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Cellular nutrigenomics

Ransom L Baldwin, Robert W Li, Yankai Jia, Cong-Jun Li
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of butyrate infusion on rumen epithelial transcriptome. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) and bioinformatics are used to accelerate our understanding of regulation in rumen epithelial transcriptome of cattle in the dry period induced by butyrate infusion at the level of the whole transcriptome. Butyrate, as an essential element of nutrients, is a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor that can alter histone acetylation and methylation, and plays a prominent role in regulating genomic activities influencing rumen nutrition utilization and function...
2018: Gene Regulation and Systems Biology
Stanko Skugor, Helle Jodaa Holm, Anne Kari Bjelland, Jorge Pino, Øystein Evensen, Aleksei Krasnov, Simon Wadsworth
BACKGROUND: Reduction of Lepeophtheirus salmonis infection in Atlantic salmon achieved by glucosinolates (GLs) from Brassica plants was recently reported. However, wider application of functional feeds based on GLs requires better knowledge of their positive and adverse effects. METHODS: Liver, distal kidney and muscle transcriptomes of salmon exposed to the extreme dose of GLs were profiled by microarray, while qPCR analysis followed up selected hepatic and renal responses under the extreme and moderate GLs dose during the L...
December 12, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Gabriela Riscuta
The percentage of elderly people with associated age-related health deterioration, including cancer, has been increasing for decades. Among age-related diseases, the incidence of cancer has grown substantially, in part because of the overlap of some molecular pathways between cancer and aging. Studies with model organisms suggest that aging and age-related conditions are manipulable processes that can be modified by both genetic and environmental factors, including dietary habits. Variations in genetic backgrounds likely lead to differential responses to dietary changes and account for some of the inconsistencies found in the literature...
October 2016: Journal of Nutrition
Simona Granata, Alessandra Dalla Gassa, Gloria Bellin, Antonio Lupo, Gianluigi Zaza
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an increasing and global health problem with a great economic burden for healthcare system. Therefore to slow down the progression of this condition is a main objective in nephrology. It has been extensively reported that microinflammation, immune system deregulation, and oxidative stress contribute to CKD progression. Additionally, dialysis worsens this clinical condition because of the contact of blood with bioincompatible dialytic devices. Numerous studies have shown the close link between immune system impairment and CKD but most have been performed using classical biomolecular strategies...
2016: BioMed Research International
Christine A Houghton, Robert G Fassett, Jeff S Coombes
The recognition that food-derived nonnutrient molecules can modulate gene expression to influence intracellular molecular mechanisms has seen the emergence of the fields of nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics. The aim of this review is to describe the properties of nutrigenomic activators of transcription factor Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2), comparing the potential for sulforaphane and other phytochemicals to demonstrate clinical efficacy as complementary medicines. Broccoli-derived sulforaphane emerges as a phytochemical with this capability, with oral doses capable of favourably modifying genes associated with chemoprevention...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Susan Ozanne
Over twenty five years ago epidemiological studies revealed that there was a relationship between patterns of early growth and subsequent risk of diseases such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and the metabolic syndrome. Studies of identical twins, individuals who were in utero during periods of famine, discordant siblings and animal models have provided strong evidence that the early environment plays an important role in mediating these relationships. Early nutrition is one such important environmental factor...
October 2014: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Jérôme Spitz, Vanessa Becquet, David A S Rosen, Andrew W Trites
Gene expression profiles are increasingly being used as biomarkers to detect the physiological responses of a number of species to disease, nutrition, and other stressors. However, little attention has been given to using gene expression to assess the stressors and physiological status of marine mammals. We sought to develop and validate a nutrigenomic approach to quantify nutritional stress in Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus). We subjected 4 female Steller sea lions to 3 feeding regimes over 70-day trials (unrestricted food intake, acute nutritional stress, and chronic nutritional stress), and drew blood samples from each animal at the end of each feeding regime...
September 2015: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Elena Giordano, Alberto Dávalos, Maria Carmen Crespo, Joao Tomé-Carneiro, Diego Gómez-Coronado, Francesco Visioli
Soy consumption has been suggested to afford protection from cardiovascular disease (CVD). Indeed, accumulated albeit controversial evidence suggests that daily consumption of ≥25 g of soy protein with its associated phytochemicals intact can improve lipid profiles in hypercholesterolemic humans. However, the belief that soy foods and supplements positively impact human health has become increasingly controversial among the general public because of the reported estrogenic activities of soy isoflavones. In this study, we investigated the nutrigenomic actions of soy isoflavones (in nutritionally-relevant amounts) with a specific focus on the adipose tissue, due to its pivotal role in cardiometabolism...
