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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930435/new-triplet-sensitization-routes-for-photon-upconversion-thermally-activated-delayed-fluorescence-molecules-inorganic-nanocrystals-and-singlet-to-triplet-absorption
#1
Nobuhiro Yanai, Nobuo Kimizuka
Photon upconversion based on triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA-UC) has attracted much interest because of its possible applications to renewable energy production and biological fields. In particular, the UC of near-infrared (NIR) light to visible (vis) light is imperative to overcome the Shockley-Queisser limit of single-junction photovoltaic cells, and the efficiency of photocatalytic hydrogen production from water can also be improved with the aid of vis-to-ultraviolet (UV) UC. However, both processes have met limitations in the wavelength range, efficiency, and sensitivity for weak incident light...
September 20, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929261/transplantation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-modulated-cx43-and-cx45-expression-in-rats-with-myocardial-infarction
#2
Jin-Yi Li, Hong-Hong Ke, Yan He, Li-Na Wen, Wei-Yan Xu, Zhi-Fu Wu, Yan-Mei Zhao, Guo-Qiang Zhong
At present, little is known about the influence of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation on connexin43 (Cx43) and connexin45 (Cx45) remodeling in the ischemic heart. In this study, we investigated the effect of MSC transplantation on Cx43 and Cx45 remodeling in the ischemic heart. Wistar rats were subjected to left anterior descending artery ligation to induce myocardial infarction (MI) and then randomly allocated to receive an intramyocardial injection of PBS (MI group) or 5-azacytidine-induced MSCs (MSCs group)...
September 19, 2017: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928959/cell-polarity-cell-adhesion-and-spermatogenesis-role-of-cytoskeletons
#3
REVIEW
Linxi Li, Ying Gao, Haiqi Chen, Tito Jesus, Elizabeth Tang, Nan Li, Qingquan Lian, Ren-Shan Ge, C Yan Cheng
In the rat testis, studies have shown that cell polarity, in particular spermatid polarity, to support spermatogenesis is conferred by the coordinated efforts of the Par-, Crumbs-, and Scribble-based polarity complexes in the seminiferous epithelium. Furthermore, planar cell polarity (PCP) is conferred by PCP proteins such as Van Gogh-like 2 (Vangl2) in the testis. On the other hand, cell junctions at the Sertoli cell-spermatid (steps 8-19) interface are exclusively supported by adhesion protein complexes (for example, α6β1-integrin-laminin-α3,β3,γ3 and nectin-3-afadin) at the actin-rich apical ectoplasmic specialization (ES) since the apical ES is the only anchoring device in step 8-19 spermatids...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927129/deficiency-of-gap-junction-composed-of-connexin43-contributes-to-oxaliplatin-resistance-in-colon-cancer-cells
#4
Min Su, Qi Zhang
Although comprehensive strategies in the treatment of colorectal cancer have been developed for a number of years, the five-year survival rate of metastatic colon cancer remains less than 10%. Oxaliplatin, a commonly used chemotherapeutic agent for metastatic colon cancer, improves the response rate of patients and prolongs patients' progression-free survival. However, the generation of resistance limits the clinical application of oxaliplatin, and the mechanisms of this remain unclear. The present study mainly investigated the effect of the gap junction (GJ) composed of connexin43 (Cx43) on oxaliplatin cytotoxicity in colon cancer cells...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926477/monoamine-and-neuropeptide-connections-significantly-alter-the-degree-distributions-of-the-caenorhabditis-elegans-connectome
#5
Tianxiao Huang, Yan Sun, Zheng Zhang, Shixiong Deng, Rui Peng
To understand the behaviors of an individual, it is crucial to understand the neural connections of the nervous system, that is, the connectome. The hermaphrodite Caenorhabditis elegans connectome has served as a prototype for analytical studies since the chemical synapses and gap junctions among the 302 neurons were completely mapped. Recently, monoamine (MA) and neuropeptide (NP) connections were established, which form a multilayer connectome in conjunction with chemical synapses and gap junctions. In this study, we investigated the difference in the in-degree and out-degree distributions, respectively, among the connectomes with and without MA and NP connections...
