammation of the immature human intestinal mucosa remains unclear. Interestingly, factors that prevent NEC such as epidermal growth factor (EGF) attenuate the inflammatory response in the mid-gestation human small intestine using serum-free organ culture while drugs that are associated with NEC occurrence such as the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, indomethacin (INDO), exert multiple detrimental effects on the immature human intestine...
March 14, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302479/mir-126-impairs-the-intestinal-barrier-function-via-inhibiting-s1pr2-mediated-activation-of-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathway
#5
Tanzhou Chen, Haibo Xue, Ruoyang Lin, Zhiming Huang
BACKGROUND: Aberrant expression of miRNAs was a critical element in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This study aimed to explore the involvement and mechanism of miR-126 in IBD. METHODS: In this study, the endogenous expressions of miR-126, S1PR2 and S1P in the pathological tissues of patients with IBD were detected using qRT-PCR and western blot assay, respectively. The luciferase reporter gene assay was performed to confirm the targeting regulatory relation between miR-126 and S1PR2...
March 13, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302403/surfactin-variants-for-intra-intestinal-delivery-of-insulin
#6
Li Zhang, Xiaoying Xing, Jia Ding, Xiuyun Zhao, Gaofu Qi
Surfactin is a Bacillus-produced natural lipopeptide, which can overcome the epithelial cell barriers for orally delivering insulin, but its ability to promote uptake of insulin by the intestine need to be further improved for a higher oral bioavailability. Here, we designed and synthesized several surfactin variants to improve its ability for oral delivery of insulin. Firstly, we replaced Glu with Gln in surfactin for decreasing its negative charges, but found this replacement weakened its ability to orally delivery insulin...
March 13, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300220/effects-of-gliadin-consumption-on-the-intestinal-microbiota-and-metabolic-homeostasis-in-mice-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#7
Li Zhang, Daniel Andersen, Henrik Munch Roager, Martin Iain Bahl, Camilla Hartmann Friis Hansen, Niels Banhos Danneskiold-Samsøe, Karsten Kristiansen, Ilinca Daria Radulescu, Christian Sina, Henrik Lauritz Frandsen, Axel Kornerup Hansen, Susanne Brix, Lars I Hellgren, Tine Rask Licht
Dietary gluten causes severe disorders like celiac disease in gluten-intolerant humans. However, currently understanding of its impact in tolerant individuals is limited. Our objective was to test whether gliadin, one of the detrimental parts of gluten, would impact the metabolic effects of an obesogenic diet. Mice were fed either a defined high-fat diet (HFD) containing 4% gliadin (n = 20), or a gliadin-free, isocaloric HFD (n = 20) for 23 weeks. Combined analysis of several parameters including insulin resistance, histology of liver and adipose tissue, intestinal microbiota in three gut compartments, gut barrier function, gene expression, urinary metabolites and immune profiles in intestinal, lymphoid, liver and adipose tissues was performed...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300206/corrigendum-functional-coupling-of-human-microphysiology-systems-intestine-liver-kidney-proximal-tubule-blood-brain-barrier-and-skeletal-muscle
#8
Lawrence Vernetti, Albert Gough, Nicholas Baetz, Sarah Blutt, James R Broughman, Jacquelyn A Brown, Jennifer Foulke-Abel, Nesrin Hasan, Julie In, Edward Kelly, Olga Kovbasnjuk, Jonathan Repper, Nina Senutovitch, Janet Stabb, Catherine Yeung, Nick C Zachos, Mark Donowitz, Mary Estes, Jonathan Himmelfarb, George Truskey, John P Wikswo, D Lansing Taylor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297801/-effect-of-curcumin-on-intestinal-mucosal-mechanical-barrier-in-rats-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#9
H T Hou, Y M Qiu, H W Zhao, D H Li, Y T Liu, Y Z Wang, S H Su
Objective: To investigate the effect of curcumin on intestinal mucosal mechanical barrier in rats with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Methods: A total of 30 male Sprague-Dawley rats were equally divided into normal control group, model group, and curcumin intervention group. The rats in the model group and the curcumin intervention group were given high-fat feed for 16 weeks, and those in the curcumin intervention group were given curcumin 200 mg/kg/day by gavage once a day after 8 weeks of high-fat feeding...
