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Trauma military

Safwat Y Diab, Sanna Isosävi, Samir R Qouta, Saija Kuittinen, Raija-Leena Punamäki
BACKGROUND: Women at pre partum and post partum are especially susceptible to war trauma because they struggle to protect their infants from danger. Trauma research suggests increased problems in maternal mental health and infant development. Yet many cognitive-emotional processes affect the trauma survivors' mental health, such as post-traumatic growth and post-traumatic cognition. The aim of this study was to examine whether a mother's high post-traumatic growth and optimal post-traumatic cognition could protect their own mental health and their infant's stress regulation from the effects of traumatic war experiences...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Nikitas Nomikos
Trauma and the need of medical care exist since the beginning of human history. This research is aimed to identify and analyze trauma in antiquity. After a review of bibliography, the first reports of trauma (in Europe) were found in the Greek Epics of Homer. The analysis of these texts showed that injury could be caused to any part of the human body. The main cause of trauma was primarily participation in wars (178 cases), and then participation in sports (6 cases) and other activities (6 cases). This study identified a total of 190 injuries in both Homer epics...
February 20, 2018: Chinese Journal of Traumatology, Zhonghua Chuang Shang za Zhi
Claire E Webster, Jon Clasper, Daniel J Stinner, Joseph Eliahoo, Spyros D Masouros
Background: Throughout history, traumatic amputation of the lower extremity has been a notable feature of all conflicts involving explosive incidents. Even at the close of the recent conflicts in Afghanistan, there were deaths that were deemed "potentially survivable." The purpose of this study is to characterize lower extremity blast injury and to determine if their amputation levels and associated injury characteristics correlate with a higher risk of mortality. Methods: the UK Joint Theatre Trauma Registry (JTTR) was interrogated to identify all lower extremity traumatic amputations sustained in both Iraq and Afghanistan between January 2003 and the end of UK operations in August 2014...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Olivier Barbier, Maelle Racle
Introduction: The current evolution of surgical practices is increasingly trending toward hyper-specialization. For military surgeons, their practice in France does not differ from their civilian counterparts. In contrast, in external operations, they have to deal with specific war injuries in austere conditions. They are also required to take care of local populations. Therefore, specific training is necessary, and the French Military Health Service Academy (Ecole du Val-de-Grâce) Paris has set up a specific training called Advanced Course for Deployment Surgery (ACDS) in 2007...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Laura Miller, Gerardo J Pacheco, Jud C Janak, Rose C Grimm, Nicole A Dierschke, Janice Baker, Jean A Orman
Background: Military working dogs (MWDs) are a major asset in the theater of operations. Their unique abilities make them ideal for tasks such as tracking, patrol, and scent detection. MWDs deployed to a war zone are exposed to harsh environments and battlefield dangers that increase their risk of disease, injuries, and death. Although canines have been used extensively in Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF), no published studies have reported detailed causes of death among MWDs deployed to these conflicts...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Hyungsub Park, Kwangmin Kim
The incidence of an isolated femoral vessel injury in the absence of fractures or other organ injury is extremely rare. A 20-yr-old male Korean soldier was taken to the hospital with a common femoral artery (CFA) obstruction. Injured CFA segment was resected and replaced by using 7-mm PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) graft. Two months after the surgical treatment, the patient discharged from the hospital without any complaints or postoperative complications. We report an unusual case of isolated femoral artery injury due to blunt trauma during military service with following review of literature...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Christine A DeForest, Virginia Blackman, John E Alex, Lauren Reeves, Alejandra Mora, Crystal Perez, Joseph Maddry, Domenique Selby, Benjamin Walrath
Introduction: Military prehospital and en route care (ERC) directly impacts patient morbidity and mortality. Provider knowledge and skills are critical variables in the effectiveness of ERC. No Navy doctrine defines provider choice for patient transport or requires standardized provider training. Frequently, Search and Rescue Medical Technicians (SMTs) and Navy Nurses (ERC RNs) are tasked with this mission though physicians have also been used. Navy ERC provider training varies greatly by professional role...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Steven L Sayers, Frances K Barg, Shahrzad Mavandadi, Tanya H Hess, Andreea Crauciuc
This concurrent embedded mixed methods study explored important aspects of communication occurring between military service members and their intimate partners during a combat deployment to Iraq or Afghanistan. Fifty-eight participants (32 military veterans and 26 non-veteran partners) participated in an interview using standardized self-report measures assessing the current level of relationship satisfaction, trauma symptoms of the veteran, and the veterans' trauma exposure. Participants also participated in a semistructured interview focused on combat deployment and reintegration experiences...
February 2018: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
Lynsey Shaw Cobden
This is not an article about 'shell-shock'. It explores the military medical response to nervous disorders in the Royal Flying Corps. The First World War exposed the propensity of pilots to the nervous and psychological rigours of aerial warfare, but their unique experiences have been overlooked in favour of 'trauma' in infantrymen. This represents a critical lacuna in the historiography of military medicine, for flying personnel were studied apart from 'shell-shocked' soldiers. This article will show that flyers were believed to be medically different, and what set them apart from men in the trenches was their unique employment...
