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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301162/milbenallergie-im-hno-bereich-bedeutung-diagnostik-und-therapieoptionen
#1
Ludger Klimek, Moritz Gröger, Sven Becker
Allergic rhinitis (AR) affects ca. 20% of the population. Approximately one third of patients affected by AR are suffering from perennial rhinitis due to mite allergy. Perennial rhinitis is the form of the disease that is most frequently associated with other allergy-related comorbidities such as asthma and atopic dermatitis, sleep disorders, chronic sinusitis, eustachian tube dysfunction and others.The often non-specific symptoms and the insidious course may lead to misinterpretations in diagnosing the disease...
January 2018: Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283023/neuroinflammation-mast-cells-and-glia-dangerous-liaisons
#2
Stephen D Skaper, Laura Facci, Morena Zusso, Pietro Giusti
The perspective of neuroinflammation as an epiphenomenon following neuron damage is being replaced by the awareness of glia and their importance in neural functions and disorders. Systemic inflammation generates signals that communicate with the brain and leads to changes in metabolism and behavior, with microglia assuming a pro-inflammatory phenotype. Identification of potential peripheral-to-central cellular links is thus a critical step in designing effective therapeutics. Mast cells may fulfill such a role...
October 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232822/microglia-m2a-polarization-as-potential-link-between-food-allergy-and-autism-spectrum-disorders
#3
REVIEW
Hans O Kalkman, Dominik Feuerbach
Atopic diseases are frequently co-morbid with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Allergic responses are associated with an activation of mast cells, innate lymphoid cells, and Th2 cells. These cells produce type-2 cytokines (IL4 and IL13), which stimulate microglia and macrophages to adopt a phenotype referred to as 'alternative activation' or 'M2A'. M2A-polarized macrophages and microglia play a physiological role in tissue repair by secreting growth factors such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and insulin-like growth factor-1...
December 9, 2017: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230220/induction-of-human-lung-mast-cell-apoptosis-by-granule-permeabilization-a-novel-approach-for-targeting-mast-cells
#4
Aida Paivandy, Martin Sandelin, Helena Igelström, Per Landelius, Christer Janson, Fabio R Melo, Gunnar Pejler
Mast cells are implicated as detrimental players in inflammatory lung diseases, particularly asthma. Mast cells respond to activating stimuli by releasing a wide panel of pro-inflammatory compounds that can contribute profoundly to the pathology, and there is currently an unmet need for strategies that efficiently ameliorate harmful effects of mast cells under such conditions. Here, we sought to evaluate a novel concept for targeting human lung mast cells, by assessing the possibility of selectively depleting the lung mast cells by induction of apoptosis...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225779/risk-of-solid-cancer-in-patients-with-mast-cell-activation-syndrome-results-from-germany-and-usa
#5
Gerhard J Molderings, Thomas Zienkiewicz, Jürgen Homann, Markus Menzen, Lawrence B Afrin
Background:  It has been shown repeatedly that mast cells can promote or prevent cancer development and growth. If development and/or progression of a solid cancer is substantially influenced by mast cell activity, the frequencies of occurrence of solid cancers in patients with primary mast cells disorders would be expected to differ from the corresponding prevalence data in the general population. In fact, a recent study demonstrated that patients with systemic mastocytosis (i.e., a rare neoplastic variant of the primary mast cell activation disease) have increased risk for solid cancers, in particular melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222399/pediatric-disorders-of-orthostatic-intolerance
#6
REVIEW
Julian M Stewart, Jeffrey R Boris, Gisela Chelimsky, Phillip R Fischer, John E Fortunato, Blair P Grubb, Geoffrey L Heyer, Imad T Jarjour, Marvin S Medow, Mohammed T Numan, Paolo T Pianosi, Wolfgang Singer, Sally Tarbell, Thomas C Chelimsky
Orthostatic intolerance (OI), having difficulty tolerating an upright posture because of symptoms or signs that abate when returned to supine, is common in pediatrics. For example, ∼40% of people faint during their lives, half of whom faint during adolescence, and the peak age for first faint is 15 years. Because of this, we describe the most common forms of OI in pediatrics and distinguish between chronic and acute OI. These common forms of OI include initial orthostatic hypotension (which is a frequently seen benign condition in youngsters), true orthostatic hypotension (both neurogenic and nonneurogenic), vasovagal syncope, and postural tachycardia syndrome...