February 20, 2017: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296078/botulinum-neurotoxin-type-b-uses-a-distinct-entry-pathway-mediated-by-cdc42-into-intestinal-cells-versus-neuronal-cells
#10
Chloé Connan, Marie Voillequin, Carolina Varela Chavez, Christelle Mazuet, Christian Leveque, Sandrine Vitry, Alain Vandewalle, Michel R Popoff
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are responsible for severe flaccid paralysis by inhibiting the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junctions. BoNT/B most often induces mild forms of botulism with predominant dysautonomic symptoms. In food borne botulism and botulism by intestinal colonization such as infant botulism, which are the most frequent naturally acquired forms of botulism, the digestive tract is the main entry route of BoNTs into the organism. We previously showed that BoNT/B translocates through mouse intestinal barrier by an endocytosis-dependent mechanism and subsequently targets neuronal cells, mainly cholinergic neurons, in the intestinal mucosa and musculosa...
March 11, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295407/alcoholic-liver-disease-on-the-rise-interorgan-cross-talk-driving-liver-injury
#11
Srinivasan Dasarathy, J Mark Brown
Advanced alcoholic liver disease (ALD) represents a substantial public health burden, threatening the lives of more than ten million people in the United States. Although the direct harmful effects of alcohol in the liver are nearly universally recognized, emerging evidence suggests alcohol also adversely affects other organs such as the intestine, skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, and likely many other tissues. In fact, the extrahepatic effects of alcohol clearly converge to impact the morbidity and mortality associated with chronic alcohol abuse...
March 10, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293241/a-potential-role-of-salmonella-infection-in-the-onset-of-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#12
REVIEW
Bárbara M Schultz, Carolina A Paduro, Geraldyne A Salazar, Francisco J Salazar-Echegarai, Valentina P Sebastián, Claudia A Riedel, Alexis M Kalergis, Manuel Alvarez-Lobos, Susan M Bueno
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) includes a set of pathologies that result from a deregulated immune response that may affect any portion of the gastrointestinal tract. The most prevalent and defined forms of IBD are Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Although the etiology of IBD is not well defined, it has been suggested that environmental and genetic factors contribute to disease development and that the interaction between these two factors can trigger the pathology. Diet, medication use, vitamin D status, smoking, and bacterial infections have been proposed to influence or contribute to the onset or development of the disease in susceptible individuals...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292985/binding-of-candida-albicans-to-human-ceacam1-and-ceacam6-modulates-the-inflammatory-response-of-intestinal-epithelial-cells
#13
Esther Klaile, Mario M Müller, Miriam R Schäfer, Ann-Katrin Clauder, Sabina Feer, Kerstin A Heyl, Magdalena Stock, Tilman E Klassert, Peter F Zipfel, Bernhard B Singer, Hortense Slevogt
Candida albicans colonizes human mucosa, including the gastrointestinal tract, as a commensal. In immunocompromised patients, C. albicans can breach the intestinal epithelial barrier and cause fatal invasive infections. Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1; CD66a), CEACAM5 (CEA), and CEACAM6 (CD66c) are immunomodulatory receptors expressed on human mucosa and are recruited by bacterial and viral pathogens. Here we show for the first time that a fungal pathogen (i.e., C. albicans) also binds directly to the extracellular domain of human CEACAM1, CEACAM3, CEACAM5, and CEACAM6...
March 14, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290734/quantitative-biokinetics-of-titanium-dioxide-nanoparticles-after-oral-application-in-rats-part-2
#14
Wolfgang G Kreyling, Uwe Holzwarth, Carsten Schleh, Ján Kozempel, Alexander Wenk, Nadine Haberl, Stephanie Hirn, Martin Schäffler, Jens Lipka, Manuela Semmler-Behnke, Neil Gibson
The biokinetics of a size-selected fraction (70nm median size) of commercially available and (48)V-radiolabeled [(48)V]TiO2 nanoparticles has been investigated in female Wistar-Kyoto rats at retention timepoints 1h, 4h, 24h and 7days after oral application of a single dose of an aqueous [(48)V]TiO2-nanoparticle suspension by intra-esophageal instillation. A completely balanced quantitative body clearance and biokinetics in all organs and tissues was obtained by applying typical [(48)V]TiO2-nanoparticle doses in the range of 30-80 μg•kg(-1) bodyweight, making use of the high sensitivity of the radiotracer technique...
