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Clement Chung
PURPOSE: Current strategies for managing neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) in adult patients are reviewed, with a focus on medication safety concerns. SUMMARY: NETs usually originate in the gastrointestinal or bronchopulmonary tract. Symptoms due to hormonal hypersecretion often occur in patients with foregut or midgut NETs or liver metastases. Surgical resection is recommended for most localized NETs, while systemic cytotoxic chemotherapy is typically used for high-grade and pancreatic tumors...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
Elisabeth Sterrer, Franz Windisch, Kurt Frey, Klaus Rettensteiner, Benjamin Loader
BACKGROUND: Middle ear adenoma with neuroendocrine differentiation (MEA-ND), also known as carcinoid tumor of the middle ear, is an extremely rare neoplasm, especially when located within the tympanic cavity. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first pediatric case of a MEA-ND described in Europe. Excluding the present case, only three other pediatric cases of this disease have been published globally. CASE REPORT: We report on a 15-year-old female patient who presented with conductive hearing loss of the right ear...
October 19, 2016: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
Rie Tadokoro, Shotaro Sato, Fumiko Otsuka, Makoto Ueno, Shinichi Ohkawa, Hideki Katakami, Matsuo Taniyama, Shoichiro Nagasaka
The patient was a 61-year-old woman who had a well-differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PNET) with lymph node metastasis. After 15 months of octreotide treatment, glucose control deteriorated and pigmentation of the tongue and moon face developed, leading to the diagnosis of ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) syndrome. An abnormal secretion of growth hormone (GH) was identified, and the plasma growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) level was elevated. A tumor biopsy specimen positively immunostained for ACTH and GHRH...
2016: Internal Medicine
Christoph Wetz, I Apostolova, I G Steffen, F Hofheinz, C Furth, D Kupitz, J Ruf, M Venerito, S Klose, Holger Amthauer
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess the value of the spatial heterogeneity of somatostatin receptor (SSR) volume, quantified as asphericity (ASP), and to predict response to peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) in patients with metastatic gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (GEP-NEN). PROCEDURES: From June 2011 to May 2013, patients suffering from GEP-NEN who underwent pretherapeutic [(111)In-DTPA(0)]octreotide scintigraphy (Octreoscan®) prior to [(177)Lu-DOTA(0)-Tyr(3)]octreotate ([(177)Lu]DOTATATE)-PRRT were enrolled in this retrospective evaluation...
October 14, 2016: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
Man-Li Guo, Xiao Zheng, Liu-Xue Yang, Ya-Li Qiu, Liang Cheng, Shao-Gang Ma
Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) coexisting with ectopic thyroid is rare. Here we report a case of RTH with ectopic thyroid. A ten-year-old girl had been misdiagnosed as congenital hypothyroidism and treated with levothyroxine since she was born. Ten-year follow-up showed that the elevated thyrotropin was never suppressed by levothyroxine and no signs indicating hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism despite elevated FT3 and FT4 levels. Therefore the girl developed no defects in physical and cognitive development...
October 10, 2016: Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Leandro Kasuki, Evelyn de Oliveira Machado, Liana Lumi Ogino, Maria Caroline Alves Coelho, Cintia Marques Dos Santos Silva, Luiz Eduardo Armondi Wildemberg, Carlos Henrique Azeredo Lima, Mônica R Gadelha
Objective: To describe the safety and efficacy of pegvisomant therapy and the predictors of treatment response in acromegaly patients at a single tertiary reference center in Brazil. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical, hormonal and radiological data of acromegaly patients treated with pegvisomant in our center. We also evaluated the presence of the d3 isoform of the growth hormone receptor (d3GHR). Results: Twenty-seven patients were included (17 women)...
October 10, 2016: Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Václav Hána
Acromegaly is a rare disease caused by overproduction of growth hormone, which significantly worsens quality of life and increases morbidity and mortality of patients. Modern specialized surgery, radiosurgery, radiotherapy and pharmacotherapy substantially improved therapeutical possibilities and the perspective of patients. Current thera-peutic modalities enable to create individually tailored therapy for the specific patient and suppress the acromegalic activity. Novel forms of currently used active substances and even conceptually new forms of pharmacotherapy are under preparation and testing (eg...
