Read by QxMD icon Read


Zhen Zeng, Yong Wang, Nana Adwoa Nkuma Johnson, Guang-Dong Wang, Qin Yao, Ke-Ping Chen
Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors play essential roles in regulating eukaryotic developmental and physiological processes such as neuron generation, myocyte formation, intestinal tissue development, and response to environmental stress. In this study, the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), genome was found to encode 52 bHLH genes. All 52 P. xylostella bHLH (PxbHLH) genes were classified into correspondent bHLH families according to their orthology with bHLHs from fruit fly and other insect species...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Hee Jin Jung, A Kyoung Lee, Yeo Jin Park, Sanggwon Lee, Dongwan Kang, Young Suk Jung, Hae Young Chung, Hyung Ryong Moon
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure is the primary cause of extrinsic skin aging, which results in skin hyperpigmentation and wrinkling. In this study, we investigated the whitening effect of (2 E ,5 E )-2,5-bis(3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzylidene)cyclopentanone (BHCP) on B16F10 melanoma and its anti-wrinkle activity on Hs27 fibroblasts cells. BHCP was found to potently inhibit tyrosinase, with 50% inhibition concentration (IC50 ) values of 1.10 µM and 8.18 µM for monophenolase (l-tyrosine) and diphenolase (l-DOPA), and the enzyme kinetics study revealed that BHCP is a competitive-type tyrosinase inhibitor...
June 11, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Jian Song, Xueming Liu, Jiada Li, Huadie Liu, Zhen Peng, Hongsheng Chen, Lingyun Mei, Chufeng He, Yong Feng
To investigate the mechanism for the synergistic effect of interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) on tyrosinase (TYR) promoter.
 Methods: The synergistic transcriptional effect, subcellular localization, and protein-protein interaction for IRF4 and MITF were observed by luciferase assay, immunofluorescence, GST-pull down, and co-immunoprecipitation, respectively.
 Results: IRF4 and MITF proteins were co-expressed in the cell nucleus. IRF4 augmented the transcriptional function of MITF (but not the mutant MITF) to activate the expression of the TYR promoter, but with no effect on other MITF-specific target promoters...
May 28, 2018: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
E Serrano-Candelas, E Ainsua-Enrich, A Navinés-Ferrer, P Rodrigues, A García-Valverde, S Bazzocco, I Macaya, J Arribas, C Serrano, J Sayós, D Arango, M Martin
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) represent about 80% of the mesenchymal neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract. Most GISTs contain oncogenic KIT (85%) or PDGFRA (5%) receptors. The kinase inhibitor imatinib mesylate is the preferential treatment for these tumors; however, the development of drug resistance has highlighted the need for novel therapeutic strategies. Recently, we reported that the adaptor molecule SH3 Binding Protein 2 (SH3BP2) regulates KIT expression and signaling in human mast cells...
June 9, 2018: Molecular Oncology
Farzana Ahmed, Nikolas K Haass
Drug resistance constitutes a major challenge in designing melanoma therapies. Microenvironment-driven tumor heterogeneity and plasticity play a key role in this phenomenon. Melanoma is highly heterogeneous with diverse genomic alterations and expression of different biological markers. In addition, melanoma cells are highly plastic and capable of adapting quickly to changing microenvironmental conditions. These contribute to variations in therapy response and durability between individual melanoma patients...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Ji Hye Kim, Dong Hyun Kim, Kyung Mun Cho, Kyoung Heon Kim, Nam Joo Kang
3,6-Anhydro-l-galactose (l-AHG) is a bioactive sugar that is a major component of agarose. Recently, l-AHG was reported to have anti-melanogenic potential in human epidermal melanocytes (HEMs) and B16F10 melanoma cells; however, its underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. At noncytotoxic concentrations, l-AHG has been shown to inhibit alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone-induced melanin synthesis in various cell models, including HEMs, melan-a cells, and B16F10 cells. Although l-AHG did not inhibit tyrosinase activity in vitro, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction results demonstrated that the anti-melanogenic effect of l-AHG was mediated by transcriptional repression of melanogenesis-related genes, including tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1), tyrosinase-related protein-2 (TRP-2), and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) in HEMs...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Da Hyun Lee, Sung Shin Ahn, Jung-Bong Kim, Yoongho Lim, Young Han Lee, Soon Young Shin
Ultraviolet irradiation-induced hyperpigmentation of the skin is associated with excessive melanin production in melanocytes. Tyrosinase (TYR) is a key enzyme catalyzing the rate-limiting step in melanogenesis. TYR expression is controlled by microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) expression. Sorghum is a cereal crop widely used in a variety of foods worldwide. Sorghum contains many bioactive compounds and is beneficial to human health. However, the effects of sorghum in anti-melanogenesis have not been well characterized...
