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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905916/study-protocol-a-dose-escalating-phase-2-study-of-oral-lisdexamfetamine-in-adults-with-methamphetamine-dependence
#1
Nadine Ezard, Adrian Dunlop, Brendan Clifford, Raimondo Bruno, Andrew Carr, Alexandra Bissaker, Nicholas Lintzeris
BACKGROUND: The treatment of methamphetamine dependence is a continuing global health problem. Agonist type pharmacotherapies have been used successfully to treat opioid and nicotine dependence and are being studied for the treatment of methamphetamine dependence. One potential candidate is lisdexamfetamine, a pro-drug for dexamphetamine, which has a longer lasting therapeutic action with a lowered abuse potential. The purpose of this study is to determine the safety of lisdexamfetamine in this population at doses higher than those currently approved for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or binge eating disorder...
December 1, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670244/psychostimulant-drugs-for-cocaine-dependence
#2
Xavier Castells, Ruth Cunill, Clara Pérez-Mañá, Xavier Vidal, Dolors Capellà
BACKGROUND: Cocaine dependence is a severe disorder for which no medication has been approved. Like opioids for heroin dependence, replacement therapy with psychostimulants could be an effective therapy for treatment. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of psychostimulants for cocaine abuse and dependence. Specific outcomes include sustained cocaine abstinence and retention in treatment. We also studied the influence of type of drug and comorbid disorders on psychostimulant efficacy...
September 27, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27552823/an-investigation-of-stimulant-effects-on-the-eeg-of-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#3
Adam R Clarke, Robert J Barry, Iris E Baker, Rory McCarthy, Mark Selikowitz
Stimulant medications are the most commonly prescribed treatment for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD). These medications result in a normalization of the EEG. However, past research has found that complete normalization of the EEG is not always achieved. One reason for this may be that studies have used different medications interchangeably, or groups of subjects on different stimulants. This study investigated whether methylphenidate and dexamphetamine produce different levels of normalization of the EEG in children with AD/HD...
August 23, 2016: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27346918/dealing-with-drug-seeking-behaviour
#4
REVIEW
Jenny James
People who misuse prescription drugs most commonly seek prescriptions for opioids and benzodiazepines. Other prescription drugs that are misused include the newer antipsychotics such as quetiapine and olanzapine, and stimulants such as dexamphetamine and methylphenidate. Health professionals should be aware of behaviours that may indicate drug seeking, but dependency on prescription drugs can occur at any age, within any cultural group and across any educational class. Patients with dependencies may not necessarily display obvious drug-seeking behaviours...
June 2016: Australian Prescriber
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27289365/investigation-of-the-effects-of-piperazine-containing-party-pills-and-dexamphetamine-on-interhemispheric-communication-using-electroencephalography
#5
HeeSeung Lee, Grace Y Wang, Louise E Curley, Rob R Kydd, Ian J Kirk, Bruce R Russell
BACKGROUND: 'Piperazine-containing party pills' were marketed and sold as legal alternatives to methamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) until 2008 in New Zealand. The major constituents of these 'pills' were benzylphenylpiperazine (BZP) and trifluoromethylphenylpiperazine (TFMPP). Despite their popularity, there is a paucity of knowledge about their central effects in humans. This study investigated their effects on human neural processing using electroencephalographic techniques...
August 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27284278/effects-of-dexamphetamine-and-music-on-reversal-learning
#6
Farzane Yazdani, Mojtaba Naghshvarian, Alireza Salehi, Maryam Marzban
BACKGROUND: Reversal learning has proven to be a valuable task in assessing the inhibitory process that is central to executive control. Psycho-stimulants and music are prevalent factors that influence cognition. OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed at investigating the influences of dexamphetamine and music on inhibitory control. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This experimental study was conducted between May and June 2014 in the laboratory animal center of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran...
March 2016: Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27199749/stimulants-for-the-control-of-hedonic-appetite
#7
Alison S Poulton, Emily J Hibbert, Bernard L Champion, Ralph K H Nanan
The focus of this paper is treatment of obesity in relation to the management of hedonic appetite. Obesity is a complex condition which may be potentiated by excessive reward seeking in combination with executive functioning deficits that impair cognitive control of behavior. Stimulant medications address both reward deficiency and enhance motivation, as well as suppressing appetite. They have long been recognized to be effective for treating obesity. However, stimulants can be abused for their euphoric effect...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27183901/adult-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-key-conceptual-issues
#8
REVIEW
Philip Asherson, Jan Buitelaar, Stephen V Faraone, Luis A Rohde
For many years, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was thought to be a childhood-onset disorder that has a limited effect on adult psychopathology. However, the symptoms and impairments that define ADHD often affect the adult population, with similar responses to drugs such as methylphenidate, dexamphetamine, and atomoxetine, and psychosocial interventions, to those seen in children and adolescents. As a result, awareness of ADHD in adults has rapidly increased and new clinical practice has emerged across the world...
