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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911373/the-mouse-isolated-perfused-kidney-technique
#1
Jan Czogalla, Frank Schweda, Johannes Loffing
The mouse isolated perfused kidney (MIPK) is a technique for keeping a mouse kidney under ex vivo conditions perfused and functional for 1 hr. This is a prerequisite for studying the physiology of the isolated organ and for many innovative applications that may be possible in the future, including perfusion decellularization for kidney bioengineering or the administration of anti-rejection or genome-editing drugs in high doses to prime the kidney for transplantation. During the time of the perfusion, the kidney can be manipulated, renal function can be assessed, and various pharmaceuticals administered...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909648/fc%C3%AE-receptors-in-solid-organ-transplantation
#2
REVIEW
Tomas Castro-Dopico, Menna R Clatworthy
In the current era, one of the major factors limiting graft survival is chronic antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR), whilst patient survival is impacted by the effects of immunosuppression on susceptibility to infection, malignancy and atherosclerosis. IgG antibodies play a role in all of these processes, and many of their cellular effects are mediated by Fc gamma receptors (FcγRs). These surface receptors are expressed by most immune cells, including B cells, natural killer cells, dendritic cells and macrophages...
2016: Current Transplantation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907919/the-impact-of-health-care-appointment-non-adherence-on-graft-outcomes-in-kidney-transplantation
#3
David J Taber, James N Fleming, Cory E Fominaya, Mulugeta Gebregziabher, Kelly J Hunt, Titte R Srinivas, Prabhakar K Baliga, John W McGillicuddy, Leonard E Egede
BACKGROUND: Non-adherence to medication is a well-studied and known cause of late allograft loss, but it is difficult to measure and prospectively monitor. The aim of this study was to assess if appointment non-adherence was correlated with medication non-adherence and a predictor of graft outcomes. METHODS: This was a longitudinal cohort study that used the National United States Renal Data System and veterans affairs health records data with time-to-event analyses conducted to assess the impact on graft and patient survival...
December 2, 2016: American Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907157/human-bone-derived-collagen-for-the-development-of-an-artificial-corneal-endothelial-graft-in-vivo-results-in-a-rabbit-model
#4
Natalia Vázquez, Manuel Chacón, Carlos A Rodríguez-Barrientos, Jesús Merayo-Lloves, Miguel Naveiras, Begoña Baamonde, Jose F Alfonso, Iriana Zambrano-Andazol, Ana C Riestra, Álvaro Meana
Corneal keratoplasty (penetrating or lamellar) using cadaveric human tissue, is nowadays the main treatment for corneal endotelial dysfunctions. However, there is a worldwide shortage of donor corneas available for transplantation and about 53% of the world's population have no access to corneal transplantation. Generating a complete cornea by tissue engineering is still a tough goal, but an endothelial lamellar graft might be an easier task. In this study, we developed a tissue engineered corneal endothelium by culturing human corneal endothelial cells on a human purified type I collagen membrane...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906865/management-of-post-transplant-lymphoproliferative-disorders
#5
Gabriela Llaurador, Lauren McLaughlin, Birte Wistinghausen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) is a major complication of hematopoietic stem cell and solid organ transplantation. The incidence of transplantation in childhood has been steadily rising, making PTLD the most common form of lymphoproliferation in childhood. The purpose of this review is to summarize the role of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in the pathophysiology and discuss the management of PTLD. RECENT FINDINGS: More than 90% of pediatric PTLD is EBV-positive...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906829/evidence-for-cd16a-mediated-nk-cell-stimulation-in-antibody-mediated-kidney-transplant-rejection
#6
Michael D Parkes, Philip F Halloran, Luis G Hidalgo
BACKGROUND: Natural killer (NK) cells localize in the microcirculation in antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR) and have been postulated to be activated by donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies triggering their CD16a Fc receptors. However, direct evidence for NK cell CD16a triggering in ABMR is lacking. We hypothesized that CD16a-inducible NK cell-selective transcripts would be expressed in human ABMR biopsies and would offer evidence for CD16a triggering. METHODS: We stimulated human NK cells through CD16a in vitro, characterized CD16a-inducible transcripts, and studied their expression in human kidney transplant biopsies with ABMR and in an extended human cell panel to determine their selectivity...
