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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079462/establishing-the-standard-method-of-cochlear-implant-in-rongchang-pig
#1
Wei Chen, Haijin Yi, Liang Zhang, Fei Ji, Shuolong Yuan, Yue Zhang, Lili Ren, Jianan Li, Lei Chen, Weiwei Guo, Shiming Yang
CONCLUSIONS: In this investigation, a large mammal, Rongchang pigs were used to successfully establish a research platform for cochlear implant study on the routine use of it in clinic. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to establish a standard method of cochlear implant in a large mammal-pig. METHODS: Rongchang pigs were selected, then divided into two groups: normal-hearing group (Mitf +/+) and mutation group with hearing loss (Mitf -/-)...
January 12, 2017: Acta Oto-laryngologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067893/vemurafenib-and-trametinib-reduce-expression-of-ctgf-and-il-8-in-v600e-braf-melanoma-cells
#2
Mariusz L Hartman, Michal Rozanski, Marta Osrodek, Izabela Zalesna, Malgorzata Czyz
Clinical evidence has revealed that while RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK pathway is a crucial component of melanomagenesis, other signaling pathways can also contribute to the malignant growth and development of resistance to targeted therapies. We explored the response of (V600E)BRAF melanoma cells derived from surgical specimens and grown in stem cell medium to vemurafenib and trametinib, drugs targeting the activity of (V600E)BRAF and MEK1/2, respectively. Cell growth and apoptosis were monitored by real-time imaging system, immunophenotype and cell cycle by flow cytometry, gene expression by quantitative real-time PCR, immunoblotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
January 9, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051915/alisol-b-a-triterpene-from-alismatis-rhizoma-dried-rhizome-of-alisma-orientale-inhibits-melanin-production-in-murine-b16-melanoma-cells
#3
Ichiro Yoshida, Chihiro Ito, Shinya Matsuda, Akihiko Tsuji, Noriyuki Yanaka, Keizo Yuasa
To develop new whitening agents from natural products, we screened 80 compounds derived from crude drugs in Kampo medicine in a melanin synthesis inhibition assay using murine B16 melanoma cells. The screen revealed that treatment with alisol B, a triterpene from Alismatis rhizoma, significantly decreased both melanin content and cellular tyrosinase activity in B16 cells. However, alisol B did not directly inhibit mushroom tyrosinase activity in vitro. Therefore, we investigated the mechanism underlying the inhibitory effect of alisol B on melanogenesis...
January 4, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036292/therapeutic-potential-of-the-metabolic-modulator-phenformin-in-targeting-the-stem-cell-compartment-in-melanoma
#4
Tiziana Petrachi, Alessandra Romagnani, Adriana Albini, Caterina Longo, Giuseppe Argenziano, Giulia Grisendi, Massimo Dominici, Alessia Ciarrocchi, Katiuscia Dallaglio
Melanoma is the most dangerous and treatment-resistant skin cancer. Tumor resistance and recurrence are due to the persistence in the patient of aggressive cells with stem cell features, the cancer stem cells (CSC). Recent evidences have shown that CSC display a distinct metabolic profile as compared to tumor bulk population: a promising anti-tumor strategy is therefore to target specific metabolic pathways driving CSC behavior. Biguanides (metformin and phenformin) are anti-diabetic drugs able to perturb cellular metabolism and displaying anti-cancer activity...
