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avian mycoplasmosis

Jafar A Qasem, Salwa A Al-Mouqati, Ebtesam M Al-Ali, Ahmad Ben-Haji
Mycoplasma infection is a major problem in veterinary medicine and in poultry production. The pathogen has many strains, so that diagnosis of the disease using culture method is not effective. The objective of this work was to evaluate the prevalence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) in Kuwait poultry farms using serology and molecular methods in comparison to the culture under specific conditions. A total of 50 swab samples from choanal cleft and tracheal samples and blood samples were obtained from three different local farms, the blood samples were processed for an Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) detection and the swab samples for Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and culture methods detection...
February 2015: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
Qing-Ye Zhuang, Su-Chun Wang, Jin-Ping Li, Dong Liu, Shuo Liu, Wen-Ming Jiang, Ji-Ming Chen
Multiple common avian infectious diseases (CAIDs), namely, avian infectious diseases excluding highly pathogenic avian influenza and Newcastle disease, such as avian salmonellosis and coccidiosis, cause huge economic loss in poultry production and are of great significance in public health. However, they are usually not covered in the systems for reporting of animal diseases. Consequently, the distribution of CAIDs is not clear in many countries. Here, we report a clinical survey of CAIDs in China based on clinical diagnosis of eight veterinary clinics in 2011 and 2012...
June 2014: Avian Diseases
S P Cobb
The international trade in poultry hatching eggs could potentially facilitate the global dissemination of poultry disease. Provided the guidelines of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) on breeding flock hygiene are followed, of those avian diseases currently listed by the OlE, only highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), Newcastle disease (ND), and avian mycoplasmosis (caused by Mycoplasma gallisepticum or M. synoviae) should be considered likely to be spread though trade in this commodity. Furthermore, the impact of HPAI and ND on egg production and hatchability will constrain the potential for these agents to be spread by poultry hatching eggs...
April 2011: Revue Scientifique et Technique
Shoji Ogino, Yasuhisa Munakata, Shuichi Ohashi, Masato Fukui, Hiroshi Sakamoto, Yukio Sekiya, Amir H Noormohammadi, Chris J Morrow
Mycoplasma synoviae is an important causative agent of avian mycoplasmosis. In the present study the conserved domain of the variable lipoprotein and hemagglutinin (vlhA) gene of M. synoviae was sequenced and analyzed for 19 field strains of M. synoviae isolated from chickens across Japan. This analysis revealed that there were at least nine genotypes of M. synoviae present in Japan. Furthermore, we found a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) within this region in all the Japanese isolates, and based on this finding, we established a PCR method with cycling probe technology to differentiate between these field isolates and the live M...
June 2011: Avian Diseases
Frantisek Vitula, Lucie Peckova, Hana Bandouchova, Miroslav Pohanka, Ladislav Novotny, David Jira, Jiri Kral, Karel Ondracek, Jitka Osickova, Dagmar Zendulkova, Katerina Rosenbergova, Frantisek Treml, Jiri Pikula
BACKGROUND: The grey partridge is an important game bird in Europe that has declined considerably over the last decades. The production and release of farm-bred birds can be threatened by infectious agents. The objective of this study was to describe the outbreak, pathology, and blood and tissue biochemical responses in a flock of grey partridges naturally infected with Mycoplasma gallisepticum. RESULTS: Morbidity and mortality rates were 100% and 60%, respectively...
2011: BMC Veterinary Research
R L Luciano, A L S P Cardoso, G F Z Stoppa, A M I Kanashiro, A G M de Castro, E N C Tessari
Avian mycoplasmosis causes great economic losses to the poultry industry, and one of the major agents involved is Mycoplasma synovie (MS). Serum from commercial poultry breeders (n = 2781) was tested for MS by serum plate agglutination (SPA), hemagglutination inhibition (HI), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). From 2,781 samples tested, 736 (26.46%) were positive in SPA. From 712 SPA-positive sera, 30 samples (4.21%) were positive in HI, and 150 samples (21.06%) were positive in ELISA. Copositivity between ELISA and HI was 90%, and conegativity was 82...
2011: Veterinary Medicine International
Ziv Raviv, Stanley H Kleven
Four avian mycoplasmas are commonly recognized as poultry pathogens: Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), Mycoplasma synoviae (MS), Mycoplasma meleagridis (MM), and Mycoplasma iowae (MI). The avian mycoplasmas are associated with respiratory disease, synovitis and arthritis, poor performance, skeletal deformities, and embryo mortality. Three main approaches are used for the diagnosis of avian mycoplasmosis: isolation and identification, detection of antibodies, and molecular detection of the organism's nucleic acid by PCR...
March 2009: Avian Diseases
P Nougayrede, D Toquin, B Andral, M Guittet
This study was performed with the use of the MG/S6 strain of Mycoplasma gallisepticum, reference sera, sera from vaccinated chickens (given at inactivated vaccine) and sera from infected turkeys in the field. Titres of antibody detected were well correlated for the three tests. However, the plate agglutination test (PAT) allowed the earliest detection, and metabolic inhibition test (MIT) was as sensitive and specific as the haemagglutination inhibition test (HIT). MIT allowed a good repeatability of results, and discriminated very well between positive and negative sera...
October 1984: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
I Kempf
This review describes some applications of DNA amplification methods for diagnosis or epidemiological investigations of avian mycoplasmosis. Tests for direct detection of pathogenic mycoplasmas have been developed. Moreover, most avian mycoplasma species can be differentiated, according to their unique restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns generated after digestion of PCR products with different restriction enzymes. In order to characterize isolates below the species level, PCR-based subtyping methods have been introduced...
