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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760768/mechanisms-of-change-for-interventions-aimed-at-improving-the-wellbeing-mental-health-and-resilience-of-children-and-adolescents-affected-by-war-and-armed-conflict-a-systematic-review-of-reviews
#1
REVIEW
Tania Josiane Bosqui, Bassam Marshoud
Despite increasing research and clinical interest in delivering psychosocial interventions for children affected by war, little research has been conducted on the underlying mechanisms of change associated with these interventions. This review aimed to identify these processes in order to inform existing interventions and highlight research gaps. A systematic review of reviews was conducted drawing from academic databases (PubMed, PILOTS, Cochrane Library for Systematic Reviews) and field resources (e.g. Médecins Sans Frontières and the Psychosocial Centre of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies), with extracted data analysed using Thematic Content Analysis...
2018: Conflict and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759892/the-marginalisation-of-dreams-in-clinical-psychological-practice
#2
REVIEW
Linda Leonard, Drew Dawson
The longstanding human interest in dreams has led to a significant body of psychological and philosophical discourse, including research. Recently, however, dreams have been relegated to the periphery of clinical psychological practice. This is potentially problematic as clients continue to bring dreams to therapy and many psychologists lack the confidence or competence to respond effectively to dream material. Building on the structural, professional and research cultures surrounding psychology using a cultural-historical activity theory framework, we argue the marginalisation of dreams is due to cultural-historical factors...
April 22, 2018: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751489/will-happiness-improve-the-psychological-integration-of-migrant-workers
#3
Tian-Cheng Li, Chien-Chi Chu, Fan-Cun Meng, Qin Li, Di Mo, Bin Li, Sang-Bing Tsai
Happiness is a major factor that influences people’s perceptions and behavior. Two-stage least squares regression was applied to investigate the effect of happiness on the psychological integration of migrant workers in China. The data for a total of 1625 individuals were obtained from the 2014 China Labor-force Dynamics Survey (CLDS). This study describes happiness from three main aspects: happiness, life satisfaction, and economic satisfaction. The psychological integration includes two dimensions of settlement willingness, and trust level; these have gone through dimension-reduced processing by using the weighted average method...
May 3, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730621/how-a-deliberative-approach-includes-women-in-the-decisions-of-screening-mammography-a-citizens-jury-feasibility-study-in-andalusia-spain
#4
José M Baena-Cañada, Violeta Luque-Ribelles, Alicia Quílez-Cutillas, Petra Rosado-Varela, Encarnación Benítez-Rodríguez, Soledad Márquez-Calderón, Juan Manuel Rivera-Bautista
OBJECTIVES: To verify whether a citizens' jury study is feasible to the Andalusian population and to know if women, when better informed, are able to answer the research question of whether the Andalusian Public Health System must continue offering screening mammography to women aged 50-69. The reasons for the pertinent decision and recommendations to the political authorities will be stated. DESIGN: Qualitative research study with the methodology of citizens' jury...
May 5, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730312/comparing-disciplinary-methods-used-by-mothers-in-palestine-and-qatar
#5
Madeeha Kamal, Samia Halileh, Soha Dargham, Khalid A Alyafei, Rita Giacaman, Sawsan Imseeh, Nehal Eldeeb, Shiraz Nasr, Mona Korayem, Niveen Abu-Rmeileh, Ziyad Mahfoud, Hassan Tawfik, Mohamed H Mahmoud, Marcellina Mian, Margaret A Lynch
This paper explores child disciplinary methods used by parents in Qatar and Palestine. In this study ICAST-P, an internationally recognized tool, was used with mothers reporting on one of their children up to their 12th birthday. It questions about disciplinary methods: nonviolent; physical: moderate and severe; and psychological methods that had been used in the previous year on the index child in the family. A comparative national cross-sectional household survey of mothers aged 25-50 years old was conducted in both Qatar and Palestine, both Arabic Muslim states, but with very different socio-economic and political contexts that place Qataris in a much more advantageous position...
May 3, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726810/algorithmic-psychometrics-and-the-scalable-subject
#6
Luke Stark
Recent public controversies, ranging from the 2014 Facebook 'emotional contagion' study to psychographic data profiling by Cambridge Analytica in the 2016 American presidential election, Brexit referendum and elsewhere, signal watershed moments in which the intersecting trajectories of psychology and computer science have become matters of public concern. The entangled history of these two fields grounds the application of applied psychological techniques to digital technologies, and an investment in applying calculability to human subjectivity...