June 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27145886/prescribing-trends-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-medications-in-uk-primary-care-1995-2015
#9
Christel Renoux, Ju-Young Shin, Sophie Dell'Aniello, Emma Fergusson, Samy Suissa
AIM: The aim of the present study was to describe the prescription of medications for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the UK between 1995 and 2015. METHODS: Using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), we defined a cohort of all patients aged 6-45 years, registered with a general practitioner between January 1995 and September 2015. All prescriptions of methylphenidate, dexamphetamine/lisdexamphetamine and atomoxetine were identified and annual prescription rates of ADHD were estimated using Poisson regression...
September 2016: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26937669/adhd-medication-overdose-and-misuse-the-nsw-poisons-information-centre-experience-2004-2014
#10
Rose Cairns, Benjamin Daniels, Danielle A Wood, Jonathan Brett
OBJECTIVES: To describe Australian trends in overdoses with medications used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: This was a retrospective observational study of intentional exposures to methylphenidate, dexamphetamine, modafinil and atomoxetine reported to the New South Wales Poisons Information Centre (NSWPIC) from 1 January 2004 to 31 December 2014. The NSWPIC takes calls from New South Wales, Tasmania and the Australian Capital Territory between 6 am and midnight each day, and, as part of a national after-hours roster, from all Australian states between midnight and 6 am on seven nights each fortnight...
March 7, 2016: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26912213/using-fmri-to-compare-the-effects-of-benzylpiperazine-with-dexamphetamine-their-differences-during-the-stroop-paradigm
#11
Louise E Curley, Robert R Kydd, Ian J Kirk, Bruce R Russell
RATIONALE: Benzylpiperazine (BZP) has been found to increase neural activation in the dorsal striatum when compared to placebo in response to a Stroop paradigm, in addition, subjective effects have been compared to dexamphetamine (DEX). Despite their similarities, the two have not been directly compared in respect to their effects on selective attention and inhibition. OBJECTIVES: To use a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study to compare the acute effects of BZP and DEX on executive function using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and an event-related Stroop task...
March 2016: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26906078/stimulants-for-depression-on-the-up-and-up
#12
Gin S Malhi, Yulisha Byrow, Darryl Bassett, Philip Boyce, Malcolm Hopwood, William Lyndon, Roger Mulder, Richard Porter, Ajeet Singh, Greg Murray
The use of traditional psychostimulants (methylphenidate and dexamphetamine) and stimulant-like drugs (modafinil and armodafinil) for the treatment of depression is a growing concern given the lack of research evidence supporting their effectiveness. The current article describes the role of stimulants in treating depression--specifically their risks and benefits and their potential use alongside antidepressants. Clinically, the rapid amelioration of depressive symptoms with traditional psychostimulants is often dramatic but short-lived, and this suggests that they likely operate via different mechanisms to conventional antidepressants...
March 2016: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26844979/amphetamines-for-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-in-children-and-adolescents
#13
REVIEW
Salima Punja, Larissa Shamseer, Lisa Hartling, Liana Urichuk, Ben Vandermeer, Jane Nikles, Sunita Vohra
BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common psychiatric conditions affecting children and adolescents. Amphetamines are among the most commonly prescribed medications to manage ADHD. There are three main classes of amphetamines: dexamphetamine, lisdexamphetamine and mixed amphetamine salts, which can be further broken down into short- and long-acting formulations. A systematic review assessing their efficacy and safety in this population has never been conducted...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26630992/acute-effects-of-bzp-tfmpp-and-the-combination-of-bzp-and-tfmpp-in-comparison-to-dexamphetamine-on-an-auditory-oddball-task-using-electroencephalography-a-single-dose-study
#14
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
HeeSeung Lee, Grace Y Wang, Louise E Curley, John J Sollers, Rob R Kydd, Ian J Kirk, Bruce R Russell
RATIONALE: Piperazine-based designer drugs such as benzylpiperazine (BZP) and trifluoromethylphenylpiperazine (TFMPP) have been marketed and sold as legal alternatives to dexamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) until 2008 in New Zealand. When administered in combination, BZP + TFMPP have been reported to produce drug-drug synergism in rodents by stimulating the release of dopamine and serotonin. OBJECTIVES: This study was to evaluate the acute event-related potential effects of BZP, TFMPP or the combination of BZP + TFMPP compared with dexamphetamine in young healthy male adults...
