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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216996/busman-s-stomach-and-the-embodiment-of-modernity
#1
Rhodri Hayward
This paper examines the relationship between the gastric illness, 'busman's stomach' and the Coronation bus strike of May 1937 in which 27,000 London busworkers walked out for better working conditions and a seven-and-half-hour day. It explores the way in which new patterns of somatisation, gastroenterological techniques, psychological theories and competing understandings of time worked together to create new political institutions and new forms of political action in inter-war Britain.
January 2, 2017: Contemporary British History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174553/intergroup-biases-in-fear-induced-aggression
#2
Nobuhiro Mifune, Dora Simunovic, Toshio Yamagishi
Using a recently created preemptive strike game (PSG) with 176 participants, we investigated if the motivations of spite and/or fear promotes aggression that requires a small cost to the aggressor and imposes a larger cost on the opponent, and confirmed the earlier finding that fear does but spite does not promote intergroup aggression when the groups are characterized as minimal groups; additionally, the rate of intergroup aggression did not vary according to the group membership of the opponent. The PSG represents a situation in which both the motivations of spite and of fear can logically drive players to choose an option of aggression against an opponent...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155112/neuroscience-and-psychological-studies-sustain-the-cognitive-benefits-of-print-reading
#3
EDITORIAL
Bernard Perbal
On behalf of the Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling Editorial board it is my great pleasure to present through this message of peace and love our warmest wishes of health, happiness and professional success. We sincerely hope that 2017 will be a peaceful year worldwide and that solutions will be brought to resolve the great tensions that crystalized last year into terrible acts of violence which reflected the inability of the political powers to bring satisfactory solutions to human dispair and fear...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152629/substance-history-and-politics
#4
REVIEW
Candace J Black, Aurelio José Figueredo, W Jake Jacobs
The aim of this article is to examine the relations between two approaches to the measurement of life history (LH) strategies: A traditional approach, termed here the biodemographic approach, measures developmental characteristics like birthweight, gestation length, interbirth intervals, pubertal timing, and sexual debut, and a psychological approach measures a suite of cognitive and behavioral traits such as altruism, sociosexual orientation, personality, mutualism, familial relationships, and religiosity...
January 2017: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150995/managing-employee-stress-and-wellness-in-the-new-millennium
#5
Katherine M Richardson
It has been almost a decade since Journal of Occupational Health Psychology published back-to-back meta-analyses on occupational stress management interventions (Richardson & Rothstein, 2008) and organizational wellness programs (Parks & Steelman, 2008). These studies cited the need for systematic reviews given the growing body of literature in the field and the proliferation of stress management interventions and mental health wellness programs, which have traditionally been viewed as two distinct initiatives...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Occupational Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149323/the-european-network-on-psychosomatic-medicine-enpm-history-and-future-directions
#6
REVIEW
Hans-Christian Deter, Kristina Orth-Gomér, Bohdan Wasilewski, Ramiro Verissimo
BACKGROUND: Within national and international societies of psychosomatic medicine the idea has emerged of bringing together and coordinating psychosomatic, behavioural, psychological and medical actions with common interests throughout Europe as a way to increase their scientific and political influence. METHODS: It was felt that there was a strong need and opportunity of a common and unifying forum for scientific exchange. RESULTS: It was considered desirable to exchange scientific thoughts and experiences in an open minded and boundless way, among individuals and societies, between disciplines and across borders...
2017: BioPsychoSocial Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144960/using-the-sirde-model-of-social-change-to-examine-the-vote-of-scottish-teenagers-in-the-2014-independence-referendum
#7
Peter R Grant, Mark Bennett, Dominic Abrams
Five hundred and seventy-three Scottish high school students were surveyed in the 2 months following the 2014 referendum on Scotland's independence. We used the Social Identity, Relative Deprivation, collective Efficacy (SIRDE) model of social change to examine the social psychological factors that should have influenced the voting choices of these teenagers. Structural equation modelling indicated that the SIRDE model fit the data and largely supported four sets of hypotheses derived from the model. Specifically, (1) those with a stronger Scottish identity, (2) those who felt frustrated and angry that Scottish people are discriminated against in British society, and (3) those who believed that Scottish people are not able to improve their relatively poor social conditions within the United Kingdom (a lack of collective efficacy) were more likely to hold separatist beliefs...
February 1, 2017: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134548/public-perception-and-communication-of-scientific-uncertainty
#8
Stephen B Broomell, Patrick Bodilly Kane
Understanding how the public perceives uncertainty in scientific research is fundamental for effective communication about research and its inevitable uncertainty. Previous work found that scientific evidence differentially influenced beliefs from individuals with different political ideologies. Evidence that threatens an individual's political ideology is perceived as more uncertain than nonthreatening evidence. The authors present 3 studies examining perceptions of scientific uncertainty more broadly by including sciences that are not politically polarizing...