April 2018: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721689/education-as-dilemmatic-field
#7
Luca Tateo
Psychology of education must discuss a number of relevant ethical, political and societal issues that cannot be simply overlooked as non pertinent to the discipline. For too long educational and developmental psychology have take divergent routes and have not enough dialogued with other fields such as pedagogy. I argue that it is first of all necessary to conceptualize the work of schooling, that is educational processes of teaching and learning in specific social contexts, as complex and dilemmatic fields...
May 2, 2018: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718293/health-effects-of-the-relocation-of-patients-with-dementia-a-scoping-review-to-inform-medical-and-policy-decision-making
#8
Frida V M Ryman, Jetske C Erisman, Lea M Darvey, Jacob Osborne, Ella Swartsenburg, Elena V Syurina
Background and Objectives: Research into the relocation (including international relocation) of people with dementia is increasingly important due to the aging population and latest developments in the international politics (including globalization and concerns over international migration). There is need for an overview of the health effects of relocation to facilitate and inform decision- and policy-making regarding these relocations. The aim of this literature review was to provide insight into the physical, psychological, and social consequences of varied types of relocations of older adults suffering from dementia...
April 28, 2018: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717965/issues-with-choice-architecture-environmental-ethics-and-globalization
#9
Edward Sankowski
Cass R. Sunstein's book The Ethics of Influence appears to have three ideological features notable for purposes of this essay. The book emphasizes choice architecture (and related notions such as nudges and defaults), which should be ethically scrutinized to guard against ethical abuses and to assist us in ethically desirable uses of scientific psychology and behavioral economics. (1) This particular book focuses more on scrutinizing nation-state government than on corporate activities. (2) This book focuses more on domestically directed governmental action than on externally directed governmental action...
2018: Politics and the Life Sciences: the Journal of the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713442/hans-asperger-national-socialism-and-race-hygiene-in-nazi-era-vienna
#10
Herwig Czech
Background: Hans Asperger (1906-1980) first designated a group of children with distinct psychological characteristics as 'autistic psychopaths' in 1938, several years before Leo Kanner's famous 1943 paper on autism. In 1944, Asperger published a comprehensive study on the topic (submitted to Vienna University in 1942 as his postdoctoral thesis), which would only find international acknowledgement in the 1980s. From then on, the eponym 'Asperger's syndrome' increasingly gained currency in recognition of his outstanding contribution to the conceptualization of the condition...
2018: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659334/influencing-republicans-and-democrats-attitudes-towards-obamacare-effects-of-imagined-vicarious-cognitive-dissonance-on-political-attitudes
#11
Joel Cooper, Lauren A Feldman, Shane F Blackman
The field of experimental social psychology is appropriately interested in using novel theoretical approaches to implement change in the social world. In the current study, we extended cognitive dissonance theory by creating a new framework of social influence: imagined vicarious dissonance. We used the framework to influence attitudes on an important and controversial political attitude: U.S. citizens' support for the Affordable Care Act (ACA). 36 Republicans and 84 Democrats were asked to imagine fellow Republicans and Democrats, respectively, making attitude discrepant statements under high and low choice conditions about support for the ACA...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656088/-ne-nnipadua-mmpe-the-body-hates-it-exploring-the-lived-experience-of-food-allergy-in-sub-saharan-africa
#12
George A Atiim, Susan J Elliott, Ann E Clarke
Allergic diseases have closely followed the rise of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) especially in western societies. As prevalence of NCD is increasing in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), researchers are hinting that the same future may hold for (food) allergic disease in this world region. Already, researchers are beginning to record prevalence, though with little attention to the social experience of individuals and parents with food allergic children. This paper presents the first qualitative analysis of the daily realities of adults and parents of children with allergies in SSA using Ghana as a case study...
March 23, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644562/exacerbating-inequalities-health-policy-and-the-behavioural-sciences
#13
Kathryn MacKay, Muireann Quigley
There have been calls for some time for a new approach to public health in the United Kingdom and beyond. This is consequent on the recognition and acceptance that health problems often have a complex and multi-faceted aetiology. At the same time, policies which utilise insights from research in behavioural economics and psychology ('behavioural science') have gained prominence on the political agenda. The relationship between the social determinants of health (SDoH) and behavioural science in health policy has not hitherto been explored...