March 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26577247/the-effects-of-dexamphetamine-on-the-resting-state-electroencephalogram-and-functional-connectivity
#15
Matthew A Albrecht, Gareth Roberts, Greg Price, Joseph Lee, Rajan Iyyalol, Mathew T Martin-Iverson
The catecholamines-dopamine and noradrenaline-play important roles in directing and guiding behavior. Disorders of these systems, particularly within the dopamine system, are associated with several severe and chronically disabling psychiatric and neurological disorders. We used the recently published group independent components analysis (ICA) procedure outlined by Chen et al. (2013) to present the first pharmaco-EEG ICA analysis of the resting-state EEG in healthy participants administered 0.45 mg/kg dexamphetamine...
February 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26544899/stimulant-medication-effects-on-growth-and-bone-age-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-prospective-cohort-study
#16
Alison S Poulton, Quoc Bui, Elaine Melzer, Richard Evans
Stimulant medication is known to cause transient weight loss and slowing down of growth, but whether it delays physical maturation is unclear. We studied growth and bone age over the first 3 years of treatment in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (patients) compared with healthy siblings (controls). Bone age was estimated blindly by two independent radiologists using Tanner and Whitehouse version 3. Dexamphetamine or methylphenidate was titrated and continued when clinically indicated. Forty out of 73 patients, together with 22 controls, completed the study...
March 2016: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26517983/are-there-any-potentially-dangerous-pharmacological-effects-of-combining-adhd-medication-with-alcohol-and-drugs-of-abuse-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#17
REVIEW
Xanthe M Barkla, Paul A McArdle, Dorothy Newbury-Birch
BACKGROUND: Among young people up to 18 years of age, approximately 5% have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), many of whom have symptoms persisting into adulthood. ADHD is associated with increased risk of co-morbid psychiatric disorders, including substance misuse. Many will be prescribed medication, namely methylphenidate, atomoxetine, dexamphetamine and lisdexamfetamine. If so, it is important to know if interactions exist and if they are potentially toxic. METHODS: Three databases (Medline, EMBASE and PsychINFO) from a 22 year period (1992 - June 2014) were searched systematically...
2015: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26404187/long-term-pharmacotherapy-of-adults-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-literature-review-and-clinical-study
#18
REVIEW
Mats Fredriksen, Dawn E Peleikis
This MiniReview reports and discusses the main findings of the author's thesis including a literature study of long-term pharmacological treatment of adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and a clinical study of 1-year medication. Electronic databases were systematically reviewed for original studies on pharmacotherapy of the defined duration, 24 weeks or more. Although few trials were found with limitations such as excluding comorbidities, treatment with stimulants and atomoxetine was reported tolerated and effective compared to non-treatment...
January 2016: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26349081/quantification-of-methylphenidate-dexamphetamine-and-atomoxetine-in-human-serum-and-oral-fluid-by-hplc-with-fluorescence-detection
#19
Benedikt Stegmann, Anett Dörfelt, Ekkehard Haen
BACKGROUND: For psychostimulants, a marked individual variability in the dose-response relationship and large differences in plasma concentrations after similar doses are known. Therefore, optimizing the efficacy of these drugs is at present the most promising way to exploit their full pharmacological potential. Moreover, it seems important to examine oral fluid as less invasive biological matrix for its benefit in therapeutic drug monitoring for patients with hyperkinetic disorder. METHODS: A high-performance liquid chromatography method for quantification of methylphenidate (MPH), dexamphetamine (DXA), and atomoxetine in serum and oral fluid has been developed and validated...
February 2016: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26220024/dysfunctional-amygdala-activation-and-connectivity-with-the-prefrontal-cortex-in-current-cocaine-users
#20
Cleo L Crunelle, Anne Marije Kaag, Hanna E van den Munkhof, Liesbeth Reneman, Judith R Homberg, Bernard Sabbe, Wim van den Brink, Guido van Wingen
OBJECTIVES: Stimulant use is associated with increased anxiety and a single administration of dexamphetamine increases amygdala activation to biologically salient stimuli in healthy individuals. Here, we investigate how current cocaine use affects amygdala activity and amygdala connectivity with the prefrontal cortex in response to biologically salient stimuli in an emotional face matching task (EFMT). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Amygdala activity and amygdala connectivity during the EFMT were assessed in 51 cocaine using males and 32 non-drug-using healthy males using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
October 2015: Human Brain Mapping
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