December 1, 2016: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905684/the-effect-of-maternal-and-infant-factors-on-cord-blood-yield
#7
REVIEW
Seyed Hadi Mousavi, Saeid Abroun, Morteza Zarrabi, Mona Ahmadipanah
Umbilical cord blood (CB) can be used as an alternative hematopoietic stem cell source for transplantation in hematological malignancy and blood disorders. The success of transplantation is highly related to the levels of total nucleated cell and CD34(+) cell counts. The evaluation of optimal conditions can decrease the rate of graft rejection due to low cell count and increases the quality of CB units (CBUs) in the blood bank and the success rate of engraftment. To this end, we review the maternal and infant parameters affecting the quality and quantity of CBUs...
December 1, 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903649/structural-mechanism-underpinning-cross-reactivity-of-a-cd8-t-cell-clone-that-recognises-a-peptide-derived-from-human-telomerase-reverse-transcriptase
#8
David K Cole, Hugo A van den Berg, Angharad Lloyd, Michael D Crowther, Konrad Beck, Julia Ekeruche-Makinde, John J Miles, Anna M Bulek, Garry Dolton, Andrea J Schauenburg, Aaron Wall, Anna Fuller, Mathew Clement, Bruno Laugel, Pierre J Rizkallah, Linda Wooldridge, Andrew K Sewell
T-cell cross-reactivity is essential for effective immune surveillance, but has also been implicated as a pathway to autoimmunity. Previous studies have demonstrated that T-cell receptors (TCRs) that focus on a minimal motif within the peptide are able to facilitate a high level of T-cell cross-reactivity. However, the structural database shows that most TCRs exhibit less focussed antigen binding involving contact with more peptide residues. To further explore the structural features that allow the clonally expressed TCR to functionally engage with multiple peptide-major histocompatibility complexes (pMHCs), we examined the ILA1 CD8+ T-cell clone that responds to a peptide sequence derived from human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT)...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903231/new-analogues-of-mycophenolic-acid
#9
Agnieszka Głowacka, Michal Prejs, Grzegorz Cholewinski, Krystyna Dzierzbicka
Mycophenolic acid (MPA) possesses antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, immunosuppressive and anticancer properties. It is a non-competitive and reversible inhibitor of dehydrogenase inosine-5'-monophosphate (IMPDH) [1,2]. This compound belongs to the immunosuppressive drugs used for the prevention of both acute and chronic transplant rejection [3]. Until now clinically have been used two derivatives of MPA: mycophenolate mofetil (MMF, CellCept) and mycophenolate sodium (MPS, Myfortic). They cause, similar to MPA, although at lower degree, the side effects such as vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, gastrointestinal, urogenital tract, blood or nervous system disorders...
November 29, 2016: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902485/impacts-of-cigarette-smoking-on-immune-responsiveness-up-and-down-or-upside-down
#10
REVIEW
Feifei Qiu, Chun-Ling Liang, Huazhen Liu, Yu-Qun Zeng, Shaozhen Hou, Song Huang, Xiaoping Lai, Zhenhua Dai
Cigarette smoking is associated with numerous diseases and poses a serious challenge to the current healthcare system worldwide. Smoking impacts both innate and adaptive immunity and plays dual roles in regulating immunity by either exacerbation of pathogenic immune responses or attenuation of defensive immunity. Adaptive immune cells affected by smoking mainly include T helper cells (Th1/Th2/Th17), CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells, CD8+ T cells, B cells and memory T/B lymphocytes while innate immune cells impacted by smoking are mostly DCs, macrophages and NK cells...