September 18, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923791/gja1-20k-arranges-actin-to-guide-cx43-delivery-to-cardiac-intercalated-discs
#6
Wassim A Basheer, Shaohua Xiao, Irina Epifantseva, Ying Fu, Andre G Kleber, TingTing Hong, Robin M Shaw
Rationale: Delivery of connexin 43 (Cx43) to the intercalated disc is a continuous and rapid process critical for intercellular coupling. By a pathway of targeted delivery involving microtubule highways, vesicles of Cx43 hemichannels are efficiently trafficked to adherens junctions at intercalated discs. It has also been identified that actin provides rest stops for Cx43 forward trafficking, and that Cx43 has a 20kDa internally translated small C-terminus isoform (GJA1-20k) which is required for full-length Cx43 trafficking, but by an unknown mechanism...
September 18, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921470/cgas-sting-activation-in-the-tumor-microenvironment-and-its-role-in-cancer-immunity
#7
Geneviève Pépin, Michael P Gantier
Stimulator of interferon (IFN) genes (STING) is a key mediator in the immune response to cytoplasmic DNA sensed by cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS). After synthesis by cGAS, cGAMP acts as a second messenger activating STING in the cell harboring cytoplasmic DNA but also in adjacent cells through gap junction transfer. While the role of the cGAS-STING pathway in pathogen detection is now well established, its importance in cancer immunity has only recently started to emerge. Nonetheless, STING appears to be an essential component in the recruitment of immune cells to the tumor microenvironment, which is paramount to immune clearance of the tumor...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920701/absence-of-a-band-gap-at-the-interface-of-a-metal-and-highly-doped-monolayer-mos2
#8
Alexander Kerelsky, Ankur Nipane, Drew Edelberg, Dennis Wang, Xiaodong Zhou, Abdollah Motmaendadgar, Hui Gao, Saien Xie, Kibum Kang, Jiwoong Park, James Teherani, Abhay Pasupathy
High quality electrical contact to semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) such as MoS2 is key to unlocking their unique electronic and optoelectronic properties for fundamental research and device applications. Despite extensive experimental and theoretical efforts reliable ohmic contact to doped TMDCs remains elusive and would benefit from a better understanding of the underlying physics of the metal-TMDC interface. Here we present measurements of the atomic-scale energy band diagram of junctions between various metals and heavily doped monolayer MoS2 using ultrahigh vacuum scanning tunneling microscopy (UHV-STM)...
September 20, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919895/mind-the-gaps-in-tumor-immunity-impact-of-connexin-mediated-intercellular-connections
#9
REVIEW
María Alejandra Gleisner, Mariela Navarrete, Francisca Hofmann, Flavio Salazar-Onfray, Andrés Tittarelli
Gap junctions (GJs)-mediated intercellular communications (GJICs) are connexin (Cx)-formed plasma membrane channels that allow for the passage of small molecules between adjacent cells, and are involved in several physiopathological processes, including immune responses against cancer. In general, tumor cells are poorly coupled through GJs, mainly due to low Cx expression or reduced channel activity, suggesting that Cxs may have tumor suppressor roles. However, more recent data indicate that Cxs and/or GJICs may also in some cases promote tumor progression...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917982/connexin-hemichannels-and-cochlear-function
#10
REVIEW
Vytas K Verselis
Connexins play vital roles in hearing, including promoting cochlear development and sustaining auditory function in the mature cochlea. Mutations in connexins expressed in the cochlear epithelium, Cx26 and Cx30, cause sensorineural deafness and in the case of Cx26, is one of the most common causes of non-syndromic, hereditary deafness. Connexins function as gap junction channels and as hemichannels, which mediate intercellular and transmembrane signaling, respectively. Both channel configurations can play important, but very different roles in the cochlea...