2015: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Genoveva Berná, María Jesús Oliveras-López, Enrique Jurado-Ruíz, Juan Tejedo, Francisco Bedoya, Bernat Soria, Franz Martín
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is considered a global pandemic, and the incidence of DM continues to grow worldwide. Nutrients and dietary patterns are central issues in the prevention, development and treatment of this disease. The pathogenesis of DM is not completely understood, but nutrient-gene interactions at different levels, genetic predisposition and dietary factors appear to be involved. Nutritional genomics studies generally focus on dietary patterns according to genetic variations, the role of gene-nutrient interactions, gene-diet-phenotype interactions and epigenetic modifications caused by nutrients; these studies will facilitate an understanding of the early molecular events that occur in DM and will contribute to the identification of better biomarkers and diagnostics tools...
November 2014: Nutrients
Rebecca M Delles, Youling L Xiong, Alma D True, Touying Ao, Karl A Dawson
Recent nutrigenomic studies have shown that animal nutrition can have a major influence on tissue gene expression. Dietary antioxidant supplements can enhance the quality of meat through modification of tissue metabolic processes. This study investigated the influence of dietary antioxidants and quality of oil on the oxidative and enzymatic properties of chicken broiler breast meat stored in an oxygen-enriched package (HiOx: 80% O2/20% CO2) in comparison with air-permeable polyvinylchloride (PVC) or skin packaging systems during retail display at 2 to 4°C for up to 21 d...
June 2014: Poultry Science
Sylvain Claude, Celine Boby, Ana Rodriguez-Mateos, Jeremy P E Spencer, Nicolas Gérard, Christine Morand, Dragan Milenkovic
SCOPE: Consumption of flavanol-rich foods is associated with an improvement in endothelial function. However, the specific biologically active flavanol metabolites involved in this benefit, as well as their molecular mechanisms of action have not been identified. The aim of this work was to examine the effect of plasma flavanol metabolites on adhesion of monocytes to TNF-α-activated endothelial cells and identify potential underlying mechanisms. METHODS AND RESULTS: 4'-O-methyl(-)-epicatechin, 4'-O-methyl(-)-epicatechin-7-β-d-glucuronide, and (-)-epicatechin-4'-sulfate decreased the adhesion of monocytes to endothelial cells at physiologically relevant concentrations, from 0...
May 2014: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Eugenio Mocchegiani, Laura Costarelli, Robertina Giacconi, Marco Malavolta, Andrea Basso, Francesco Piacenza, Rita Ostan, Elisa Cevenini, Efstathios S Gonos, Claudio Franceschi, Daniela Monti
Aging is a complex biological phenomenon in which the deficiency of the nutritional state combined with the presence of chronic inflammation and oxidative stress contribute to the development of many age-related diseases. Under this profile, the free radicals produced by the oxidative stress lead to a damage of DNA, lipids and proteins with subsequent altered cellular homeostasis and integrity. In young-adult age, the cell has a complex efficient system to maintain a proper balance between the levels of free radicals and antioxidants ensuring the integrity of cellular components...
March 2014: Ageing Research Reviews
Margarita González-Vallinas, Marta González-Castejón, Arantxa Rodríguez-Casado, Ana Ramírez de Molina
The population is aging. Over the coming years, the incidence of age-related chronic diseases such as cancer is expected to continue to increase. Phytochemicals, which are non-nutritive chemicals found in plants and food, have emerged as modulators of key cellular signaling pathways exerting proven anticancer effects. The challenge now is to develop personalized supplements comprised of specific phytochemicals for each clinical situation. This will be possible once a better understanding is gained of the molecular basis explaining the impact of phytochemicals on human health...
September 2013: Nutrition Reviews
Jean-Louis Guéant, Rania Elakoum, Olivier Ziegler, David Coelho, Eva Feigerlova, Jean-Luc Daval, Rosa-Maria Guéant-Rodriguez
Barker's concept of 'foetal programming' proposes that intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) predicts complex metabolic diseases through relationships that may be further modified by the postnatal environment. Dietary restriction and deficit in methyl donors, folate, vitamin B12, and choline are used as experimental conditions of foetal programming as they lead to IUGR and decreased birth weight. Overfeeding and deficit in methyl donors increase central fat mass and lead to a dramatic increase of plasma free fatty acids (FFA) in offspring...