January 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197072/induction-of-mast-cell-accumulation-by-chymase-via-an-enzymatic-activity-and-icam-1-dependent-mechanism
#7
Huiyun Zhang, Junling Wang, Ling Wang, Mengmeng Zhan, Shigang Li, Zeman Fang, Ciyan Xu, Yanshan Zheng, Shaoheng He
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Chymase is a unique abundant secretory product of mast cells, and a potent chemoattractant for eosinophils, monocytes and neutrophils, but little is known of its influence on mast cell accumulation. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Using mouse peritoneal inflammation model, cell migration assay and flowcytometry analysis, we investigated role of chymase in recruiting mast cells. KEY RESULTS: The results showed that chymase induced up to 5...
December 1, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196147/mast-cells-as-drivers-of-disease-and-therapeutic-targets
#8
REVIEW
Frank Siebenhaar, Frank A Redegeld, Stephan C Bischoff, Bernhard F Gibbs, Marcus Maurer
Mast cells (MCs) contribute to the pathogenesis of a multitude of diseases that include MC-driven disorders such as urticaria, type I allergies, and mastocytosis as well as autoimmune and other inflammatory disorders and malignant tumors. Here, we review and discuss the results of studies that identified and characterized how MCs contribute to disease and, importantly, what strategies may be used to target MCs and MC effects therapeutically. Specifically, we discuss the most common approaches for investigating the role and relevance of MCs in various diseases...
November 28, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181004/identification-of-secretory-leukoprotease-inhibitor-as-an-endogenous-negative-regulator-in-allergic-effector-cells
#9
Shintaro Matsuba, Toshiki Yabe-Wada, Kazuya Takeda, Tetsuya Sato, Mikita Suyama, Toshiyuki Takai, Toshiaki Kikuchi, Toshihiro Nukiwa, Akira Nakamura
Mast cells, basophils, and eosinophils are central effectors in allergic inflammatory disorders. These cells secrete abundant serine proteases as well as chemical mediators and cytokines; however, the expression profiles and functions of their endogenous inhibitors remain elusive. We found that murine secretory leukoprotease inhibitor (SLPI) is expressed in basophils and eosinophils but in not in mast cells. SLPI-deficient (Slpi-/-) basophils produce more cytokines than wild-type mice after IgE stimulation...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173165/running-head-chalcones-as-immunomodulatory-agents-exploring-promising-immunomodulatory-potential-of-natural-and-synthetic-1-3-diphenyl-2-propen-1-one-analogs-a-review-of-mechanistic-insight
#10
Muhammad Hassan Safdar, Humna Hasan, Sajal Afzal, Zahid Hussain
BACKGROUND: The immune system is an intricate and coordinated nexus serving as a natural defense to preclude internal and external pathogenic insults. The deregulation in the natural balance of immunological functions, as a consequence of either over expression or under expression of immune cells may cause development of numerous immune disorders. Chalcone moieties (1,3-diphenyl-2-propen-1-one) have been well-documented as ideal lead compounds or precursors to design wide range of pharmacologically active agents to down-regulate various immune disorders...
