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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792707/nano-scale-conductive-filament-with-alternating-rectification-as-an-artificial-synapse-building-block
#1
Dan Berco, Yu Zhou, Sankara Rao Gollu, Pranav Sairam Kalaga, Abhisek Kole, Mohamed Hassan, Diing Shenp Ang
A popular approach for resistive memory (RRAM) based hardware implementation of neural networks utilizes one (or two) device that functions as an analog synapse in a crossbar structure of perpendicular pre- and post-synaptic neurons. An ideal fully automated, large scale artificial neural network, that matches a biologic counterpart (in terms of density and energy consumption), thus requires nano sized, extremely low power devices with a wide dynamic range and multi level functionality. Unfortunately the tradeoff between these traits proves to be a serious obstacle in the realization of brain inspired computing platforms yet to be overcome...
May 24, 2018: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790387/crosstalk-between-connexin-32-and-mitochondrial-apoptotic-signaling-pathway-plays-a-pivotal-role-in-renal-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-acute-kidney-injury
#2
Chaojin Chen, Yao Weifeng, Wu Shan, Zhou Shaoli, Gu Yu, Ge Mian, Li Xiang, Guihua Chen, Joseph A Bellanti, Songguo Zheng, Dongdong Yuan, Ziqing Hei
AIMS: Perioperative acute kidney injury (AKI) resulting from renal ischemia reperfusion (IR) is not conducive to the postoperative surgical recovery. Our previous study demonstrated that reactive oxygen species (ROS) transmitted by gap junction (GJ) composed of connexin32 (Cx32) contributed to AKI. However, the precise pathophysiologic mechanisms were unknown. The present study focuses on the underlying mechanisms related to ROS transmitted by Cx32 responsible for AKI aggravation. RESULTS: In a set of vivo studies, renal IR was found to cause severe impairment in renal tissues with massive ROS generation, and occurred contemporaneously with activation of NF-κB/p53/PUMA-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis pathways...
May 23, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783282/sustained-conduction-of-vasomotor-responses-in-rat-mesenteric-arteries-in-a-two-compartment-in-vitro-setup
#3
Teresa Palao, Angela van Weert, Anne de Leeuw, Judith de Vos, Erik N T P Bakker, Ed van Bavel
AIM: Conduction of vasomotor responses may contribute to long-term regulation of resistance artery function and structure. Most previous studies have addressed conduction of vasoactivity only during very brief stimulations. We developed a novel setup that allows the local pharmacological stimulation of arteries in vitro for extended periods of time, and studied the conduction of vasomotor responses in rat mesenteric arteries under those conditions. METHODS: The new in vitro set up was based on the pressure myograph...
May 21, 2018: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780324/intercalated-disk-extracellular-nanodomain-expansion-in-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation
#4
Tristan B Raisch, Matthew S Yanoff, Timothy R Larsen, Mohammed A Farooqui, D Ryan King, Rengasayee Veeraraghavan, Robert G Gourdie, Joseph W Baker, William S Arnold, Soufian T AlMahameed, Steven Poelzing
Aims: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia. Previous evidence in animal models suggests that the gap junction (GJ) adjacent nanodomain - perinexus - is a site capable of independent intercellular communication via ephaptic transmission. Perinexal expansion is associated with slowed conduction and increased ventricular arrhythmias in animal models, but has not been studied in human tissue. The purpose of this study was to characterize the perinexus in humans and determine if perinexal expansion associates with AF...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778719/effect-of-heptanol-and-ethanol-on-excitation-wave-propagation-in-a-neonatal-rat-ventricular-myocyte-monolayer
#5
A D Podgurskaya, V A Tsvelaya, S R Frolova, I Y Kalita, N N Kudryashova, K I Agladze
In this work, the action of heptanol and ethanol was investigated in a two-dimensional (2D) model of cardiac tissue: the neonatal rat ventricular myocyte monolayer. Heptanol is known in electrophysiology as a gap junction uncoupler but may also inhibit voltage-gated ionic channels. Ethanol is often associated with the occurrence of arrhythmias. These substances influence sodium, calcium, and potassium channels, but the complete mechanism of action of heptanol and ethanol remains unknown. The optical mapping method was used to measure conduction velocities (CVs) in concentrations of 0...