December 28, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030585/organ-of-corti-and-stria-vascularis-is-there-an-interdependence-for-survival
#5
Huizhan Liu, Yi Li, Lei Chen, Qian Zhang, Ning Pan, David H Nichols, Weiping J Zhang, Bernd Fritzsch, David Z Z He
Cochlear hair cells and the stria vascularis are critical for normal hearing. Hair cells transduce mechanical stimuli into electrical signals, whereas the stria is responsible for generating the endocochlear potential (EP), which is the driving force for hair cell mechanotransduction. We questioned whether hair cells and the stria interdepend for survival by using two mouse models. Atoh1 conditional knockout mice, which lose all hair cells within four weeks after birth, were used to determine whether the absence of hair cells would affect function and survival of stria...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029781/aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-activation-contributes-to-benzanthrone-induced-hyperpigmentation-via-modulation-of-melanogenic-signaling-pathways
#6
Sabiya Abbas, Shamshad Alam, Krishna P Singh, Mahadeo Kumar, Shailendra K Gupta, Kausar M Ansari
Benzanthrone (BA), an oxidized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), has been found to be a potential health threat to occupational workers involved in dye manufacturing factories. It has been observed that occupational workers become exposed to BA either during manufacturing, pulverization, or storage and developed various kinds of skin diseases like contact dermatitis, itching, erythema, roughness, and foremost, hyperpigmentation. It has been shown that some environmental organic pollutants (POPs) like dioxins, furans, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may act as ligands for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and regulate hyperpigmentation...
January 12, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026045/differentiating-regressed-melanoma-from-regressed-lichenoid-keratosis
#7
Aegean H Chan, Kenneth Shulman, Bonnie A Lee
BACKGROUND: Distinguishing regressed lichen planus-like keratosis (LPLK) from regressed melanoma can be difficult on histopathologic examination, potentially resulting in mismanagement of patients. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify histopathologic features by which regressed melanoma can be differentiated from regressed LPLK. METHODS: 20 actively inflamed LPLK, 12 LPLK with regression, and 15 melanomas with regression were compared and evaluated by H&E staining as well as Melan-A, MiTF, and cytokeratin (AE1/AE3) immunostaining...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011484/potential-prognostic-molecular-signatures-in-a-preclinical-model-of-melanoma
#8
Sotirios P Fortis, Eleftheria A Anastasopoulou, Ioannis F Voutsas, Constantin N Baxevanis, Sonia A Perez, Louisa G Mahaira
Numerous studies have revealed a variety of pathways involved in the development of melanoma, however, the molecular and genetic divergence of underlying mechanisms remain vague. In a mouse model, we studied the expression pattern of insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 1 (Igf2bp1) and target genes microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (Mitf), v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog (Myc), B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl2), prothymosin alpha (Ptma) and melan-A (Mlana) in relation to tumor-growth characteristics...
January 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988355/agmatine-modulates-melanogenesis-via-mitf-signaling-pathway
#9
Eun-Jeong Kwon, Moon-Moo Kim
Agmatine contained in soybean is also found in Manaca, an anti-aging plant, inhabited in Amazon and induces vasodilation by the promotion of NO synthesis in blood vessel. However, the research of agmatine on melanin synthesis related to hair greying is lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the melanogenic effect of agmatine via regulation of MITF signaling pathway in B16F1 cells. It was determined whether agmatine regulates melanin synthesis at cellular level in addition to the effect of agmatine on mushroom tyrosinase in vitro in the presence of different concentrations of agmatine...
December 13, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983977/inhibition-of-tyrosinase-activity-and-melanin-production-by-the-chalcone-derivative-1-2-cyclohexylmethoxy-6-hydroxy-phenyl-3-4-hydroxymethyl-phenyl-propenone
#10
Byung-Hak Kim, Kyoung Chan Park, Jeong Ho Park, Chung Gi Lee, Sang-Kyu Ye, Jung Youl Park
Abnormal accumulation of melanin pigments in the skin can be lead to hyperpigmentation disorders and melanoma. Melanin biosynthesis is ultimately regulated by the rate-limiting enzyme tyrosinase. In the present study, we synthesized chalcone derivatives and identified 1-(2-cyclohexylmethoxy-6-hydroxy-phenyl)-3-(4-hydroxymethyl-phenyl)-propenone (chalcone-21) as an anti-melanogenic substance in B16F10 melanoma cells. Chalcone-21 strongly inhibited cellular melanin production and tyrosinase activity in B16F10 melanoma cells stimulated with α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) or protoporphyrin IX...
