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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088400/hospitalizations-for-respiratory-syncytial-virus-and-vaccine-preventable-infections-in-the-first-2-years-after-pediatric-liver-transplant
#1
Amy G Feldman, Shikha S Sundaram, Brenda L Beaty, Allison Kempe
OBJECTIVES: To examine in liver transplant recipients at centers participating in the Pediatric Health Information System dataset the number of hospitalizations for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and vaccine-preventable infections (VPIs) in the first 2 years after transplantation, morbidity and mortality associated with these hospitalizations, and costs associated with these hospitalizations. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study of patients <18 years of age who underwent liver transplantation at a Pediatric Health Information System center between January 1, 2004, and December 31, 2012...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087312/immunisation-choice-of-host-adjuvants-and-boosting-schedules-with-emphasis-on-polyclonal-antibody-production
#2
REVIEW
Philippe Delahaut
Polyclonal antibodies are frequently used as immunodiagnostic tools in fundamental research. They are also used for routine diagnostic purposes in human and veterinary medicine and for quality control procedures in the food-processing industry. The antibody is a major component of the detection system. It binds with the molecule to be identified. This conjugate is subsequently revealed by means of binding the antibody with a radio-isotope, a fluorescent substance, an enzyme inducing a color change, or a biosensor based analytical system...
January 10, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079558/once-daily-tacrolimus-in-liver-transplantation-a-me-too-drug-or-a-therapeutic-advantage
#3
Pavel Trunečka
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide latest information on differences between standard tacrolimus (TAC BID) and slow-released formulation of tacrolimus (Advagraf) in liver transplantation (LTx), and to discuss the latter's therapeutic value as a distinct entity. RECENT FINDINGS: Two articles on de-novo studies, several on conversion and one on survival analysis from the European Liver Transplant Registry published recently showed that low-dose Advagraf immediately after transplantation provided same protection to the kidney as standard dose delayed until day 5, and was associated with lower rejection rate; to maintain the same trough level after late conversion to Advagraf, an approximately 1...
January 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076863/adverse-renal-effects-of-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-a-narrative-review
#4
Rimda Wanchoo, Sabine Karam, Nupur N Uppal, Valerie S Barta, Gilbert Deray, Craig Devoe, Vincent Launay-Vacher, Kenar D Jhaveri
BACKGROUND: Cancer immunotherapy, such as anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) and anti-programmed death 1 (PD-1), has revolutionized the treatment of malignancies by engaging the patient's own immune system against the tumor rather than targeting the cancer directly. These therapies have demonstrated a significant benefit in the treatment of melanomas and other cancers. SUMMARY: In order to provide an extensive overview of the renal toxicities induced by these agents, a Medline search was conducted of published literature related to ipilimumab-, pembrolizumab-, and nivolumab-induced kidney toxicity...
January 12, 2017: American Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076340/telomere-length-assessment-for-prediction-of-organ-transplantation-outcome-future-or-failure-a-review-of-the-literature
#5
Karolina Kłoda, Leszek Domański, Artur Mierzecki
Telomeres are located at each end of eukaryotic chromosomes. Their functional role is genomic stability maintenance. The protective role of telomeres depends on various factors, including number of nucleotides repeats, telomere-binding proteins, and telomerase activity. Organ transplantation is the preferred replacement therapy in the case of chronic kidney disease and the only possibility of sustaining recipients' life in the case of advanced liver failure. While the prevalence of acute rejection is constantly decreasing, prevention of transplanted organ long-term function loss is still challenging...
January 11, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074661/inosine-5-monophosphate-dehydrogenase-impdh-inhibitors-a-patent-and-scientific-literature-review-2002-2016
#6
Gregory D Cuny, Chalada Suebsuwong, Soumya S Ray
Inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) is an enzyme involved in the de novo biosynthesis of guanine nucleotides. To date human IMPDH inhibitors have been approved for prevention of organ transplant rejection and as anti-viral agents. More recently, the use of IMPDH inhibitors for other indications including cancer and pathogenic microorganisms has been pursued. Areas covered: IMPDH inhibitors disclosed primarily in the patent and scientific literature from 2002 to the present are discussed. Several interesting chemotypes that have not been pursued by patent protection are also highlighted...