June 1, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Bin Du, Xuexian Liu, Pengqian Zhang, Junzhen Zhang, Kaiyuan Ji, Shuaipeng Hu, Shanshan Yang, Bo Liu, Ruiwen Fan
BACKGROUND: Sex-determining region Y-box (SOX) proteins function as transcriptional regulators. The derivation of melanocytes from nerve crest cells has been reported to depend on SOX proteins, including SOX10 and SOX5. Whether SOX6 is expressed and has a functional role in melanocytes is unknown. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to study the effect of transcription factor SOX6 on melanogenesis in alpaca melanocytes. METHODS: We verified the role of SOX6 in melanogenesis by overexpressing and inhibiting SOX6 in melanocytes...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Dermatological Science
Zi-Jun Liu, Ya-Lan Wang, Qi-Ling Li, Liu Yang
Cuscuta chinensis polysaccharide (CPS) was extracted using hot water and enzymatically hydrolyzed C. chinensis polysaccharide (ECPS) was produced by the mannase enzymatic hydrolysis process. The purpose of this research was to investigate the antimelanogenic activity of ECPS and CPS in B16F10 melanoma cells. The in vitro antioxidant activity was assessed by their ferric iron reducing power and DPPH free radical scavenging activities. The molecular mass distribution of polysaccharides was determined using SEC-MALLS-RI...
2018: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
Mohammed Shariful Azam, Misung Kwon, Jinkyung Choi, Hyeung-Rak Kim
Hyperpigmentation disorders of the skin adversely influence the quality of life. We previously demonstrated the hypopigmenting properties of the ethanolic extract from Sargassum serratifolium and identified sargaquinoic acid (SQA) as an active component. The current study aims to investigate the hypopigmenting action of SQA in α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH)-stimulated B16F10 cells. SQA attenuated cellular melanin synthesis by inhibiting the expression of the melanogenic enzymes, including tyrosinase (TYR), tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP1), and TRP2...
May 22, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Masaru Katoh
β‑catenin/CTNNB1 is an intracellular scaffold protein that interacts with adhesion molecules (E‑cadherin/CDH1, N‑cadherin/CDH2, VE‑cadherin/CDH5 and α‑catenins), transmembrane‑type mucins (MUC1/CD227 and MUC16/CA125), signaling regulators (APC, AXIN1, AXIN2 and NHERF1/EBP50) and epigenetic or transcriptional regulators (BCL9, BCL9L, CREBBP/CBP, EP300/p300, FOXM1, MED12, SMARCA4/BRG1 and TCF/LEF). Gain‑of‑function CTTNB1 mutations are detected in bladder cancer, colorectal cancer, gastric cancer, liver cancer, lung cancer, pancreatic cancer, prostate cancer and uterine cancer, whereas loss‑of‑function CTNNB1 mutations are also detected in human cancer...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Dong-Dong Wu, Xiang-Dong Ding, Sheng Wang, Jan M Wójcik, Yi Zhang, Małgorzata Tokarska, Yan Li, Ming-Shan Wang, Omar Faruque, Rasmus Nielsen, Qin Zhang, Ya-Ping Zhang
Species of the Bos genus, including taurine cattle, zebu, gayal, gaur, banteng, yak, wisent and bison, have been domesticated at least four times and have been an important source of meat, milk and power for many human cultures. We sequence the genomes of gayal, gaur, banteng, wisent and bison, and provide population genomic sequencing of an additional 98 individuals. We use these data to determine the phylogeny and evolutionary history of these species and show that the threatened gayal is an independent species or subspecies...
May 21, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
Mitchell E Fane, Yash Chhabra, Aaron G Smith, Richard A Sturm
The POU domain family of transcription factors play a central role in embryogenesis and are highly expressed in neural crest cells and the developing brain. BRN2 is a class III POU domain protein that is a key mediator of neuroendocrine and melanocytic development and differentiation. While BRN2 is a central regulator in numerous developmental programs, it has also emerged as a major player in the biology of tumourigenesis. In melanoma, BRN2 has been implicated as one of the master regulators of the acquisition of invasive behavior within the phenotype-switching model of progression...