October 27, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979841/modeling-alveolar-soft-part-sarcoma-unveils-novel-mechanisms-of-metastasis
#11
Miwa Tanaka, Mizuki Homme, Yukari Yamazaki, Rikuka Shimizu, Yutaka Takazawa, Takuro Nakamura
Alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS) is a slowly-growing but highly metastatic sarcoma that affects adolescents and young adults. Its characteristic alveolar structure is constituted by tumor cell nests and an abundant vascular network that is responsible for metastatic activities at the initial stage. Here we have generated a new ex vivo mouse model for ASPS that well recapitulates associated angiogenic and metastatic phenotypes. In mouse ASPS, the tumor cells frequently showed tumor intravasation with the intravascular tumor cells presenting as organoid structures covered with hemangiopericytes, which is also observed in human ASPS...
December 15, 2016: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939378/myo5a-gene-is-a-target-of-mitf-in-melanocytes
#12
Cleidson P Alves, Satoro Yokoyama, Lucas Goedert, Carmen L S Pontes, Josane F Sousa, David E Fisher, Enilza M Espreafico
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 6, 2016: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938609/-sox10-mutation-is-relevant-to-inner-ear-malformation-in-patients-with-waardenburg-syndrome
#13
G Y Xu, Q Q Hao, L L Zhong, W Ren, Y Yan, R Y Liu, J N Li, W W Guo, H Zhao, S M Yang
Objective: To determine the relevance between the SOX10 mutation and Waardenburg syndrome (WS) accompanied with inner ear abnormality by analyzing the inner ear imaging results and molecular and genetic results of the WS patients with the SOX10 mutation. Methods: This study included 36 WS in patients during 2001 and 2015 in the department of otorhinolaryngology head and neck surgery, Chinese Peoples's Liberation Army General Hospital. The condition of the inner ear of each patient was assessed by analyzing HRCT scans of the temporal bone and MRI scans of the brain and internal auditory canal...
November 7, 2016: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938335/genome-sequence-population-history-and-pelage-genetics-of-the-endangered-african-wild-dog-lycaon-pictus
#14
Michael G Campana, Lillian D Parker, Melissa T R Hawkins, Hillary S Young, Kristofer M Helgen, Micaela Szykman Gunther, Rosie Woodroffe, Jesús E Maldonado, Robert C Fleischer
BACKGROUND: The African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) is an endangered African canid threatened by severe habitat fragmentation, human-wildlife conflict, and infectious disease. A highly specialized carnivore, it is distinguished by its social structure, dental morphology, absence of dewclaws, and colorful pelage. RESULTS: We sequenced the genomes of two individuals from populations representing two distinct ecological histories (Laikipia County, Kenya and KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa)...
December 9, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926791/high-prevalence-of-mitf-staining-in-undifferentiated-pleomorphic-sarcoma-caution-in-use-of-melanocytic-markers-in-sarcoma
#15
Bonnie Choy, Elizabeth Hyjek, Anthony G Montag, Peter Pytel, Rex Haydon, Hue H Luu, Chao Jie Zhen, Bradley C Long, Sabah Kadri, Jeremy P Segal, Larissa V Furtado, Nicole A Cipriani
AIMS: Diagnosis of undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS) may be challenging, as other lesions with undifferentiated spindle cell morphology must be excluded, including melanoma. Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MiTF) stains nevi and epithelioid melanomas, as well as some mesenchymal neoplasms. We evaluated the prevalence of MiTF and melanocytic markers in UPS and a subset of atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX). METHODS AND RESULTS: MiTF, SOX10, Melan-A, HMB45, and S100 immunostains were performed on resection specimens from 19 UPS and 5 AFX...