2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
Simone Maschauer, Marcus Heilmann, Carmen Wängler, Ralf Schirrmacher, Olaf Prante
Short synthetic octapeptide analogs derived from the native somatostatin peptides SST-14 and SST-28, namely octreotate (TATE) or octreotide (TOC), bind with high affinity to somatostatin receptors (sstr), mainly to subtypes 2 and 5, which are expressed in high density on neuroendocrine tumors (NET). Therefore, radiolabeled TATE or TOC derivatives represent highly valuable imaging probes for NET diagnosis by positron emission tomography (PET). The aim of our study was the development of an 18F-labeled octreotate analog as an alternative radiotracer for the clinically established 68Ga-DOTATOC and 68Ga-DOTATATE...
October 7, 2016: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Jessica Hellyer, Hunter Oliver-Allen, Majid Shafiq, Alisha Tolani, Maurice Druzin, Michael Jeng, Stanley Rockson, Robert Lowsky
Introduction Gorham-Stout Disease (GSD) is a rare disorder of bony destruction due to lymphangiomatosis, and is often triggered by hormones. One complication of GSD is the development of chylothorax, which carries a high mortality rate. Very little experience has been published to guide management in GSD during pregnancy to optimize both fetal and maternal health. Case Study A 20-year-old woman with known GSD presented with shortness of breath at 18 weeks of pregnancy, due to bilateral chylothoraces which required daily drainage...
October 2016: American Journal of Perinatology Reports
Kjell E Oberg, Steven Wj Lamberts
Acromegaly is a hormonal disorder that arises when the pituitary gland secretes excess growth hormone (GH), which in turn stimulates a concomitant increase in serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels. Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (GEP-NET) constitute a heterogeneous group of tumours that can secrete serotonin and a variety of peptide hormones that may cause characteristic symptoms known as carcinoid syndrome, or other symptoms and hormonal hypersecretion syndromes depending on the tumour's site of origin...
October 3, 2016: Endocrine-related Cancer
George P Obita, Elaine G Boland, David C Currow, Miriam J Johnson, Jason W Boland
CONTEXT: Somatostatin analogues are commonly used to relieve symptoms in malignant bowel obstruction (MBO) but are more expensive than other anti-secretory agents. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the evidence of effectiveness of somatostatin analogues compared to placebo and/or other pharmacological agents in relieving vomiting in patients with inoperable MBO. METHOD: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, The Cochrane Controlled Trials Register databases were systematically searched; reference lists of relevant articles were hand-searched...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
M Y Al-Shorbagy, Noha N Nassar
In the present study, the role of octreotide (OCT) in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) kindling as well as in acute convulsion models was evaluated. Mice were allocated in groups as (1) control saline; (2) acute PTZ (PTZ-a; 60 mg/kg, i.p.), as a single convulsive dose; and (3) kindled (PTZ-k) receiving nine subconvulsive doses of PTZ (40 mg/kg, i.p.) for 17 days. Groups 4-7 received either valproic acid (VPA) 50 mg/kg or OCT (50 μg/kg, Sandostatin®) 30 min by oral gavage before PTZ-a or PTZ-k. The median seizure stage, latency onset of first stage 4/5 seizures, and incidence of convulsing animals were recorded...
October 1, 2016: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
Marc G Besselink, L Bengt van Rijssen, Claudio Bassi, Christos Dervenis, Marco Montorsi, Mustapha Adham, Horacio J Asbun, Maximillian Bockhorn, Oliver Strobel, Markus W Büchler, Olivier R Busch, Richard M Charnley, Kevin C Conlon, Laureano Fernández-Cruz, Abe Fingerhut, Helmut Friess, Jakob R Izbicki, Keith D Lillemoe, John P Neoptolemos, Michael G Sarr, Shailesh V Shrikhande, Robert Sitarz, Charles M Vollmer, Charles J Yeo, Werner Hartwig, Christopher L Wolfgang, Dirk J Gouma
BACKGROUND: Recent literature suggests that chyle leak may complicate up to 10% of pancreatic resections. Treatment depends on its severity, which may include chylous ascites. No international consensus definition or grading system of chyle leak currently is available. METHODS: The International Study Group on Pancreatic Surgery, an international panel of pancreatic surgeons working in well-known, high-volume centers, reviewed the literature and worked together to establish a consensus on the definition and classification of chyle leak after pancreatic operation...