May 17, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777691/improving-electrical-properties-of-ipsc-cardiomyocytes-by-enhancing-cx43-expression
#6
Valentin Sottas, Carl-Mattheis Wahl, Mihnea C Trache, Michael Bartolf-Kopp, Sidney Cambridge, Markus Hecker, Nina D Ullrich
The therapeutic potential of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs) is limited by immature functional features including low impulse propagation and reduced cell excitability. Key players regulating electrical activity are voltage-gated Na+ channels (Nav 1.5) and gap junctions built from connexin-43 (Cx43). Here we tested the hypothesis that enhanced Cx43 expression increases intercellular coupling and influences excitability by modulating Nav 1.5. Using transgenic approaches, Cx43 and Nav 1...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773817/electrical-synapses-between-inhibitory-neurons-shape-the-responses-of-principal-neurons-to-transient-inputs-in-the-thalamus-a-modeling-study
#7
Tuan Pham, Julie S Haas
As multimodal sensory information proceeds to the cortex, it is intercepted and processed by the nuclei of the thalamus. The main source of inhibition within thalamus is the reticular nucleus (TRN), which collects signals both from thalamocortical relay neurons and from thalamocortical feedback. Within the reticular nucleus, neurons are densely interconnected by connexin36-based gap junctions, known as electrical synapses. Electrical synapses have been shown to coordinate neuronal rhythms, including thalamocortical spindle rhythms, but their role in shaping or modulating transient activity is less understood...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771630/septins-regulate-junctional-integrity-of-endothelial-monolayers
#8
Joanna Kim, John A Cooper
Junctional integrity of endothelial monolayers is crucial to control movement of molecules and cells across the endothelium. Examining the structure and dynamics of cell junctions in endothelial monolayers, we discovered a role for septins. Contacts between adjacent endothelial cells were dynamic, with protrusions extending above or below neighboring cells. VE-cadherin was present at cell junctions, with a membrane-associated layer of F-actin. Septins localized at cell-junction membranes, in patterns distinct from VE-cadherin and F-actin...
May 17, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771311/pathobiology-of-cardiac-dyssynchrony-and-resynchronization-therapy
#9
Uyên Châu Nguyên, Nienke J Verzaal, Frans A van Nieuwenhoven, Kevin Vernooy, Frits W Prinzen
Synchronous ventricular electrical activation is a prerequisite for adequate left ventricular (LV) systolic function. Conduction abnormalities such as left bundle branch block, and ventricular pacing lead to a dyssynchronous electrical activation sequence, which may have deleterious consequences. The present review attempts to connect the various processes involved in the development of 'dyssynchronopathy', and its correction by cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Abnormal electrical impulse conduction leads to abnormal contraction, characterized by regional differences in timing as well as shortening patterns and amount of external work performed...
May 15, 2018: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769388/lineage-tracing-and-fate-mapping-in-xenopus-embryos
#10
Sally A Moody
Fate mapping approaches reveal what types of cells, tissues, and organs are derived from specific embryonic cells. Classical fate maps were made by microscopic techniques using embryos comprising small numbers of transparent cells. More complex and opaque embryos require use of a vital or lipophilic dye that labels small groups of cells. Intracellular injection of a lineage tracer that labels the injected cell and all of its descendants can be used to mark a single cell in Xenopus embryos, whose large cells are easy to microinject and usually cleave in regular patterns...
