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Gap junction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431249/macrophages-facilitate-electrical-conduction-in-the-heart
#1
Maarten Hulsmans, Sebastian Clauss, Ling Xiao, Aaron D Aguirre, Kevin R King, Alan Hanley, William J Hucker, Eike M Wülfers, Gunnar Seemann, Gabriel Courties, Yoshiko Iwamoto, Yuan Sun, Andrej J Savol, Hendrik B Sager, Kory J Lavine, Gregory A Fishbein, Diane E Capen, Nicolas Da Silva, Lucile Miquerol, Hiroko Wakimoto, Christine E Seidman, Jonathan G Seidman, Ruslan I Sadreyev, Kamila Naxerova, Richard N Mitchell, Dennis Brown, Peter Libby, Ralph Weissleder, Filip K Swirski, Peter Kohl, Claudio Vinegoni, David J Milan, Patrick T Ellinor, Matthias Nahrendorf
Organ-specific functions of tissue-resident macrophages in the steady-state heart are unknown. Here, we show that cardiac macrophages facilitate electrical conduction through the distal atrioventricular node, where conducting cells densely intersperse with elongated macrophages expressing connexin 43. When coupled to spontaneously beating cardiomyocytes via connexin-43-containing gap junctions, cardiac macrophages have a negative resting membrane potential and depolarize in synchrony with cardiomyocytes. Conversely, macrophages render the resting membrane potential of cardiomyocytes more positive and, according to computational modeling, accelerate their repolarization...
April 20, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429070/properties-of-synchronous-spontaneous-ca-2-transients-in-the-mural-cells-of-rat-rectal-arterioles
#2
Retsu Mitsui, Hikaru Hashitani
Synchrony of spontaneous Ca(2+) transients among venular mural cells (smooth muscle cells and pericytes) in visceral organs relies on the intercellular spread of L-type voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channel (LVDCC)-dependent depolarisations. However, the mechanisms underlying the synchrony of spontaneous Ca(2+) transients between arteriolar mural cells are less understood. The spontaneous intracellular Ca(2+) dynamics of arteriolar mural cells in the rat rectal submucosa were visualised by Cal-520 Ca(2+) imaging to analyse their synchrony...
April 21, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428758/modulation-of-asymmetric-flux-in-heterotypic-gap-junctions-by-pore-shape-particle-size-and-charge
#3
Abhijit Mondal, Frank B Sachse, Alonso P Moreno
Gap junction channels play a vital role in intercellular communication by connecting cytoplasm of adjoined cells through arrays of channel-pores formed at the common membrane junction. Their structure and properties vary depending on the connexin isoform(s) involved in forming the full gap junction channel. Lack of information on the molecular structure of gap junction channels has limited the development of computational tools for single channel studies. Currently, we rely on cumbersome experimental techniques that have limited capabilities...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428247/induction-of-cell-death-and-gain-of-function-properties-of-connexin26-mutants-predict-severity-of-skin-disorders-and-hearing-loss
#4
Eric R Press, Qing Shao, John J Kelly, Katrina Chin, Anton Alaga, Dale W Laird
Connexin26 (Cx26) is a gap junction protein that oligomerizes in the cell to form hexameric transmembrane channels called connexons. Cell surface connexons dock between adjacent cells to allow for gap junctional intercellular communication. Numerous autosomal dominant mutations in the Cx26 encoding GJB2 gene lead to many skin disorders and sensorineural hearing loss. Although some insights have been gained into the pathogenesis of these diseases, it is not fully understood how distinct GJB2 mutations result in hearing loss alone or in skin pathologies with comorbid hearing loss...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424784/evaluation-of-connexin-43-redistribution-and-endocytosis-in-astrocytes-subjected-to-ischemia-reperfusion-or-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-and-reoxygenation
#5
Hongyan Xie, Yu Cui, Shuai Hou, Juan Wang, Jing Miao, Fang Deng, Jiachun Feng
Connexin 43 (Cx43) is the major component protein in astrocytic gap junction communication. Recent studies have shown the cellular processes of gap junction internalization and degradation, but many details remain unknown. This study investigated the distribution of Cx43 and its mechanism after ischemic insult. Astrocyte culture system and a model of ischemia/reperfusion (IR) or oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGDR) were established. Cx43 distribution was observed by laser scanning confocal microscopy under different cultivation conditions...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421552/gap-junction-modulation-of-low-frequency-oscillations-in-the-cerebellar-granule-cell-layer
#6
Jennifer Claire Robinson, C Andrew Chapman, Richard Courtemanche
Local field potential (LFP) oscillations in the granule cell layer (GCL) of the cerebellar cortex have been identified previously in the awake rat and monkey during immobility. These low-frequency oscillations are thought to be generated through local circuit interactions between Golgi cells and granule cells within the GCL. Golgi cells display rhythmic firing and pacemaking properties, and also are electrically coupled through gap junctions within the GCL. Here, we tested if gap junctions in the rat cerebellar cortex contribute to the generation of LFP oscillations in the GCL...