September 13, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915955/implications-of-bisphosphonate-calcium-ion-depletion-interfering-with-desmosome-epithelial-seal-in-osseointegrated-implants-and-pressure-ulcers
#11
Louis Z G Touyz, Kelvin I Afrashtehfar
Osteoporosis (OP) is a global bone disease prevalent in aging in humans, especially in older women. Bisphosphonates (BPs) are commonly used as therapy for OP as it influences hard and soft tissues calcium metabolism. Mucosal and dermal ulceration with exposure of underlying bone arises from incomplete epithelial recovery due to reduced desmosome formation deriving from lack of available calcium. Pathological situations such as bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw have been described. This hypothesis states other situations which demand intact functional desmosomes such as healing skin over chronic pressure points leading to pressure ulcers (as well-known as bedsores, pressure sores, pressure injuries, decubitus ulcers), and hemidesmosomes such as epithelial seals in contact with titanium surfaces will have a higher prevalence of breakdown among patients being treated with BPs...
September 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912799/triportheus-albus-cope-1872-in-the-blackwater-clearwater-and-whitewater-of-the-amazon-a-case-of-phenotypic-plasticity
#12
José D A Araújo, Andrea Ghelfi, Adalberto L Val
The Amazon basin includes 1000s of bodies of water, that are sorted according to their color in three types: blackwater, clearwater, and whitewater, which significantly differ in terms of their physicochemical parameters. More than 3,000 species of fish live in the rivers of the Amazon, among them, the sardine, Triportheus albus, which is one of the few species that inhabit all three types of water. The purpose of our study was to analyze if the gene expression of T. albus is determined by the different types of water, that is, if the species presents phenotypic plasticity to live in blackwater, clearwater, and whitewater...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911825/paving-the-rho-in-cancer-metastasis-rho-gtpases-and-beyond
#13
REVIEW
Sepp Jansen, Reinoud Gosens, Thomas Wieland, Martina Schmidt
Malignant carcinomas are often characterized by metastasis, the movement of carcinoma cells from a primary site to colonize distant organs. For metastasis to occur, carcinoma cells first must adopt a pro-migratory phenotype and move through the surrounding stroma towards a blood or lymphatic vessel. Currently, there are very limited possibilities to target these processes therapeutically. The family of Rho GTPases is an ubiquitously expressed division of GTP-binding proteins involved in the regulation of cytoskeletal dynamics and intracellular signaling...
September 11, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911821/on-the-occurrence-and-enigmatic-functions-of-mixed-chemical-plus-electrical-synapses-in-the-mammalian-cns
#14
REVIEW
James I Nagy, Alberto E Pereda, John E Rash
Electrical synapses with diverse configurations and functions occur at a variety of interneuronal appositions, thereby significantly expanding the physiological complexity of neuronal circuitry over that provided solely by chemical synapses. Gap junctions between apposed dendritic and somatic plasma membranes form "purely electrical" synapses that allow for electrical communication between coupled neurons. In addition, gap junctions at axon terminals synapsing on dendrites and somata allow for "mixed" (dual chemical+electrical) synaptic transmission...
September 11, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910394/up-regulation-of-gap-junction-in-peripheral-blood-t-lymphocytes-contributes-to-the-inflammatory-response-in-essential-hypertension
#15
Xin Ni, Ai Wang, Liang Zhang, Li-Ya Shan, Hai-Chao Zhang, Li Li, Jun-Qiang Si, Jian Luo, Xin-Zhi Li, Ke-Tao Ma
Inflammation has been shown to play an important role in the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Connexins (Cxs)-based gap junction channels (GJCs) or hemichannels (HCs) are involved in the maintenance of homeostasis in the immune system. However, the role of Cx43-based channels in T-lymphocytes in mediating the immune response in essential hypertension is not fully understand. The present study was designed to investigate the role of Cxs-based channels in T lymphocytes in the regulation of hypertension-mediated inflammation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905880/mutations-in-rars-cause-a-hypomyelination-disorder-akin-to-pelizaeus-merzbacher-disease
#16
Michael Nafisinia, Nara Sobreira, Lisa Riley, Wendy Gold, Birgit Uhlenberg, Claudia Weiß, Corinne Boehm, Kristina Prelog, Robert Ouvrier, John Christodoulou
Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD) is a rare Mendelian disorder characterised by central nervous system hypomyelination. PMD typically manifests in infancy or early childhood and is caused by mutations in proteolipid protein-1 (PLP1). However, variants in several other genes including gap junction protein gamma 2 (GJC2) can also cause a similar phenotype and are referred to PMD-like disease (PMLD). Whole-exome sequencing in two siblings presenting with clinical symptoms of PMD revealed a homozygous variant in the arginyl-tRNA synthetase (RARS) gene: NM_002887...