May 16, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763908/connexin-43-modulates-osteogenic-differentiation-of-bone-marrow-stromal-cells-through-gsk-3beta-beta-catenin-signaling-pathways
#11
Fei-Xiang Lin, Gui-Zhou Zheng, Bo Chang, Rong-Chun Chen, Qi-Hao Zhang, Peng Xie, Da Xie, Guo-Yong Yu, Qin-Xiao Hu, De-Zhong Liu, Shi-Xin Du, Xue-Dong Li
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) are multipotent precursors that give rise to osteoblasts, and contribute directly to bone formation. Connexin 43 (Cx43) is the most ubiquitous gap junction protein expressed in bone cell types, and plays crucial roles in regulating intercellular signal transmission for bone development, differentiation and pathology. However, the precise role and mechanism of Cx43 in BMSCs are less known. Here, we investigate the function of Cx43 in osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs in vitro...
May 10, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756076/gap-junctional-communication-is-involved-in-differentiation-of-osteoclasts-from-bone-marrow-and-peripheral-blood-monocytes
#12
Elina Kylmäoja, Miho Nakamura, Hanna Kokkonen-Puuperä, Veli-Pekka Ronkainen, Petri Lehenkari, Juha Tuukkanen
Aims: The aim of the study was to compare the influence of gap junctional communication (GJC) in osteoclastogenesis from bone marrow (BM) and peripheral blood (PB) monocytes. These widely used sources differ in purity, since BM cultures contain a significant number of stromal cells. We studied whether stimulation of GJC in BM monocyte/stromal cell cultures differs from the effect in pure PB monocyte cultures. We compared the differentiation also in acidosis, which is a known inducer of bone resorption...
May 2018: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754900/burst-firing-in-bee-gustatory-neurons-prevents-adaptation
#13
Ashwin Miriyala, Sébastien Kessler, F Claire Rind, Geraldine A Wright
Animals detect changes in the environment using modality-specific, peripheral sensory neurons. The insect gustatory system encodes tastant identity and concentration through the independent firing of gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs) that spike rapidly at stimulus onset and quickly adapt. Here, we show the first evidence that concentrated sugar evokes a temporally structured burst pattern of spiking involving two GRNs within the gustatory sensilla of bumblebees. Bursts of spikes resulted when a sucrose-activated GRN was inhibited by another GRN at a frequency of ∼22 Hz during the first 1 s of stimulation...
May 1, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754319/responses-of-rainbow-trout-intestinal-epithelial-cells-to-different-kinds-of-nutritional-deprivation
#14
Patrick G Pumputis, Vivian R Dayeh, Lucy E J Lee, Phuc H Pham, Zhenzhen Liu, Senthuri Viththiyapaskaran, Niels C Bols
In order to develop an in vitro system to study the cell biology of starvation in the fish intestine, rainbow trout intestinal epithelial cells were subjected to three kinds of nutrient deprivation and evaluated for 7 days. The RTgutGC cell line was grown into monolayers in Leibovitz's basal medium supplemented with fetal bovine serum (L15/FBS) and then subjected to deprivation of serum (L15); of serum, amino acids, and vitamin (L15/ex); and of all nutrients (L15/salts). After 7 days of nutrient deprivation, the cells remained attached to the plastic surface as monolayers but changes were seen in shape, with the cells becoming more polygonal, actin and α-tubulin cytoskeleton organization, and in tight junction protein-1 (ZO-1) localization...
May 12, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753823/analysis-of-differentially-changed-gene-expression-in-ea-hy926-human-endothelial-cell-after-exposure-of-fine-particulate-matter-on-the-basis-of-microarray-profile
#15
Yan Wang, Lilin Xiong, Tianshu Wu, Ting Zhang, Lu Kong, Yuying Xue, Meng Tang
Epidemiological studies have illustrated that PM2.5 is closely related to cardiovascular disease (CVD), but underlying toxicological mechanisms are not yet clear. The main purpose of this study is to disclose the potential biological mechanisms responsible for PM2.5-dependent adverse cardiovascular outcomes through the appliance of genome-wide transcription microarray. From results, compared with the control group, there are 97 genes significantly altered in 2.5 μg/cm2 PM2.5 treated group and 440 differentially expressed genes in 10 μg/cm2 group...