April 18, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420965/dopamine-a-modulator-of-circadian-rhythms-in-the-central-nervous-system
#7
REVIEW
Kirill S Korshunov, Laura J Blakemore, Paul Q Trombley
Circadian rhythms are daily rhythms that regulate many biological processes - from gene transcription to behavior - and a disruption of these rhythms can lead to a myriad of health risks. Circadian rhythms are entrained by light, and their 24-h oscillation is maintained by a core molecular feedback loop composed of canonical circadian ("clock") genes and proteins. Different modulators help to maintain the proper rhythmicity of these genes and proteins, and one emerging modulator is dopamine. Dopamine has been shown to have circadian-like activities in the retina, olfactory bulb, striatum, midbrain, and hypothalamus, where it regulates, and is regulated by, clock genes in some of these areas...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420508/a-promising-protein-responsible-for-overactive-bladder-in-ovariectomized-mice
#8
Huey-Yi Chen, Chao-Jung Chen, Wen-Chi Chen, Shih-Jing Wang, Yung-Hsiang Chen
OBJECTIVE: Ovariectomy (OVX) in mice is a model mimicking a neuro-electronic proof of an overactive bladder in postmenopausal women. Overactive bladder (OAB) was recently found to be due to an altered gap junction protein in a rat model. Thus, this study was conducted to evaluate changes in cell junction protein expression and composition in the bladder of OVX mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-six virgin female mice were randomized into three groups: mice with a sham operation only (control), OVX mice without estradiol (E2) replacement, and OVX mice with E2 replacement (OVX + E2)...
April 2017: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420171/pannexin-and-connexin-mediated-intercellular-communication-in-platelet-function
#9
REVIEW
Filippo Molica, Florian B Stierlin, Pierre Fontana, Brenda R Kwak
The three major blood cell types, i.e., platelets, erythrocytes and leukocytes, are all produced in the bone marrow. While red blood cells are the most numerous and white cells are the largest, platelets are small fragments and account for a minor part of blood volume. However, platelets display a crucial function by preventing bleeding. Upon vessel wall injury, platelets adhere to exposed extracellular matrix, become activated, and form a platelet plug preventing hemorrhagic events. However, when platelet activation is exacerbated, as in rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque, the same mechanism may lead to acute thrombosis causing major ischemic events such as myocardial infarction or stroke...