October 2017: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902870/reduced%C3%A2-insulin-signaling-maintains-electrical-transmission-in-a-neural-circuit-in-aging-flies
#17
Hrvoje Augustin, Kieran McGourty, Marcus J Allen, Sirisha Kudumala Madem, Jennifer Adcott, Fiona Kerr, Chi Tung Wong, Alec Vincent, Tanja Godenschwege, Emmanuel Boucrot, Linda Partridge
Lowered insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling (IIS) can extend healthy lifespan in worms, flies, and mice, but it can also have adverse effects (the "insulin paradox"). Chronic, moderately lowered IIS rescues age-related decline in neurotransmission through the Drosophila giant fiber system (GFS), a simple escape response neuronal circuit, by increasing targeting of the gap junctional protein innexin shaking-B to gap junctions (GJs). Endosomal recycling of GJs was also stimulated in cultured human cells when IIS was reduced...
September 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902345/cx32-suppresses-extrinsic-apoptosis-in-human-cervical-cancer-cells-via-the-nf%C3%A2-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signalling-pathway
#18
Yongchang Lai, Lixia Fan, Yifan Zhao, Hui Ge, Xue Feng, Qin Wang, Xiaomin Zhang, Yuexia Peng, Xiyan Wang, Liang Tao
Tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) and TNF‑related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) usually trigger either survival or apoptosis signals in various cell types, and nuclear factor κB (NF‑κB) is a key factor that regulates their biological effects. Connexin 32 (Cx32) is a gap junction (GJ) protein that plays vital roles in tumourigenesis and tumour progression. Our previous study explored abnormal Cx32 expression in para‑nuclear areas, exacerbated prognostic parameters and suppressed streptonigrin/cisplatin-induced apoptosis in human cervical cancer (CaCx) cells...
August 29, 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902343/connexin%C3%A2-43-in-the-development-and-progression-of-breast-cancer-what-s-the-connection-review
#19
Stephanie L Phillips, Carly Bess Williams, Joelle N Zambrano, Christina J Williams, Elizabeth S Yeh
Connexin 43 is a prominent gap junction protein within normal human breast tissue. Thus far, there have been a number of research studies performed to determine the function of connexin 43 in breast tumor formation and progression. Within primary tumors, research suggests that the level of connexin 43 expression in breast tumors is altered when compared to normal human breast tissue. While some reports indicate that connexin 43 levels decrease, other evidence suggests that connexin 43 levels are increased and protein localization shifts from the plasma membrane to the cytoplasm...
September 1, 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901517/cx32-inhibits-tnf%C3%AE-induced-extrinsic-apoptosis-with-and-without-egfr-suppression
#20
Yongchang Lai, Liang Tao, Yifan Zhao, Xiaomin Zhang, Xingjuan Sun, Qin Wang, Chengfang Xu
Tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) can trigger the extrinsic apoptosis pathway. Our previous study indicated that connexin32 (Cx32) inhibited streptonigrin-induced intrinsic apoptosis via the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway. However, whether Cx32 can exert effects on the extrinsic apoptosis pathway through EGFR signaling remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of Cx32 in extrinsic apoptosis induced by treatment with TNFα + cycloheximide (CHX) or afatinib in human cervical cancer (CaCx) cells...
September 7, 2017: Oncology Reports
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