May 10, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751831/intravenous-injection-of-allogeneic-umbilical-cord-derived-multipotent-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-reduces-the-infarct-area-and-ameliorates-cardiac-function-in-a-porcine-model-of-acute-myocardial-infarction
#16
Meikuang Lim, Weiqiang Wang, Lu Liang, Zhi-Bo Han, Zongjin Li, Jie Geng, Meng Zhao, Honghong Jia, Jie Feng, Zhe Wei, Baoquan Song, Jiemin Zhang, Jun Li, Tianwen Liu, Fan Wang, Ting Li, Jianming Li, Yihu Fang, Jianhua Gao, Zhongchao Han
BACKGROUND: Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) therapy has been widely recognized as a feasible strategy for regenerating injured myocardial tissue. However, little is known about the efficacy of intravenous injection of allogeneic umbilical cord (UC) MSCs in preclinical models of porcine myocardial infarction. METHODS: Different dosages of allogeneic UC-MSCs or the vehicle [phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)] were delivered intravenously into an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) porcine model twice after coronary ligation...
May 11, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751558/connexin-communication-compartments-and-wound-repair-in-epithelial-tissue
#17
REVIEW
Marc Chanson, Masakatsu Watanabe, Erin M O'Shaughnessy, Alice Zoso, Patricia E Martin
Epithelial tissues line the lumen of tracts and ducts connecting to the external environment. They are critical in forming an interface between the internal and external environment and, following assault from environmental factors and pathogens, they must rapidly repair to maintain cellular homeostasis. These tissue networks, that range from a single cell layer, such as in airway epithelium, to highly stratified and differentiated epithelial surfaces, such as the epidermis, are held together by a junctional nexus of proteins including adherens, tight and gap junctions, often forming unique and localised communication compartments activated for localised tissue repair...
May 3, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750972/inhibition-of-cx43-gap-junction-uncoupling-prevents-high-glucose-induced-apoptosis-and-reduces-excess-cell-monolayer-permeability-in-retinal-vascular-endothelial-cells
#18
Dongjoon Kim, Ulrik Mouritzen, Bjarne Due Larsen, Sayon Roy
The aim of this study was to investigate whether inhibition of connexin 43 gap junction-uncoupling is sufficient to prevent retinal vascular cell loss under high glucose condition and reduce cell monolayer permeability. Rat retinal endothelial cells were grown for 3, 5, and 7 days in normal (5 mM) or high glucose (30 mM) medium; in parallel, cells grown in high glucose medium were exposed for 3, 5, and 7 days to 100 nM danegaptide, which stabilizes connexin 43-mediated cell coupling. Additionally, cells grown in normal medium were treated with a connexin 43 blocker as a negative control...
May 8, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750200/analysis-of-the-bystander-effect-in-cone-photoreceptors-via-a-guided-neural-network-platform
#19
Yuan Ma, Xin Han, Ricardo Bessa de Castro, Pengchao Zhang, Kai Zhang, Zhongbo Hu, Lidong Qin
The mammalian retina system consists of a complicated photoreceptor structure, which exhibits extensive random synaptic connections. To study retinal development and degeneration, various experimental models have been used previously, but these models are often uncontrollable, are difficult to manipulate, and do not provide sufficient similarity or precision. Therefore, the mechanisms in many retinal diseases remain unclear because of the limited capability in observing the progression and molecular driving forces...
May 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748463/protein%C3%A2-protein-interactions-with-connexin-43-regulation-and-function
#20
REVIEW
Paul L Sorgen, Andrew J Trease, Gaelle Spagnol, Mario Delmar, Morten S Nielsen
Connexins are integral membrane building blocks that form gap junctions, enabling direct cytoplasmic exchange of ions and low-molecular-mass metabolites between adjacent cells. In the heart, gap junctions mediate the propagation of cardiac action potentials and the maintenance of a regular beating rhythm. A number of connexin interacting proteins have been described and are known gap junction regulators either through direct effects (e.g., kinases) or the formation of larger multifunctional complexes (e.g., cytoskeleton scaffold proteins)...
May 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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