November 23, 2017: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169972/detection-of-circulating-igg-autoantibody-to-fc%C3%AE%C2%B5ri%C3%AE-in-sera-from-chronic-spontaneous-urticaria-patients
#11
Bastsetseg Ulambayar, Yi-Hsing Chen, Ga-Young Ban, Ji-Ho Lee, Chang-Gyu Jung, Eun-Mi Yang, Hae-Sim Park, Young-Min Ye
BACKGROUNDS: Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) is a common skin disorder characterized by itchy wheals of at least 6 weeks in duration, wherein the autoimmune mechanism is involved to activate IgE receptors (FcεRIα) on mast cells. We aimed to assess levels of IgG autoantibody against FcεRIα in sera from CSU patients using dot-blot immunoassay. METHODS: We performed a hospital-based cross-sectional study of 125 CSU patients (64 ASST-positive, 61 ASST-negative) and 64 age-and sex-matched healthy controls...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165303/immunoreactivity-to-cyp24a1-but-not-vitamin-d-receptor-is-increased-in-mast-cells-of-keratinocyte-skin-cancers
#12
Antti Kaukinen, Hanna Siiskonen, Jukka Pelkonen, Ilkka T Harvima
In mouse skin models, mast cells have been shown to express vitamin D receptor (VDR) that can mediate the immunosuppressive effects of ultraviolet B radiation and vitamin D3. However, VDR activation leads to the expression of CYP24A1, a hydroxylase that can inactivate vitamin D3 metabolites. To examine immunoreactivity to VDR and CYP24A1 in mast cells from normal human skin, keratinocyte skin cancers, and disorders of chronic inflammation. Frozen biopsies were collected from the non-lesional and lesional skin of patients with actinic keratosis (AK), Bowen's disease/squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), basal cell carcinoma (BCC), and psoriasis...
November 22, 2017: European Journal of Dermatology: EJD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155995/lysosome-biogenesis-regulated-by-the-amino-acid-transporter-slc15a4-is-critical-for-functional-integrity-of-mast-cells
#13
Toshihiko Kobayashi, Hidemitsu Tsutsui, Shiho Shimabukuro-Demoto, Reiko Sugitani-Yoshida, Hitomi Karyu, Kaori Furuyama-Tanaka, Daisuke Ohshima, Norihiro Kato, Tadashi Okamura, Noriko Toyama Sorimachi
Mast cells possess specialized lysosomes, so-called secretory granules, which play a key role not only in allergic responses but also in various immune disorders. The molecular mechanisms that control secretory-granule formation are not fully understood. Solute carrier family member 15A4 (SLC15A4) is a lysosome-resident amino-acid/oligopeptide transporter that is preferentially expressed in hematopoietic-lineage cells. Here we demonstrated that SLC15A4 is required for mast-cell secretory granule homeostasis, and limits mast-cell functions and inflammatory responses by controlling the mTORC1-TFEB signaling axis...
November 15, 2017: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132542/impact-of-inflammation-on-the-blood-neural-barrier-and-blood-nerve-interface-from-review-to-therapeutic-preview
#14
Stephen D Skaper
A number of nervous system disorders are characterized by a state of inflammation (neuroinflammation) in which members of the innate immune system, most notably mast cells and microglia-acting as single entities and in unison-produce inflammatory molecules that play major roles. A neuroinflammatory environment can weaken not only blood-nerve and blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity but also that of the blood-spinal cord barrier. Mast cells, with their distribution in peripheral nerves and the central nervous system, are positioned to influence blood-nerve barrier characteristics...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105783/clinical-implications-of-mast-cell-involvement-in-allergic-conjunctivitis
#15
REVIEW
D Elieh Ali Komi, T Rambasek, L Bielory
The conjunctiva is a common site for the allergic inflammatory response due to it being highly vascularized, having constant exposure to environmental pollutants and allergenic pollens and having a unique conjunctival associated lymphoid tissue. The primary morbidity of anterior surface conjunctival disorders that include allergic conjunctivitis and tear film disorders is associated with its high frequency of involvement rather than its severity, although the more chronic forms can involve the cornea and lead to sight-threatening conditions...