January 11, 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073833/exosomal-mir-142-3p-is-increased-during-cardiac-allograft-rejection-and-augments-vascular-permeability-through-down-regulation-of-endothelial-rab11fip2-expression
#7
Ihdina Sukma Dewi, Selvi Celik, Anna Karlsson, Zsuzsanna Hollander, Karen Lam, Janet-Wilson McManus, Scott Tebbutt, Raymond Ng, Paul Keown, Robert McMaster, Bruce McManus, Jenny Öhman, Olof Gidlöf
AIMS: Exosome-mediated microRNA transfer is a recently discovered mode of cell-to-cell communication, in which microRNAs act as paracrine molecules, exerting their regulatory effects in recipient cells. T cells and endothelial cells are two main players in the mechanism of acute cellular cardiac rejection. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of exosomal microRNAs in the crosstalk between T cells and endothelial cells and its implications for the molecular mechanisms that drive acute cellular rejection in heart transplantation...
January 10, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073609/interaction-of-older-donor-age-and-survival-after-weight-matched-pediatric-heart-transplantation
#8
Thomas C Westbrook, David L S Morales, Muhammad S Khan, Roosevelt Bryant, Chesney Castleberry, Clifford Chin, Farhan Zafar
BACKGROUND: Donors are matched for weight in pediatric heart transplantation (PHT), yet age differences are not considered in this decision. In this study we attempt to identify the effect of age differences in weight-matched patients and the effect these differences have on post-transplant survival. METHODS: The United Network of Organ Sharing (UNOS) database was queried for the period from October 1987 to March 2014 for all pediatric heart transplant patients...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073178/polyclonal-and-monoclonal-antibodies-for-induction-therapy-in-kidney-transplant-recipients
#9
REVIEW
Penny Hill, Nicholas B Cross, A Nicholas R Barnett, Suetonia C Palmer, Angela C Webster
BACKGROUND: Prolonging kidney transplant survival is an important clinical priority. Induction immunosuppression with antibody therapy is recommended at transplantation and non-depleting interleukin-2 receptor monoclonal antibodies (IL2Ra) are considered first line. It is suggested that recipients at high risk of rejection should receive lymphocyte-depleting antibodies but the relative benefits and harms of the available agents are uncertain. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to: evaluate the relative and absolute effects of different antibody preparations (except IL2Ra) when used as induction therapy in kidney transplant recipients; determine how the benefits and adverse events vary for each antibody preparation; determine how the benefits and harms vary for different formulations of antibody preparation; and determine whether the benefits and harms vary in specific subgroups of recipients (e...
January 11, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072739/risk-factors-and-outcomes-associated-with-a-higher-use-of-inotropes-in-kidney-transplant-recipients
#10
Jae Moon Choi, Jun-Young Jo, Jae-Won Baik, Sooyoung Kim, Chan Sik Kim, Sung-Moon Jeong
Preservation of adequate perfusion pressures to the graft is a main focus of intraoperative management during kidney transplantation. We undertook this study to investigate the incidence of the higher use of inotropes in kidney transplant recipients and identify the patient outcomes and preoperative and intraoperative variables related to this.We retrospectively analyzed 1053 patients who underwent kidney transplantation at Asan Medical Center between January 2006 and February 2012, stratified by their inotropic score ([dopamine] + [dobutamine] + [epinephrine × 100] + [norepinephrine × 100]) <7 versus ≥7, wherein all doses are expressed as μg/kg/min...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071839/life-after-a-lung-transplant-a-balance-of-joy-and-challenges
#11
Jytte Graarup, Elin Lindberg Mogensen, Malene Missel, Selina Kikkenborg Berg
PURPOSE: To describe patients' experiences throughout the first four months post lung transplant. BACKGROUND: Health professionals are familiar with the fact that patients' average survival after a lung transplant is about seven years and that 74% of these patients reject new organs within the first two years. By contrast, knowledge of these patients' perspectives after lung transplantation is scant. DESIGN/METHOD: A qualitative study was conducted between May, 2013 and May, 2014 in which 26 interviewees participated - four months post-transplant - based on a semi-structured interview guide...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070711/immune-suppression-during-preclinical-drug-development-mitigates-immunogenicity-mediated-impact-on-therapeutic-exposure
#12
Jonathan Herskovitz, Josiah Ryman, Theingi Thway, Stephanie Lee, Lei Zhou, Narendra Chirmule, Bernd Meibohm, Vibha Jawa
In the clinical setting, anti-drug antibodies (ADA) against biotherapeutics can influence patient safety and interfere with product efficacy. High immunogenicity has been addressed in clinic by concomitant immune suppression, such as co-administration of methotrexate with enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) and combination tacrolimus/sirolimus treatment for prophylaxis against organ transplant rejection. This study investigates the use of such immune suppressants in mitigating ADA responses to a fully human monoclonal antibody (mAb1) in preclinical animal studies...