April 11, 2018: Health Care Analysis: HCA: Journal of Health Philosophy and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629392/empowerment-of-women-and-mental-health-improvement-with-a-preventive-approach
#14
Shahin Shooshtari, M R Abedi, M Bahrami, Rahele Samouei
AIM AND BACKGROUND: Mental health and empowerment are two of the women's essential needs. These two related concepts play an important role in women's lives. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate empowerment of women and its relation with mental health problem prevention during difficult situations. METHODS: This qualitative study was conducted through semi-structured interviews with 33 experts in the fields of psychology, social sciences, women studies, medicine and crisis management specialists using snowball sampling in cities of Tehran, Isfahan, Tabriz, and Mashhad during the year 1395 (March 2016-March 2017)...
2018: Journal of Education and Health Promotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628016/general-and-disease-specific-pain-trajectories-as-predictors-of-social-and-political-outcomes-in-arthritis-and-cancer
#15
Richard J E James, David A Walsh, Eamonn Ferguson
BACKGROUND: While the heterogeniety of pain progression has been studied in chronic diseases, the extent to which patterns of pain progression among people in general as well as across different diseases affect social, civic and political engagement is unclear. We explore these issues for the first time. METHODS: Using data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, latent class growth models were used to estimate trajectories of self-reported pain in the entire cohort, and within subsamples reporting diagnoses of arthritis and cancer...
April 9, 2018: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610548/personality-and-neural-correlates-of-mentalizing-ability
#16
Timothy A Allen, Amanda R Rueter, Samantha V Abram, James S Brown, Colin G DeYoung
Theory of mind, or mentalizing , defined as the ability to reason about another's mental states, is a crucial psychological function that is disrupted in some forms of psychopathology, but little is known about how individual differences in this ability relate to personality or brain function. One previous study linked mentalizing ability to individual differences in the personality trait Agreeableness. Agreeableness encompasses two major subdimensions: Compassion reflects tendencies toward empathy, prosocial behavior, and interpersonal concern, whereas Politeness captures tendencies to suppress aggressive and exploitative impulses...
November 2017: European Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607097/anthropology-in-public-health-emergencies-what-is-anthropology-good-for
#17
REVIEW
Darryl Stellmach, Isabel Beshar, Juliet Bedford, Philipp du Cros, Beverley Stringer
Recent outbreaks of Ebola virus disease (2013-2016) and Zika virus (2015-2016) bring renewed recognition of the need to understand social pathways of disease transmission and barriers to care. Social scientists, anthropologists in particular, have been recognised as important players in disease outbreak response because of their ability to assess social, economic and political factors in local contexts. However, in emergency public health response, as with any interdisciplinary setting, different professions may disagree over methods, ethics and the nature of evidence itself...
2018: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566554/challenges-and-impossibilities-of-standing-alongside-in-an-intolerable-context-learning-from-refugees-and-volunteers-in-the-calais-camp
#18
Charlotte Burck, Gillian Hughes
This article describes the experience of setting up a psychosocial and therapeutic support project in the French Calais refugee camp, by a group of family therapists and clinical psychologists from the United Kingdom. This came about in response to reports of a humanitarian crisis unfolding on our doorstep, with the British government's lack of support for the growing numbers of refugees gathering along the UK border with France. The project involved working alongside other agencies in the camp to provide psychosocial and resilience-based therapeutic support to unaccompanied young people, women, children and their families and also to many volunteers in the camp...
April 2018: Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559650/the-evolution-of-covert-signaling
#19
Paul E Smaldino, Thomas J Flamson, Richard McElreath
Human sociality depends upon the benefits of mutual aid and extensive communication. However, diverse norms and preferences complicate mutual aid, and ambiguity in meaning hinders communication. Here we demonstrate that these two problems can work together to enhance cooperation through the strategic use of deliberately ambiguous signals: covert signaling. Covert signaling is the transmission of information that is accurately received by its intended audience but obscured when perceived by others. Such signals may allow coordination and enhanced cooperation while also avoiding the alienation or hostile reactions of individuals with different preferences...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553455/teaching-in-conflict-contexts-dimensions-of-subjective-wellbeing-in-palestinian-teachers-living-in-israel-and-the-occupied-palestinian-territory
#20
Alessandro Pepe, Loredana Addimando, Jamal Dagdouke, Shaher Yagi, Guido Veronese
BACKGROUND: Subjective wellbeing can be defined in terms of good mental state, including positive and negative evaluations that people make of their affect and lives. The aim of this study was to identify specific domains of wellbeing that are salient to Palestinian teachers living in three different contexts (West Bank, Gaza Strip, and Israel) and to map how components of subjective wellbeing vary between the three cohorts. METHODS: Data were gathered from interviews of teachers participating in 16 focus groups and from 36 key informants (including psychologists, counsellors, school principals, lawyers)...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
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