May 21, 2018: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
Sambit K Mohanty, Shivani Sharma, Dinesh Pradhan, Shivani R Kandukuri, Navid Farahani, Catherine Barry, Julie M Wu, David Frishberg, Bonnie Balzer
Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MiTF) is used as a marker of melanocytic differentiation. However, MiTF immunoexpression has also been observed in histiocytes, macrophages, smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts, which raise the concern of fibrohistiocytic (FH) lesions being misdiagnosed as melanoma based on MiTF immunoreactivity. MiTF has been known to be positive in FH tumors, but this is the first study evaluating ninety-three fibrohistiocytic neoplasms to understand and delineate the staining pattern of MiTF in these tumors...
May 11, 2018: Pathology, Research and Practice
Rosa Puertollano, Shawn M Ferguson, James Brugarolas, Andrea Ballabio
The MiT-TFE family of basic helix-loop-helix leucine-zipper transcription factors includes four members: TFEB, TFE3, TFEC, and MITF Originally described as oncogenes, these factors play a major role as regulators of lysosome biogenesis, cellular energy homeostasis, and autophagy. An important mechanism by which these transcription factors are regulated involves their shuttling between the surface of lysosomes, the cytoplasm, and the nucleus. Such dynamic changes in subcellular localization occur in response to nutrient fluctuations and various forms of cell stress and are mediated by changes in the phosphorylation of multiple conserved amino acids...
June 1, 2018: EMBO Journal
Catherine Serre, Valère Busuttil, Jean-Marie Botto
In human skin, melanogenesis is a tightly regulated process. Indeed, several extracellular signals are transduced via dedicated signaling pathways and mostly converge to MITF, a transcription factor integrating upstream signaling and regulating downstream genes involved in the various inherent mechanisms modulating melanogenesis. The synthesis of melanin pigments occurs in melanocytes inside melanosomes where melanogenic enzymes (tyrosinase and related proteins) are addressed with the help of specific protein complexes...
May 12, 2018: International Journal of Cosmetic Science
Jen-Hua Chuang, Aliaksandr A Yarmishyn, De-Kuang Hwang, Chih-Chien Hsu, Mong-Lien Wang, Yi-Ping Yang, Ke-Hung Chien, Shih-Hwa Chiou, Chi-Hsien Peng, Shih-Jen Chen
BACKGROUND: Differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) into retinal lineages offers great potential for medical application. Therefore, it is of crucial importance to know the key intrinsic regulators of differentiation and the specific biomarker signatures of cell lineages. METHODS: In this study, we used microarrays to analyze transcriptomes of terminally differentiated retinal ganglion cell (RGC) and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) lineages, as well as intermediate retinal progenitor cells of optic vesicles (OVs) derived from hiPSCs...
May 11, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Ryuko Nakayama, Yuki Togashi, Satoko Baba, Yo Kaku, Yuki Teramoto, Takaki Sakurai, Hironori Haga, Kengo Takeuchi
BACKGROUND: Epithelioid cell histiocytoma (ECH), which is also known as epithelioid benign fibrous histiocytoma, has been classified as a rare variant of fibrous histiocytoma (FH). However, the recent detection of ALK protein expression and/or ALK gene rearrangement in ECH suggests that it might be biologically different from conventional FH. CASE PRESENTATION: A 27-year-old male presented with nodule on his left foot, which had been present for 5 years. A macroscopic examination revealed an exophytic, hyperkeratotic nodule on the dorsum of the left foot...
May 10, 2018: Diagnostic Pathology
Shigang Yu, Gang Wang, Juan Liao, Mei Tang, Wenxing Sun
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Melanin is a major and ubiquitous component of plumage colouration, and patterns of melanin pigmentation in birds are extremely varied. However, the molecular mechanism of pigmentation in avian plumage is still largely unknown. METHODS: To elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in the formation of black and white plumage, this study takes advantage of high-throughput sequencing technology to compare differences in the transcriptome between black and white chicken feather bulbs...
May 4, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Luís F S Batista, Yuri T Utsunomiya, Thaís B F Silva, Mariana M Carneiro, Joyr S F Paiva, Rafaela B Silva, Thaíse Y Tomokane, Claudio N Rossi, Acácio D Pacheco, Rafaela B P Torrecilha, Fernando T Silveira, Mary Marcondes, Cáris M Nunes, Márcia D Laurenti
The anti-inflammatory properties of sand fly saliva favor the establishment of the Leishmania infantum infection. In contrast, an antibody response against Lutzomyia longipalpis saliva is often associated with a protective cell-mediated response against canine visceral leishmaniasis. Genetic studies may demonstrate to what extent the ability to secrete anti-saliva antibodies depends on genetic or environmental factors. However, the genetic basis of canine antibody response against sand fly saliva has not been assessed...
2018: PloS One
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"