April 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419546/connexin43-and-runx2-interact-to-affect-cortical-bone-geometry-skeletal-development-and-osteoblast-and-osteoclast-function
#10
Atum M Buo, Ryan E Tomlinson, Eric R Eidelman, Max Chason, Joseph P Stains
The coupling of osteoblasts and osteocytes by connexin43 (Cx43) gap junctions permits the sharing of second messengers that coordinate bone cell function and cortical bone acquisition. However, details of how Cx43 converts shared second messengers into signals that converge onto essential osteogenic processes are incomplete. Here, we use in vitro and in vivo methods to show that Cx43 and Runx2 functionally interact to regulate osteoblast gene expression and proliferation, ultimately affecting cortical bone properties...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418351/-connexin-43-expression-in-human-brain-glial-tumors
#11
E Yu Kirichenko, A F Savchenko, D V Kozachenko, M A Akimenko, S Yu Filippova, A E Matsionis, P E Povilaitite
AIM: Тo conduct an immunohistochemical (IHC) study of the expression of connexin 43 in the samples of glial tumors of various grades: gemistocytic astrocytomas (Grade 2), oligodendrogliomas (Grade 2) and glioblastomas (Grade 4). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The material investigated was fragments of human brain glial tumors (grade 2 gemistocytic astrocytomas (n=2), grade 2 oligodendrogliomas (n=2), and grade 4 glioblastomas (n=14) and those of tumor-surrounding tissue (n=4)...
2017: Arkhiv Patologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417552/enhanced-phototoxicity-of-photodynamic-treatment-by-cx26-composed-gjic-via-ros-calcium-and-lipid-peroxide-mediated-pathways
#12
Deng-Pan Wu, Tian-Yu Lin, Li-Ru Bai, Jin-Lan Huang, Yan Zhou, Nan Zhou, Sheng-Lei Zhong, Shan Gao, Xiao-Xing Yin
In spite of the promising initial treatment responses presented by photodynamic therapy (PDT), 5-year recurrence rates remain high level. Therefore, improvement in the efficacy of PDT is needed. There are reports showing that connexin(Cx) 26-composed gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) enhances the intercellular propagation of "death signal", thereby increasing chemotherapeutic cytotoxicity. However, it is unclear whether Cx26-formed GJIC has an effect on PDT phototoxicity. The results in the present study showed that Cx26-composed GJ formation at high density enhances the phototoxicity of Photofrin-PDT...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415614/connexin40-controls-endothelial-activation-by-dampening-nfkb-activation
#13
Jean-Francois Denis, Ke Ludwig Scheckenbach, Anna Pfenniger, Merlijn J Meens, Rob Krams, Lucile Miquerol, Steven Taffet, Marc Chanson, Mario Delmar, Brenda R Kwak
Connexins are proteins forming gap junction channels for intercellular communication. Connexin40 (Cx40) is highly expressed by endothelial cells (ECs) of healthy arteries but this expression is lost in ECs overlying atherosclerotic plaques. Low/oscillatory shear stress observed in bends and bifurcations of arteries is atherogenic partly through activation of the pro-inflammatory NFκB pathway in ECs. In this study, we investigated the relation between shear stress, Cx40 and NFκB. Shear stress-modifying casts were placed around carotid arteries of mice expressing eGFP under the Cx40 promoter (Cx40+/eGFP)...
March 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414099/molecular-evolution-of-the-plastid-genome-during-diversification-of-the-cotton-genus
#14
Zhiwen Chen, Corrinne E Grover, Pengbo Li, Yumei Wang, Hushuai Nie, Yanpeng Zhao, Meiyan Wang, Fang Liu, Zhongli Zhou, Xingxing Wang, Xiaoyan Cai, Kunbo Wang, Jonathan F Wendel, Jinping Hua
Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is commonly grouped into eight diploid genomic groups, designated A-G and K, and one tetraploid genomic group, namely AD. To gain insight into the phylogeny of Gossypium and molecular evolution of the chloroplast genome duringdiversification, chloroplast genomes (cpDNA) from 6 D-genome and 2 G-genome species of Gossypium (G. armourianum D2-1, G. harknessii D2-2, G. davidsonii D3-d, G. klotzschianum D3-k, G. aridum D4, G. trilobum D8, and G. australe G2, G. nelsonii G3) were newly reported here...