January 9, 2017: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070117/re-transplantation-higher-creatinine-levels-in-hepatitis-c-virus-patients-and-donor-age-are-predictors-of-mortality-in-long-term-analysis-of-late-acute-rejection-in-liver-transplantation
#13
Lucas Souto Nacif, Rafael Soares Pinheiro, Rafael Antônio de Arruda Pécora, Ryan Yukimatsu Tanigawa, Vinicius Rocha-Santos, Wellington Andraus, Venancio Avancini Ferreira Alves, Luiz Carneiro D'Albuquerque
BACKGROUND Late acute rejection (LAR) differs in its clinical and histological presentation and management from early acute rejection. This clinical entity is not completely understood; thus, we aimed to identify significant prognostic factors that can influence post-transplant survival in LAR patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence and post-transplant survival of patients from a single center with a focus on late acute rejection. MATERIAL AND METHODS From January 2002 to June 2013, all liver biopsies from patients with rejection were scored using the Banff criteria...
January 10, 2017: Annals of Transplantation: Quarterly of the Polish Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069641/differential-impact-of-chronic-hyperglycemia-on-humoral-versus-cellular-primary-alloimmunity
#14
Nicholas H Bishop, Michelle K Nelsen, K Scott Beard, Ronald G Gill
Diabetes is prevalent among solid organ transplant recipients and is universal among islet transplant recipients. While diabetes is often considered to result in an immune compromised state, the impact of chronic hyperglycemia on host alloimmunity is not clear. Potential immune modifying effects of obesity, autoimmunity, or diabetogenic agents like streptozotocin may confound understanding alloimmunity in experimental models of diabetes. Therefore, we sought to determine the role of chronic hyperglycemia due to insulinopenia on alloimmunity using the non-autoimmune, spontaneously diabetic H-2(b)-expressing C57BL/6 Ins2(Akita) mice (Akita)...
January 9, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069488/mesenchymal-stem-cells-increase-skin-graft-survival-time-and-up-regulate-pd-l1-expression-in-splenocytes-of-mice
#15
Ali Moravej, Bita Geramizadeh, Negar Azarpira, Amir-Hasan Zarnani, Ramin Yaghobi, Mehdi Kalani, Maryam Khosravi, Amin Kouhpayeh, Mohammad-Hossein Karimi
Recently, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have gained considerable interests as hopeful therapeutic cells in transplantation due to their immunoregulatory functions. But exact mechanisms underlying MSCs immunoregulatory function is not fully understood. Herein, in addition to investigate the ability of MSCs to prolong graft survival time, the effects of them on the expression of PD-L1 and IDO immunomodulatory molecules in splenocytes of skin graft recipient mice was clarified. To achieve this goal, full-thickness skins were transplanted from C57BL/6 to BALB/c mice...