November 25, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900974/disseminated-mycobacteria-chelonae-infection-in-a-kidney-pancreas-transplant-recipient-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#11
Shafi Malik, Ananda Ghosh, Shahid Husain
A 40-year-old male with a long-standing history of type 1 diabetes with end-stage renal failure underwent combined kidney-pancreas (KP) transplant from a standard criteria donor. Post-operative course was uncomplicated with good primary function of both transplant grafts. Induction was with thymoglobulin and maintenance immunosuppression was with tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and prednisolone. Nine weeks post-transplant, the patient developed dysfunction of both grafts. Panel reactive antibody testing revealed that the patient had developed a de novo donor-specific antibody and considering an antibody-mediated rejection the patient was treated with intravenous pulse methyl prednisone 500 mg ×3 doses, IV immunoglobulin 2 mg/kg in two divided doses, and ATG 7 mg/kg (total dose of 700 mg)...
November 2016: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898719/myocardial-gene-expression-profiling-to-predict-and-identify-cardiac-allograft-acute-cellular-rejection-the-get-study
#12
Diane Bodez, Hakim Hocini, Nicolas Tchitchek, Pascaline Tisserand, Nicole Benhaiem, Caroline Barau, Mounira Kharoubi, Aziz Guellich, Soulef Guendouz, Costin Radu, Jean-Paul Couetil, Bijan Ghaleh, Jean-Luc Dubois-Randé, Emmanuel Teiger, Luc Hittinger, Yves Levy, Thibaud Damy
AIMS: Serial invasive endomyocardial biopsies (EMB) remain the gold standard for acute cellular rejection (ACR) diagnosis. However histological grading has several limitations. We aimed to explore the value of myocardial Gene Expression Profiling (GEP) for diagnosing and identifying predictive biomarkers of ACR. METHODS: A case-control study nested within a retrospective heart transplant patients cohort included 126 patients with median (IQR) age 50 (41-57) years and 111 (88%) males...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898464/donor-derived-exosomes-the-trick-behind-the-semidirect-pathway-of-allorecognition
#13
Adrian E Morelli, William Bracamonte-Baran, William J Burlingham
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The passenger leukocyte hypothesis predicts that after transplantation, donor antigen-presenting cells (APCs) from the graft present donor MHC molecules to directly alloreactive T cells in lymphoid organs. However, in certain transplantation models, recent evidence contradicts this long-standing concept. New findings demonstrate that host, instead of donor, APCs play a prominent role in allosensitization against donor MHC molecules via the semidirect pathway. A similar mechanism operates in development of T-cell split tolerance to noninherited maternal antigens...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898463/transplantation-tolerance-after-allograft-rejection
#14
Michelle L Miller, Maria-Luisa Alegre, Anita S Chong
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although elusive for many decades, transplantation tolerance can now be achieved in the clinic. This has prompted follow-up investigations into its stability and longevity, as well as into barriers to its induction, which include memory T and B cells. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical observations reveal that transplantation tolerance can be induced in adult recipients and that even episodes of acute rejection do not preclude successful weaning from immunosuppression to reveal tolerance...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898462/recent-advances-in-allograft-vasculopathy
#15
Jonathan Merola, Daniel D Jane-Wit, Jordan S Pober
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite considerable advances in controlling acute rejection, the longevity of cardiac and renal allografts remains significantly limited by chronic rejection in the form of allograft vasculopathy. This review discusses recently reported mechanistic insights of allograft vasculopathy pathogenesis as well as recent clinical evaluations of new therapeutic approaches. RECENT FINDINGS: Although adaptive immunity is the major driver of allograft vasculopathy, natural killer cells mediate vasculopathic changes in a transplanted mouse heart following treatment with donor-specific antibody (DSA)...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897967/an-observational-study-of-donor-ex-vivo-lung-perfusion-in-uk-lung-transplantation-develop-uk
#16
Andrew Fisher, Anders Andreasson, Alexandros Chrysos, Joanne Lally, Chrysovalanto Mamasoula, Catherine Exley, Jennifer Wilkinson, Jessica Qian, Gillian Watson, Oli Lewington, Thomas Chadwick, Elaine McColl, Mark Pearce, Kay Mann, Nicola McMeekin, Luke Vale, Steven Tsui, Nizar Yonan, Andre Simon, Nandor Marczin, Jorge Mascaro, John Dark
BACKGROUND: Many patients awaiting lung transplantation die before a donor organ becomes available. Ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) allows initially unusable donor lungs to be assessed and reconditioned for clinical use. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the Donor Ex Vivo Lung Perfusion in UK lung transplantation study was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of EVLP in increasing UK lung transplant activity. DESIGN: A multicentre, unblinded, non-randomised, non-inferiority observational study to compare transplant outcomes between EVLP-assessed and standard donor lungs...