September 28, 2016: Surgery
Jennifer J Gao, Ming Tan, Paula R Pohlmann, Sandra M Swain
Approximately 40% to 80% of patients receiving pertuzumab-directed therapy for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer will develop chemotherapy-induced diarrhea (CID). Loperamide and octreotide are frequently used to treat CID after diarrhea occurs, but neither is used prophylactically or targets the underlying mechanism. Previous studies suggest blocking epidermal growth factor receptor may cause excess chloride secretion, resulting in diarrhea. Crofelemer is derived from the red latex of the Croton lechleri tree, blocks gastrointestinal cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator and calcium-activated chloride channels, and is U...
August 27, 2016: Clinical Breast Cancer
Patrick M House, Stefan R G Stodieck
OBJECTIVE: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is characterized by elevated intracranial pressure without a space-occupying cerebral lesion, venous sinus thrombosis or hydrocephalus and with normally composited cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Main symptoms are headache, sight disturbances and potential visual impairment. Weight loss, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, lumbar punctures with CSF drain, CSF shunting, optic nerve sheath fenestration, and venous sinus stenting are common IIH therapies...
November 2016: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Claudia Pivonello, Panagoula Rousaki, Mariarosaria Negri, Maddalena Sarnataro, Maria Napolitano, Federica Zito Marino, Roberta Patalano, Maria Cristina De Martino, Concetta Sciammarella, Antongiulio Faggiano, Gaetano Rocco, Renato Franco, Gregory A Kaltsas, Annamaria Colao, Rosario Pivonello
Somatostatin analogues and mTOR inhibitors have been used as medical therapy in lung carcinoids with variable results. No data are available on dopamine agonists as treatment for lung carcinoids. The main aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of the combined treatment of somatostatin analogue octreotide and the dopamine agonist cabergoline with mTOR inhibitors in an in vitro model of typical lung carcinoids: the NCI-H727 cell line. In NCI-H727 cell line, reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence were assessed to characterize the expression of the somatostatin receptor 2 and 5, dopamine receptor 2 and mTOR pathway components...
September 29, 2016: Endocrine
Xiao Li, Lin Cai, Hua Xu, Chong Geng, Jing Lu, Liping Tao, Dan Sun, Fayez K Ghishan, Chunhui Wang
Previous studies reported that administration of somatostatin (SST) to human patients mitigated their diarrheal symptoms. Octreotide (an analogue of SST) treatment in animals resulted in upregulation of sodium/hydrogen exchanger 8 (NHE8). NHE8 is important for water/sodium absorption in the intestine, and loss of NHE8 function results in mucosal injury. Thus, we hypothesized that NHE8 expression is inhibited during colitis and that SST treatment during pathological conditions can restore NHE8 expression. Our data showed for the first time that NHE8 is expressed in the human colonic tissue and that NHE8 expression is decreased in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients...
September 29, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Viveksandeep T Chandrasekar, Dilpreet Kaur, Gaganjot Singh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 19, 2016: American Journal of Therapeutics
Sofía Verdaguer D, Juan Cristóbal Gana A
BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of good quality research about the diagnosis of esophageal varices and the prophylaxis and treatment of variceal bleeding in pediatric patients with portal hypertension There is little consensus and practically no evidence-based approach about the management of these patients. AIM: To describe the behavior and preferences of pediatric gastroenterologists in Chile in the management of portal hypertension in children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An online survey was sent to Chilean pediatric gastroenterologists, with questions evaluating the physicians’ approaches to screening of esophageal varices in children with portal hypertension, and their preferred methods of prophylaxis and initial management of variceal bleeding...
July 2016: Revista Médica de Chile
Juan P Arab, Juan C Claro, Juan P Arancibia, Jorge Contreras, Fernando Gómez, Cristian Muñoz, Leyla Nazal, Eric Roessler, Rodrigo Wolff, Marco Arrese, Carlos Benítez
AIM: To propose several alternatives treatment of type 1 hepatorenal syndrome (HRS-1) what is the most severe expression of circulatory dysfunction on patients with portal hypertension. METHODS: A group of eleven gastroenterologists and nephrologists performed a structured analysis of available literature. Each expert was designated to review and answer a question. They generated draft statements for evaluation by all the experts. Additional input was obtained from medical community...
September 8, 2016: World Journal of Hepatology
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