1998: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
A E Gates, S Frasca, A Nyaoke, T S Gorton, L K Silbart, S J Geary
In a previous study, signature sequence mutagenesis (SSM) was used to identify a mutant with a disruption of the gene encoding the metabolic factor, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase, and that mutant was designated Mg 7. The current study assessed the safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of Mg 7 in comparison to two commercially available vaccines (ts-11 and F) as well as a laboratory vaccine strain, GT5. Intratracheal vaccination of chickens with all four attenuated mutants induced varying levels of protection against intratracheal challenge with virulent Mycoplasma gallisepticum strain R(low)...
April 7, 2008: Vaccine
Amir H Noormohammadi
The interactions between avian mycoplasmas and their host cells are far more complex than might be anticipated from their apparent structural and functional simplicity. Phenotypic diversity in the form of reversible phase variation, antigenic variation or size variation is an adaptive mechanism that enables avian mycoplasmas to survive in a hostile and highly evolved host. Despite significant similarities between major membrane antigens of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae, the molecular mechanisms that mediate phenotypic variation in these two pathogens are completely different...
December 2007: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
K L Farmer, G E Hill, S R Roberts
Conjunctivitis in house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus), caused by Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), was first reported in 1994 and, since this time, has become endemic in house finch populations throughout eastern North America. Although the house finch is most commonly associated with MG-related conjunctivitis, MG has been reported from other wild bird species, and conjunctivitis (not confirmed as MG related) has been reported in over 30 species. To help define the host range of the house finch strain of MG and to better understand the effect of MG on other host species, we monitored a community of wild birds for exposure to MG and conducted experimental infections on nine avian species...
April 2005: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Barry K Hartup, Briana Stott-Messick, Michael Guzy, David H Ley
We conducted a health survey of house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus) without evidence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in order to establish baseline population health measures and estimate prevalence of potential pathogens likely to influence host susceptibility to mycoplasmosis. Seasonal changes in several physiologic parameters were observed. Weights were greater in winter compared with the breeding season (P < 0.01), fat scores were greater in winter than during fall migration (P < 0.01) or the breeding season (P < 0...
January 2004: Avian Diseases
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
1965: National Institute of Animal Health Quarterly
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1963: Archives de L'Institut Pasteur de Tunis
C Marois, C Savoye, M Kobisch, I Kempf
In order to study horizontal transmission of Mycoplasma synoviae an avian pathogen, a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay was developed to detect viable Mycoplasma in environment. The test was based on the RT-PCR of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) of Mycoplasma genus. Results showed that Mycoplasma 16S rRNA was stable up to 23 h after cell death. Therefore, the test allowed detection of viable or very recently (less than 23 h) dead mycoplasmas. M. synoviae survival in artificially contaminated water, food and soil and in the environment of M...
October 2, 2002: Veterinary Microbiology
F W Huchzermeyer
Crocodiles and ostriches are very sensitive to stress, and the ideal conditions for intensive rearing have not yet been established. Consequently, mortality is often directly linked to conditions on the farm. Crocodile and caiman pox, adenoviral hepatitis, mycoplasmosis, chlamydiosis and coccidiosis are crocodile-specific infections with reservoirs in wild populations and adult wild-caught breeding stock. Other important conditions are salmonellosis, non-specific septicaemia, trichinellosis, the nutritional diseases osteomalacia, fat necrosis and gout, as well as winter sores...
August 2002: Revue Scientifique et Technique
M P Luttrell, D E Stallknecht, S H Kleven, D M Kavanaugh, J L Corn, J R Fischer
Since 1994, an epidemic of conjunctivitis caused by Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) has spread throughout the eastern population of house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus). The adaptation of MG to a free-flying avian species presents potential problems for the control of mycoplasmosis in commercial poultry. To evaluate risks associated with this emerging problem, a field survey was conducted to assess prevalence of MG infection in house finches and other passerine birds associated with poultry farms. Between November 1997 and March 1999, 1058 birds were captured by mist net or trap at 17 farms and at 10 feeder stations in northeast Georgia...
April 2001: Avian Diseases
S Levisohn, S H Kleven
Mycoplasma gallisepticum is the most economically significant mycoplasma pathogen of poultry, and has a world-wide distribution. In common with other mycoplasmas, M. gallisepticum is minute in size with minimal genetic information and with a total lack of a bacterial cell wall. These properties are reflected in a high degree of interdependence between M. gallisepticum and the host animal, and in the fastidious nature of the organism in vitro. Strains of M. gallisepticum differ markedly with respect to important biological properties such as pathogenicity, infectivity, tissue tropism and transmissibility...
August 2000: Revue Scientifique et Technique
E K Barbour, S K Hamadeh, C Hilan, M Kallas, A Eid, W Sakr
From 1992 to mid-1996, a national survey of poultry diseases in Lebanon was conducted. This surveillance included meat breeder, layer breeder, commercial layer and chicken broiler flocks. The history, signs, lesions and laboratory tests of poultry were used in the diagnosis of prevalent poultry diseases. Culture techniques were used to screen for bacterial diseases; serological techniques and, to a lesser extent, culture techniques were used to diagnose viral diseases; and both serological and culture techniques were used to diagnose Mycoplasma infections...
December 1997: Revue Scientifique et Technique
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