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Txnip AND verapamil

Mariarosa Anna Beatrice Melone, Clemente Dato, Simona Paladino, Cinzia Coppola, Claudia Trebini, Maria Teresa Giordana, Lorena Perrone
PURPOSE: Oxidative stress is a hallmark of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and promotes tau phosphorylation. Since Thioredoxin Interacting protein (TXNIP), the inhibitor of the anti-oxidant system of Thioredoxin, is up regulated in the hippocampus of AD patients, we investigated whether TXNIP plays a role in promoting tau phosphorylation and whether Verapamil, an inhibitor of TXNIP expression, prevents TXNIP downstream effects. METHODS: We analyzed TXNIP expression and tau phosphorylation in the hippocampus of the 5xFAD mice in the absence and presence of a pharmacological treatment with Verapamil...
February 5, 2018: Pharmaceutical Research
Lance Thielen, Anath Shalev
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Thioredoxin-interacting protein has emerged as a major factor regulating pancreatic β-cell dysfunction and death, key processes in the pathogenesis of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Accumulating evidence based on basic, preclinical, and retrospective epidemiological research suggests that TXNIP represents a promising therapeutic target for diabetes. The present review is aimed at providing an update regarding these developments. RECENT FINDINGS: TXNIP has been shown to be induced by glucose and increased in diabetes and to promote β-cell apoptosis, whereas TXNIP deletion protected against diabetes...
January 19, 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Saisudha Koka, Min Xia, Yang Chen, Owais M Bhat, Xinxu Yuan, Krishna M Boini, Pin-Lan Li
The NLRP3 inflammasome has been reported to be activated by atherogenic factors, whereby endothelial injury and consequent atherosclerotic lesions are triggered in the arterial wall. However, the mechanisms activating and regulating NLRP3 inflammasomes remain poorly understood. The present study tested whether acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) and ceramide associated membrane raft (MR) signaling platforms contribute to the activation of NLRP3 inflammasomes and atherosclerotic lesions during hypercholesterolemia. We found that 7-ketocholesterol (7-Keto) or cholesterol crystal (ChC) markedly increased the formation and activation of NLRP3 inflammasomes in mouse carotid arterial endothelial cells (CAECs), as shown by increased colocalization of NLRP3 with ASC or caspase-1, enhanced caspase-1 activity and elevated IL-1β levels, which were markedly attenuated by mouse Asm siRNA, ASM inhibitor- amitriptyline, and deletion of mouse Asm gene...
October 2017: Redox Biology
Justine M Abais, Min Xia, Guangbi Li, Yang Chen, Sabena M Conley, Todd W B Gehr, Krishna M Boini, Pin-Lan Li
NADPH oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been reported to activate NLRP3 inflammasomes resulting in podocyte and glomerular injury during hyperhomocysteinemia (hHcys). However, the mechanism by which the inflammasome senses ROS is still unknown in podocytes upon hHcys stimulation. The current study explored whether thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP), an endogenous inhibitor of the antioxidant thioredoxin and ROS sensor, mediates hHcys-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation and consequent glomerular injury...
September 26, 2014: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Hyunjoo Cha-Molstad, Guanlan Xu, Junqin Chen, Gu Jing, Martin E Young, John C Chatham, Anath Shalev
First-generation calcium channel blockers such as verapamil are a widely used class of antihypertensive drugs that block L-type calcium channels. We recently discovered that they also reduce cardiac expression of proapoptotic thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP), suggesting that they may have unappreciated transcriptional effects. By use of TXNIP promoter deletion and mutation studies, we found that a CCAAT element was mediating verapamil-induced transcriptional repression and identified nuclear factor Y (NFY) to be the responsible transcription factor as assessed by overexpression/knockdown and luciferase and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays in cardiomyocytes and in vivo in diabetic mice receiving oral verapamil...
September 2012: Molecular Pharmacology
Guanlan Xu, Junqin Chen, Gu Jing, Anath Shalev
Although loss of functional β-cell mass is a hallmark of diabetes, no treatment approaches that halt this process are currently available. We recently identified thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) as an attractive target in this regard. Glucose and diabetes upregulate β-cell TXNIP expression, and TXNIP overexpression induces β-cell apoptosis. In contrast, genetic ablation of TXNIP promotes endogenous β-cell survival and prevents streptozotocin (STZ)- and obesity-induced diabetes. Finding an oral medication that could inhibit β-cell TXNIP expression would therefore represent a major breakthrough...
April 2012: Diabetes
Mohammed M H Al-Gayyar, Mohammed A Abdelsaid, Suraporn Matragoon, Bindu A Pillai, Azza B El-Remessy
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Up-regulation of thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP), an endogenous inhibitor of thioredoxin (Trx), compromises cellular antioxidant and anti-apoptotic defences and stimulates pro-inflammatory cytokines expression, implying a role for TXNIP in apoptosis. Here we have examined the causal role of TXNIP expression in mediating retinal neurotoxicity and assessed the neuroprotective actions of verapamil, a calcium channel blocker and an inhibitor of TXNIP expression...
September 2011: British Journal of Pharmacology
Junqin Chen, Hyunjoo Cha-Molstad, Anna Szabo, Anath Shalev
Cardiomyocyte apoptosis is a critical process in the pathogenesis of ischemic and diabetic cardiomyopathy, but the mechanisms are not fully understood. Thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) has recently been shown to have deleterious effects in the cardiovascular system and we therefore investigated whether it may also play a role in diabetes-associated cardiomyocyte apoptosis. In fact, TXNIP expression was increased in H9C2 cardiomyocytes incubated at high glucose, and cardiac expression of TXNIP and cleaved caspase-3 were also elevated in vivo in streptozotocin- and obesity-induced diabetic mice...
May 2009: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
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