February 2, 2018: Br J Mil Hist
Chao Wang, Paul Rapp, David Darmon, Amy Trongnetrpunya, Michelle E Costanzo, Dominic E Nathan, Christopher J Cellucci, Michael J Roy, David Keyser
Military service members (SMs) returning from combat are at high risk of developing neuropsychiatric conditions such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression. Symptom dynamics following reintegration into civilian life may be magnified over time such that some SMs present with delayed onset and may not reach a diagnostic threshold for months to years. Monitoring the trajectory of mental health in the aftermath of combat trauma can therefore be particularly important in enhancing diagnosis...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Yael Lahav, Alana Siegel, Zahava Solomon
Spouses of traumatized war veterans might suffer from distress following indirect exposure to combat and direct exposure to domestic abuse. Yet the effect of this twofold trauma exposure is far from being fully understood. Theory views attachment security as a personal resource mitigating adversity, whereas attachment insecurities intensify distress. Nevertheless, there are mixed results concerning the effects of attachment in the aftermath of trauma. Furthermore, the role of trauma exposure levels regarding the effects of attachment remains largely uninvestigated...
March 9, 2018: Attachment & Human Development
Douglas B Cooper, Glenn Curtiss, Patrick Armistead-Jehle, Heather G Belanger, David F Tate, Matthew Reid, Amy O Bowles, Carmen S Velez, Jan E Kennedy, Rodney D Vanderploeg
OBJECTIVE: To examine differences in objective neurocognitive performance and subjective cognitive symptoms in individuals with a history of a single concussion, multiple concussions, orthopedic injuries, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). METHOD: Participants included 116 military service members who sustained a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) during combat deployment. Subjects were subdivided into groups based on concussion frequency: a single concussion (n = 42), 2 concussions (n = 21), and 3 or more concussions (n = 53)...
March 2018: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
Timothy A Mitchener, Noel E Dickens, John W Simecek
Background: Few studies have examined the causes or mechanisms of oral-maxillofacial (OMF) injury among deployed military populations. This study reports causes of OMF injuries to U.S. Department of Defense personnel deployed to Afghanistan in Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) or to Iraq in Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Operation New Dawn (OND). This study provides follow-on analysis of a previous report of OMF injury rates among U.S. military personnel in Iraq and Afghanistan from 2001 to 2014...
March 1, 2018: Military Medicine
Yi-Ling Cai, Jin-Tao Ju, Wen-Bao Liu, Jian Zhang
Introduction: Forward surgical teams (FSTs) have been used as highly mobile surgical facilities that provide "damage control" medical support in modern wars. FST regiments differ greatly in different armed services and nations. We systemically reviewed the utilization of FSTs around the world with an emphasis on the medical conditions and workloads encountered by FSTs in modern wars. Materials and Methods: We searched for terms related to FSTs, such as "Forward Surgical Team" and "Field Surgical Team," in the PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and MEDLINE databases and collected any articles that provided numerical data on the organization of medical personnel combat casualty characteristics, including the casualty composition, injury types and locations, and mechanisms of injury, and surgical procedures performed...
March 1, 2018: Military Medicine
Jennifer L Creamer, Matthew S Brock, Panagiotis Matsangas, Vida Motamedi, Vincent Mysliwiec
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Sleep disturbances are common in United States military personnel. Despite their exposure to combat and trauma, little is known about nightmares in this population. The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence and associated clinical and polysomnographic characteristics of nightmares in United States military personnel with sleep disturbances. METHODS: Retrospective review of 500 active duty United States military personnel who underwent a sleep medicine evaluation and polysomnography at our sleep center...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
Leo van Bergen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 6, 2018: Medicine, Conflict, and Survival
A Nazarov, D Fikretoglu, A Liu, M Thompson, M A Zamorski
BACKGROUND: A link between moral injury (i.e., the psychological distress caused by perceived moral transgressions) and adverse mental health outcomes (AMHO) has been recently proposed. However, the prevalence of exposure to morally injurious events and the associated risk of experiencing AMHO remains understudied. METHOD: The impact of exposure to potentially morally injurious experiences (PMIEs) was explored in relation to past-year PTSD and MDD, using the 2013 Canadian Armed Forces Mental Health Survey dataset of Afghanistan mission deployed regular force and reserve personnel...
March 4, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Abdullah Bin Zahid, David Balser, Rebekah Thomas, Margaret Y Mahan, Molly E Hubbard, Uzma Samadani
OBJECTIVE Chronic subdural hematoma (cSDH) is a highly morbid condition associated with brain atrophy in the elderly. It has a reported 30% 1-year mortality rate. Approximately half of afflicted individuals report either no or relatively unremarkable trauma preceding their diagnosis, raising the possibility that cSDH is a manifestation of degenerative or inflammatory disease rather than trauma. The purpose of this study was to compare the rates of cerebral atrophy before and after cSDH to determine whether it is more likely that cSDH causes atrophy or that atrophy causes cSDH...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Steven G Schauer, Michael D April, Guyon J Hill, Jason F Naylor, Matthew A Borgman, Robert A De Lorenzo
BACKGROUND: United States (US) and coalition military medical units deployed to combat zones frequently encounter pediatric trauma patients. Pediatric patients may present unique challenges due to their anatomical and physiological characteristics and most military prehospital providers lack pediatric-specific training. A minimal amount of data exists to illuminate the prehospital care of pediatric patients in this environment. We describe the prehospital care of pediatric trauma patients in Iraq and Afghanistan...
March 1, 2018: Prehospital Emergency Care
S B Norman, M Haller, Hyungjin Myra Kim, C B Allard, K E Porter, M B Stein, M R Venners, C C Authier, S A M Rauch
Trauma related guilt, a distressing emotion associated with negative cognitions regarding one's actions or inaction during a traumatic event, is common among individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We hypothesized that trauma related guilt cognitions would partially explain the relationship between PTSD symptom severity and functioning. The sample consisted of 254 combat veterans or active duty military personnel who served in Operation Enduring Freedom, Operation Iraqi Freedom or Operation New Dawn (OEF/OIF/OND) who consented to participate in a larger PTSD treatment study...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
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