November 2016: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895907/succinct-guide-to-liver-transplantation-for-medical-students
#17
REVIEW
Cheng-Maw Ho, Po-Huang Lee, Wing Tung Cheng, Rey-Heng Hu, Yao-Ming Wu, Ming-Chih Ho
Literature on liver transplantation for use in medical education is limited and as yet unsatisfactory. The aim of this article is to help medical students gain enough insight into the reality of being a liver transplant recipient. This is crucial so in the future they can feel confident in approaching these patients with adequate knowledge and confidence. The knowledge-tree based learning core topics are designed for a 2-h class including indication/contraindication in the real-world setting, model for end stage liver disease scoring and organ allocation policy, liver transplantation for hepatic malignancy, transplantation surgery, immunosuppression strategy in practical consideration, and management of viral hepatitis...
December 2016: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894980/natural-killer-cells-in-inflammatory-heart-disease
#18
REVIEW
SuFey Ong, Noel R Rose, Daniela Cihakova
Despite of a multitude of excellent studies, the regulatory role of natural killer (NK) cells in the pathogenesis of inflammatory cardiac disease is greatly underappreciated. Clinical abnormalities in the numbers and functions of NK cells are observed in myocarditis and inflammatory dilated cardiomyopathy (DCMi) as well as in cardiac transplant rejection Ayach and Ayach (2006), Kuroki et al. (1993), Klarlund and Klarlund (1987), Anderson et al. (1982), Galati and Galati (2014), Zhang and Zhang (2014) [1-6]...
November 25, 2016: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894836/use-of-complement-binding-assays-to-assess-the-efficacy-of-antibody-mediated-rejection-therapy-and-prediction-of-graft-survival-in-kidney-transplantation
#19
Daniel S Ramon, Yihung Huang, Lili Zhao, TrisAnn Rendulic, Jeong M Park, Randall S Sung, Milagros Samaniego
BACKGROUND: The Luminex(®) single antigen bead assay (SAB) is the method of choice for monitoring the treatment for antibody-mediated rejection (AMR). A ⩾50% reduction of the dominant donor-specific antibody (IgG-DSA) mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) has been associated with improved kidney allograft survival, and C1q-fixing DSA activity is associated with poor outcomes in patients with AMR. We aimed to investigate if C1q-DSA can be used as a reliable predictor of response to therapy and allograft survival in patients with biopsy-proven AMR...
November 25, 2016: Human Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893617/differential-role-of-b-cells-and-il-17-versus-ifn-%C3%AE-during-early-and-late-rejection-of-pig-islet-xenografts-in-mice
#20
Hee Kap Kang, Shusen Wang, Anil Dangi, Xiaomin Zhang, Amar Singh, Lei Zhang, James M Rosati, Wilma Suarez-Pinzon, Xuelian Deng, Xiaoyan Chen, Edward B Thorp, Bernhard J Hering, Stephen D Miller, Xunrong Luo
BACKGROUND: Xenogeneic islet transplantation is an emerging therapeutic option for diabetic patients. However, immunological tolerance to xenogeneic islets remains a challenge. METHODS: The current study used a pig-to-mouse discordant xenogeneic islet transplant model to examine anti-donor xenogeneic immune responses during early and late rejection, and to determine experimental therapeutic interventions that promote durable pig islet xenograft survival. RESULTS: We found that during early acute rejection of pig islet xenografts, the rejecting hosts exhibited a heavy graft infiltration with B220 B cells and a robust anti-pig antibody production...
November 23, 2016: Transplantation
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