January 6, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069386/sleep-influences-the-immune-response-and-the-rejection-process-alters-sleep-pattern-evidence-from-a-skin-allograft-model-in-mice
#16
Francieli Silva Ruiz, Monica Levy Andersen, Camila Guindalini, Leandro Pires Araujo, José Daniel Lopes, Sergio Tufik
INTRODUCTION: Sleep generally regulates immune functions in a supportive manner and can affect parameters that are directly involved in the rejection process. STUDY OBJECTIVES: The first objective was to assess whether sleep deprivation (SD) or sleep restriction (SR) affects the allograft rejection process in mice. The second objective was to investigate whether the rejection process itself modulates the sleep pattern of allografted mice. DESIGN: Adult BALB/c and C57BL/6J male mice were used as the donors and recipients, respectively, except for the syngeneic group (ISOTX), which received skin from mice of the same strain (C57BL/6J)...
January 6, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069109/immunomodulatory-effects-of-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-overexpressing-heme-oxygenase-1-protective-effects-on-acute-rejection-following-reduced-size-liver-transplantation-in-a-rat-model
#17
Zhong-Yang Shen, Bin Wu, Tao Liu, Yang Yang, Ming-Li Yin, Wei-Ping Zheng, Bo-Ya Zhang, Hong-Li Song
Here we explore the T-lymphocyte suppressive and immunomodulatory effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) overexpressing heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) on acute rejection following reduced-size liver transplantation (RLT) in a rat model. The proliferation activity, cell cycle progression, secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, expression of CD25 and CD71 in lymphocytes, and activity of NK cells were found to be significantly lowered, and the proportion of regulatory T cells (Tregs) was found to be increased relative to BMMSCs when Adv-HO-1/BMMSCs were co-cultured with Con A ex vivo; secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines was significantly higher...
December 26, 2016: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065838/current-results-and-future-research-priorities-in-late-effects-after-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-hct-for-children-with-sickle-cell-disease-and-thalassemia-a-consensus-statement-from-the-second-pediatric-blood-and-marrow-transplant-consortium-international
#18
Shalini Shenoy, Emanuele Angelucci, Staci D Arnold, K Scott Baker, Monica Bhatia, Dorine Bresters, Andrew C Dietz, Josu De La Fuente, Christine Duncan, Javid Gaziev, Allison A King, Michael A Pulsipher, Angela Smith, Mark C Walters
Sustained donor engraftment after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) converts to healthy donor hemoglobin synthesis and halts disease symptoms in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) and thalassemia major. A disease free survival probability that exceeds 90% has been reported when HCT using an HLA-matched sibling donor is performed in young patients with low risk disease or treatment related risk factors. Alternate donor HCT and HCT in adults is performed infrequently due to a higher risk profile...
January 5, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065646/-what-the-family-doctor-must-know-about-lung-transplantation-complications-health-promotion-and-outcomes-part-2
#19
L Zurbano, F Zurbano
The lung transplantation is a therapeutic procedure indicated for lung diseases that are terminal and irreversible (except lung cancer) despite the best medical current treatment. It is an emergent procedure in medical care. In this review, an analyse is made of the most frequent complications of lung transplant related to the graft (rejection and chronic graft dysfunction), immunosuppression (infections, arterial hypertension, renal dysfunction, and diabetes), as well as others such as gastrointestinal complications, osteoporosis...
January 5, 2017: Semergen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064305/upregulation-of-pim2-by-underexpression-of-microrna-135-5p-improves-survival-rates-of-skin-allografts-by-suppressing-apoptosis-of-fibroblast-cells
#20
Hongtu Zhang
BACKGROUND It has been reported that miR-135-5p is involved with many diseases. In this study, we aimed at define the relationship between miR-135-5p level and burn patient survival after skin transplantation. MATERIAL AND METHODS Expression of miR-135-5p and PIM2 was measured using real-time PCR and Western blot analysis in the skin samples collected from burn patients who received skin graft or in the fibroblast cells transfected with miR-135-5p mimics or inhibitors. The regulatory association between miR-135-5p and PIM2 was verified using bioinformatics analysis and luciferase assay...
January 8, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
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