April 13, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414037/spatio-temporal-regulation-of-connexin43-phosphorylation-and-gap-junction-dynamics
#15
REVIEW
Joell L Solan, Paul D Lampe
Gap junctions are specialized membrane domains containing tens to thousands of intercellular channels. These channels permit exchange of small molecules (<1000Da) including ions, amino acids, nucleotides, metabolites and secondary messengers (e.g., calcium, glucose, cAMP, cGMP, IP3) between cells. The common reductionist view of these structures is that they are composed entirely of integral membrane proteins encoded by the 21 member connexin human gene family. However, it is clear that the normal physiological function of this structure requires interaction and regulation by a variety of proteins, especially kinases...
April 13, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412364/the-cytoplasmic-translocation-of-cx32-mediates-cisplatin-resistance-in-ovarian-cancer-cells
#16
Weili Wu, Lixia Fan, Zeqing Bao, Yu Zhang, Yuexia Peng, Min Shao, Yuke Xiang, Xiaomin Zhang, Qin Wang, Liang Tao
Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy, and cisplatin is one of the first-line chemotherapeutic agents. However, acquired cisplatin resistance prevents the successful treatment of patients with ovarian cancer. Gap junction (GJ) and connexin (Cx) are closely related to tumor formation, but the relationship between cisplatin resistance and GJ or Cx are undetermined. In this study, we established the cisplatin-resistant human ovarian cancer cell line A2780-CDDP. Here we showed that cisplatin resistance was correlated to the loss of GJ and the upregulation of Cx32 expression...
April 12, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409966/parafermionic-wires-at-the-interface-of-chiral-topological-states
#17
Luiz H Santos, Taylor L Hughes
We explore a scenario where local interactions form one-dimensional gapped interfaces between a pair of distinct chiral two-dimensional topological states-referred to as phases 1 and 2-such that each gapped region terminates at a domain wall separating the chiral gapless edge states of these phases. We show that this type of T junction supports pointlike fractionalized excitations obeying parafermion statistics, thus implying that the one-dimensional gapped interface forms an effective topological parafermionic wire possessing a nontrivial ground state degeneracy...
March 31, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407837/-effects-of-embryonic-lead-exposure-on-food-intake-and-bowel-movement-in-offspring-rats-and-possible-mechanisms
#18
Jian-Ping Zhou, Fan Wang, Xiao-Qing Yi, Xue-Ying Wang, Yong-Sheng Jiang, Yan Geng, Jing-Jing Wang
OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of embryonic lead exposure on food intake and bowel movement in offspring rats and possible mechanisms. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were given 0.1% (low-dose lead exposure group) or 0.2% (high-dose lead exposure group) lead acetate freely during pregnancy to establish an animal model of embryonic lead exposure. A blank control group was also established. The male offspring rats were enrolled in the study, and 10 male offspring rats from each group were selected to observe the changes in food intake, bowel movement, gastric emptying, intestine propulsion, and pathological inflammatory response in the gastric mucosa...
April 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406169/single-molecule-electrical-contacts-on-silicon-electrodes-under-ambient-conditions
#19
Albert C Aragonès, Nadim Darwish, Simone Ciampi, Fausto Sanz, J Justin Gooding, Ismael Díez-Pérez
The ultimate goal in molecular electronics is to use individual molecules as the active electronic component of a real-world sturdy device. For this concept to become reality, it will require the field of single-molecule electronics to shift towards the semiconducting platform of the current microelectronics industry. Here, we report silicon-based single-molecule contacts that are mechanically and electrically stable under ambient conditions. The single-molecule contacts are prepared on silicon electrodes using the scanning tunnelling microscopy break-junction approach using a top metallic probe...
April 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404746/wound-induced-ca-2-wave-propagates-through-a-simple-release-and-diffusion-mechanism
#20
L Naomi Handly, Roy Wollman
Damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are critical mediators of information concerning tissue damage from damaged cells to neighboring healthy cells. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) acts as an effective DAMP when released into extracellular space from damaged cells. Extracellular ATP receptors monitor tissue damage and activate a Ca(2+) wave in the surrounding healthy cells. How the Ca(2+) wave propagates through cells following a wound is unclear. Ca(2+) wave activation can occur extracellularly via external receptors or intracellularly through GAP junctions...
April 12, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
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