November 6, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083538/functional-dyspepsia-and-duodenal-eosinophilia-a-new-disease-model
#16
REVIEW
Kening Fan, Nicholas J Talley
Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a highly prevalent disorder that affects more than 10% of the population. In the past decade, the conceptual underpinning of FD has begun to change, and new data are unraveling the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of this disorder with a focus on the duodenum. The Rome IV criteria were published in 2016, and notably suggests that gastroesophageal reflux disease and irritable bowel syndrome may all be part of the same disease spectrum as FD. Helicobacter pylori explains a minority of FD cases and in Rome IV is considered a separate entity...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081091/rifampicin-alleviates-atopic-dermatitis-like-response-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#17
Seung Hyun Kim, Ki Man Lee, Geum Seon Lee, Ju-Won Seong, Tae Jin Kang
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common inflammatory skin disorder mediated by inflammatory cells, such as macrophages and mast cells. Rifampicin is mainly used for the treatment of tuberculosis. Recently, it was reported that rifampicin has anti-inflammatory and immune-suppressive activities. In this study, we investigated the effect of rifampicin on atopic dermatitis in vivo and in vitro. AD was induced by treatment with 2, 4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) in NC/Nga mice. A subset of mice was then treated with rifampicin by oral administration...
November 1, 2017: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064119/in-chronic-spontaneous-urticaria-high-numbers-of-dermal-endothelial-cells-but-not-mast-cells-are-linked-to-recurrent-angio-oedema
#18
D Terhorst, I Koti, K Krause, M Metz, M Maurer
BACKGROUND: Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) is an inflammatory skin disorder characterized by recurrent weals, angio-oedema or both. Recent studies have shown that the number of endothelial cells is increased in the skin of patients with CSU, but the underlying mechanisms and clinical implications of this are unclear. AIM: To evaluate whether mast cell (MC) or endothelial cell (EC) numbers correlate with CSU and whether they are relevant for disease duration, disease activity or the presence of clinical features...
October 24, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042288/mast-cell-degranulation-and-calcium-influx-are-inhibited-by-an-echinacea-purpurea-extract-and-the-alkylamide-dodeca-2e-4e-dienoic-acid-isobutylamide
#19
Travis V Gulledge, Nicholas M Collette, Emily Mackey, Stephanie E Johnstone, Yasamin Moazami, Daniel A Todd, Adam J Moeser, Joshua G Pierce, Nadja B Cech, Scott M Laster
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Native Americans used plants from the genus Echinacea to treat a variety of different inflammatory conditions including swollen gums, sore throats, skin inflammation, and gastrointestinal disorders. Today, various Echinacea spp. preparations are used primarily to treat upper respiratory infections. AIM OF THE STUDY: The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of an ethanolic E. purpurea (L) Moench root extract and the alkylamide dodeca-2E,4E-dienoic acid isobutylamide (A15) on mast cells, which are important mediators of allergic and inflammatory responses...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034737/anti-allergic-inflammatory-effect-of-vanillic-acid-through-regulating-thymic-stromal-lymphopoietin-secretion-from-activated-mast-cells
#20
Hyun-Ja Jeong, Sun-Young Nam, Hee-Yun Kim, Mu Hyun Jin, Mi Hye Kim, Seok Seon Roh, Hyung-Min Kim
Vanillic acid, which is well known as a benzoic acid derivative, has been used as a flavouring agent. Currently, we ascertained the therapeutic potential action of vanillic acid on allergic inflammatory reaction in human mast cell line, HMC-1. Treatment with vanillic acid resulted in a significant decrease in levels of thymic stromal lymphopoietin and pro-inflammatory cytokines compared to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and calcium ionophore A23187 (PMACI)-treated HMC-1 cells. In PMACI-stimulated cells, treatment with vanillic acid also dramatically inhibited activities of caspase-1 and nuclear factor-kB (p65)...
October 16, 2017: Natural Product Research
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