March 14, 2017: Nanotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290057/intestinal-fatty-acid-binding-protein-and-gut-permeability-responses-to-exercise
#15
Daniel S March, Tania Marchbank, Raymond J Playford, Arwel W Jones, Rhys Thatcher, Glen Davison
PURPOSE: Intestinal cell damage due to physiological stressors (e.g. heat, oxidative, hypoperfusion/ischaemic) may contribute to increased intestinal permeability. The aim of this study was to assess changes in plasma intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (I-FABP) in response to exercise (with bovine colostrum supplementation, Col, positive control) and compare this to intestinal barrier integrity/permeability (5 h urinary lactulose/rhamnose ratio, L/R). METHODS: In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design, 18 males completed two experimental arms (14 days of 20 g/day supplementation with Col or placebo, Plac)...
March 13, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287113/loss-of-t-cell-protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-in-the-intestinal-epithelium-promotes-local-inflammation-by-increasing-colonic-stem-cell-proliferation
#16
Stéphanie Bussières-Marmen, Valérie Vinette, Jeremy Gungabeesoon, Isabelle Aubry, Luis Alberto Pérez-Quintero, Michel L Tremblay
T-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase (TC-PTP) has a critical role in the development of the immune system and has been identified as a negative regulator of inflammation. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the TC-PTP locus have been associated with increased susceptibility to inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) in patients. To further understand how TC-PTP is related to IBDs, we investigated the role of TC-PTP in maintaining the intestinal epithelial barrier using an in vivo genetic approach. Intestinal epithelial cell (IEC)-specific deletion of TC-PTP was achieved in a mouse model at steady state and in the context of dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis...
March 13, 2017: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286570/strain-specific-probiotic-properties-of-lactic-acid-bacteria-and-their-interference-with-human-intestinal-pathogens-invasion
#17
Raffaella Campana, Saskia van Hemert, Wally Baffone
BACKGROUND: One of the working mechanisms of probiotic bacteria is their ability to compete with pathogens. To define the probiotic properties of seven Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) strains, we tested them for survival in simulated gastro-intestinal conditions, antimicrobial activities, co-aggregative abilities, and interferences studies against five human intestinal pathogens (Salmonella enteritidis ATCC 13076, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644, Escherichia coli O157: H7 ATCC 35150, Cronobacter sakazakii ATCC 29544 and Campylobacter jejuni ATCC 33291)...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286313/characterization-and-expression-analysis-of-chitinase-genes-chit1-chit2-and-chit3-in-turbot-scophthalmus-maximus-l-following-bacterial-challenge
#18
Chengbin Gao, Xin Cai, Yu Zhang, Baofeng Su, Huanhuan Song, Chao Li
Chitinases are hydrolytic enzymes which have been employed to breakdown chitin coats of pathogenic microorganisms, thereby weaken the defense system of several pathogens and insects. In this regard, we identified the chitinase genes of turbot and characterized their expression patterns in mucosal tissues following Vibrio anguillarum and Streptococcus iniae challenge. In present study, transcripts of three chitinase genes (CHIT1, CHIT2 and CHIT3) were captured, as well as their protein structures and expression patterns following different bacterial infection were characterized...
March 9, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286112/the-gut-microbiome-and-microbial-translocation-in-multiple-sclerosis
#19
REVIEW
Ali Mirza, Yang Mao-Draayer
Individuals with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) have a distinct intestinal microbial community (microbiota) and increased low-grade translocation of bacteria from the intestines into the circulation. Immunopathologies shared with MS are regulated by bacteria reduced in individuals with MS. These bacteria regulate systemic and central nervous system (CNS) immunity including regulatory T cell function, blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, CNS-resident cells. This review discusses the MS intestinal microbiota structure implication on MS systemic- and CNS-immunopathology...
March 9, 2017: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285659/candida-albicans-infection-and-intestinal-immunity
#20
REVIEW
Yiqing Tong, Jianguo Tang
Fungal infections cause high rates of morbidity and mortality in intensive care and immunocompromised patients, and can represent a life-threatening disease. As a microorganism commonly found in the intestine, Candida albicans (C. albicans) can invade the gut epithelium barrier via microfold cells and enter the bloodstream. The defensive potential of the intestinal barrier against invasive C. albicans is dependent on innate and adaptive immune responses which enable the host to eliminate pathogenic fungi. The lamina propria layer of the intestine contains numerous immune cells capable of inducing an innate cellular immune response against invasive fungi...
May 2017: Microbiological Research
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