May 2014: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Hyoung-Sam Heo, Eunjung Kim, Seon-Min Jeon, Eun-Young Kwon, Su-Kyung Shin, Hyojung Paik, Cheol-Goo Hur, Myung-Sook Choi
Obesity and its related complications have emerged as global health problems; however, the pathophysiological mechanism of obesity is still not fully understood. In this study, C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal (ND) or high-fat diet (HFD) for 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 20, and 24 weeks and the time course was systemically analyzed specifically for the hepatic transcriptome profile. Genes that were differentially expressed in the HFD-fed mice were clustered into 49 clusters and further classified into 8 different expression patterns: long-term up-regulated (pattern 1), long-term downregulated (pattern 2), early up-regulated (pattern 3), early down-regulated (pattern 4), late up-regulated (pattern 5), late down-regulated (pattern 6), early up-regulated and late down-regulated (pattern 7), and early down-regulated and late up-regulated (pattern 8) HFD-responsive genes...
July 2013: Molecules and Cells
A K Baturin, E Iu Sorokina, A V Pogozheva, V A Tutel'ian
The paper presents the results of studies conducted in recent years, which show that nutrients and bioactive food components, directly or indirectly regulate the functional activity of genes influencing gene transcriptome, proteome and metabolome. A definition of "nutrigenomics" - the science that emerged at the turn of nutrition and genetics, and studies the relationship of human nutrition with the characteristics of its genome in order to understand how food affects gene expression, and ultimately, on human health...
2012: Voprosy Pitaniia
Jean-Louis Guéant, Maatem Caillerez-Fofou, Shyuefang Battaglia-Hsu, Jean-Marc Alberto, Jean-Noel Freund, Isabelle Dulluc, Charles Adjalla, Florence Maury, Carole Merle, Jean-Pierre Nicolas, Fares Namour, Jean-Luc Daval
Vitamin B12 (cobalamin, cbl) is a cofactor of methionine synthase (MTR) in the synthesis of methionine, the precursor of the universal methyl donor S-Adenosylmethionine (SAM), which is involved in epigenomic regulatory mechanisms. We have established a neuronal cell model with stable expression of a transcobalamin-oleosin chimer and subsequent decreased cellular availability of vitamin B12, which produces reduced proliferation, increased apoptosis and accelerated differentiation through PP2A, NGF and TACE pathways...
May 2013: Biochimie
Clarissa Gerhauser
The term "epigenetics" refers to modifications in gene expression caused by heritable, but potentially reversible, changes in DNA methylation and chromatin structure. Epigenetic alterations have been identified as promising new targets for cancer prevention strategies as they occur early during carcinogenesis and represent potentially initiating events for cancer development. Over the past few years, nutriepigenetics - the influence of dietary components on mechanisms influencing the epigenome - has emerged as an exciting new field in current epigenetic research...
2013: Topics in Current Chemistry
Trond M Kortner, Stanko Skugor, Michael H Penn, Liv Torunn Mydland, Brankica Djordjevic, Marie Hillestad, Aleksei Krasnov, Åshild Krogdahl
BACKGROUND: Use of plant ingredients in aquaculture feeds is impeded by high contents of antinutritional factors such as saponins, which may cause various pharmacological and biological effects. In this study, transcriptome changes were analyzed using a 21 k oligonucleotide microarray and qPCR in the distal intestine of Atlantic salmon fed diets based on five plant protein sources combined with soybean saponins. RESULTS: Diets with corn gluten, sunflower, rapeseed or horsebean produced minor effects while the combination of saponins with pea protein concentrate caused enteritis and major transcriptome changes...
2012: BMC Veterinary Research
Laurence D Parnell
The initial draft sequence of the human genome was the proving ground for significant technological advancements, and its completion has ushered in increasingly sophisticated tools and ever-increasing amounts of data. Often, this combination has multiplicative effects such as stimulating research groups to consider subsequent experiments of at least equal if not greater complexity or employ advanced technologies. As applied to the fields of nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics, these advances in technology and experimental design allow researchers to probe the biological, biochemical, and physiological mechanisms underpinning the response to micro- and macronutrients, along with downstream health effects...
2012: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
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