December 7, 2016: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919990/validation-and-enhancement-of-the-clinicopathological-melanoma-nomogram-via-incorporation-of-a-molecular-marker-in-the-primary-tumor
#16
Samer A Naffouje, Rand Naffouje, Jinsong Chen, George I Salti
BACKGROUND/AIM: To validate the melanoma nomogram and improve its function in prediction of nodal dissemination by incorporating a molecular marker in the model. Microphthalmia transcription factor (MITF) is an important regulator of melanocyte homeostasis and differentiation. We have shown that the grade of MITF expression in primary melanoma cells can serve as a predictor of nodal status. Many efforts to identify the nodal spread in cutaneous melanoma using non-invasive means have been recently undertaken...
2016: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919619/microsatellite-polymorphism-located-immediately-upstream-of-the-phosphatidylinositol-glycan-class-k-gene-pigk-affects-its-expression-which-correlates-with-tyrosinase-activity-in-human-melanocytes
#17
Ken Okamura, Masahiro Hayashi, Yuko Abe, Yuta Araki, Yutaka Hozumi, Tamio Suzuki
BACKGROUND: Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) acts as a membrane anchor and a post-translational modifier for more than 150 proteins (called GPI-anchored proteins: GPI-APs). However, little study has been done to explore the role of GPI-APs in melanocytes. METHODS: The relationship between the mRNA expression of the genes which play essential roles in GPI anchoring system [phosphatidylinositol glycan, class A, and class K gene (PIGA, PIGK)] and melanogenesis-related genes (MITF, TYRP1, TYRP2, and TYR) as well as DOPA oxidase activities were evaluated in 13 different normal human epidermal melanocytes (NHEMs)...
February 2017: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918305/tuberous-sclerosis-complex-inactivation-disrupts-melanogenesis-via-mtorc1-activation
#18
Juxiang Cao, Magdalena E Tyburczy, Joel Moss, Thomas N Darling, Hans R Widlund, David J Kwiatkowski
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant tumor-suppressor gene syndrome caused by inactivating mutations in either TSC1 or TSC2, and the TSC protein complex is an essential regulator of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1). Patients with TSC develop hypomelanotic macules (white spots), but the molecular mechanisms underlying their formation are not fully characterized. Using human primary melanocytes and a highly pigmented melanoma cell line, we demonstrate that reduced expression of either TSC1 or TSC2 causes reduced pigmentation through mTORC1 activation, which results in hyperactivation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β), followed by phosphorylation of and loss of β-catenin from the nucleus, thereby reducing expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), and subsequent reductions in tyrosinase and other genes required for melanogenesis...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902928/effects-of-aqueous-extracts-of-ecliptae-herba-polygoni-multiflori-radix-praeparata-and-rehmanniae-radix-praeparata-on-melanogenesis-and-the-migration-of-human-melanocytes
#19
Ping Xu, Shulan Su, Cheng Tan, Ren-Sheng Lai, Zhong-Sheng Min
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Polygoni multiflori radix praeparata (PMRP), Ecliptae herba (EH) and Rehmanniae radix praeparata (RRP) are the most frequently-used herbs by Traditional Chinese Medicine practitioners for the treatment of vitiligo. Their abilities to stimulate melanogenesis, melanocyte migration and MITF (microphthalmia associated transcription factor) protein expression were evaluated in this study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effects of aqueous extracts of PMRP, EH and RRP on human melanocytes in vitro were examined by MTT assay, tyrosinase activity, melanin synthesis, migration assay and Western blot...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899189/genetic-predisposition-to-kidney-cancer
#20
REVIEW
Laura S Schmidt, W Marston Linehan
Kidney cancer is not a single disease but is made up of a number of different types of cancer classified by histology that are disparate in presentation, clinical course, and genetic basis. Studies of families with inherited renal cell carcinoma (RCC) have provided the basis for our understanding of the causative genes and altered metabolic pathways in renal cancer with different histologies. Von Hippel-Lindau disease was the first renal cancer disorder with a defined genetic basis. Over the next two decades, the genes responsible for a number of other inherited renal cancer syndromes including hereditary papillary renal carcinoma, Birt-Hogg-Dube´syndrome, hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma, and succinate dehydrogenase-associated renal cancer were identified...
October 2016: Seminars in Oncology
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