February 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126114/the-new-income-inequality-and-well-being-paradigm-inequality-has-no-effect-on-happiness-in-rich-nations-and-normal-times-varied-effects-in-extraordinary-circumstances-increases-happiness-in-poor-nations-and-interacts-with-individuals-perceptions-attitudes-politics
#9
Jonathan Kelley, M D R Evans
Based on earlier, mainly aggregate analyses, conventional wisdom previously held that income inequality reduces happiness. But aggregate models consistently yield misleading results in this domain, substantially because of intractable problems of sample size, confounding omitted variables, and conditional effects differing between poor developing nations, rich advanced nations, and nations in transition from Communism. Based on more recent evidence, scholarly views are beginning to merge on a consensus that national income inequality is irrelevant to individuals' subjective well-being in advanced nations and normal times, as shown by multi-level models with appropriate controls (including socioeconomic development, an engine of happiness and foe of inequality)...
February 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108495/neural-representations-of-belief-concepts-a-representational-similarity-approach-to-social-semantics
#10
Anna Leshinskaya, Juan Manuel Contreras, Alfonso Caramazza, Jason P Mitchell
The present experiment identified neural regions that represent a class of concepts that are independent of perceptual or sensory attributes. During functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning, participants viewed names of social groups (e.g. Atheists, Evangelicals, and Economists) and performed a one-back similarity judgment according to 1 of 2 dimensions of belief attributes: political orientation (Liberal to Conservative) or spiritualism (Spiritualist to Materialist). By generalizing across a wide variety of social groups that possess these beliefs, these attribute concepts did not coincide with any specific sensory quality, allowing us to target conceptual, rather than perceptual, representations...
January 19, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093762/floating-worlds-and-their-phantoms-in-the-aftermath-of-social-catastrophes
#11
Samuel Kimbles
In this paper the author describes certain kinds of images (phantoms) that appear in the aftermath of social catastrophes. These phantoms come with an underlying narrative structure, which the author describes as phantom narratives. Phantom narratives show how the unconscious, working at the group and individual levels, provides political and social contexts within which the individual may find a different kind of containment for these catastrophes. In this way their suffering may be potentially processed psychologically and related to symbolically...
February 2017: Journal of Analytical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093759/supervising-away-from-home-clinical-cultural-and-professional-challenges
#12
Henry Abramovitch, Jan Wiener
This paper explores some challenges of supervising clinical work of trainees, known as 'routers', who live in countries with diverse cultural, social and political traditions, and the analysts who travel to supervise them. It is written as an evolving dialogue between the authors, who explore together the effects of their own culture of origin, and in particular the legacy and values of their own training institutes on the styles and models of analytic supervision. Their dialogue is framed around the meaning of home and experiences of homesickness for analysts working away from home in an interactive field of strangeness in countries where analytical psychology is a relatively new discipline...
February 2017: Journal of Analytical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092708/-applying-ethics-placating-ethics-or-applying-ourselves-to-ethics-a-critical-view-of-environmental-ethics-as-applied-ethics
#13
Alejandro Serani Merlo
There is actually a pervasive tendency to consider environmental ethics and bioethics as specific cases pertaining to a supposed kind of ″applied ethics″. Application can be understood in two different meanings: a concrete sense, as in technical applications, and a psychological meaning, as when we mentally apply ourselves to a task. Ethics has been always thought as a practical knowledge, in a ″praxical″ sense and not in a ″poietic″ one. Ethics has to do with ″ends″ not with ″means″; in this sense ethics is ″useless″...
September 2016: Cuadernos de Bioética: Revista Oficial de la Asociación Española de Bioética y Ética Médica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080126/know-thy-enemy-education-about-terrorism-improves-social-attitudes-toward-terrorists
#14
Jordan Theriault, Peter Krause, Liane Young
Hatred of terrorists is an obstacle to the implementation of effective counterterrorism policies-it invites indiscriminate retaliation, whereas many of the greatest successes in counterterrorism have come from understanding terrorists' personal and political motivations. Drawing from psychological research, traditional prejudice reduction strategies are generally not well suited to the task of reducing hatred of terrorists. Instead, in 2 studies, we explored education's potential ability to reduce extreme negative attitudes toward terrorists...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058095/understanding-the-terrorist-mind
#15
Emile Bruneau
While early research focused on the political roots of terrorism, many of today's investigators are probing the psychological factors that drive adherents to commit their deadly deeds. Are terrorists mentally ill or do they rationally weigh the costs and benefits of their actions and conclude that terrorism is profitable? Our author traces recent advances in using imaging and experimental research to determine what motivates monstrous acts.
November 2016: Cerebrum: the Dana Forum on Brain Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044978/-nudges-relevance-limitations-and-ethical-issues-specifically-in-health-policy
#16
Caroline Huyard
The concept of "nudge" has recently spread accross the field of research that addresses the issue of health behaviours change. According to Thaler and Sunstein (2008) a nudge is "any aspect of the choice architecture that alters people's behavior in a predictable way without forbidding any options or significantly changing their economic incentives". Similar concepts, such as persuasive technology or manipulation, have been studied for decades in the fields of design, psychology or communication. The novelty of the concept of "nudge"' lies in its particular political purpose, namely libertarian paternalism...
December 2016: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043019/immigration-policies-and-mental-health-morbidity-among-latinos-a-state-level-analysis
#17
Mark L Hatzenbuehler, Seth J Prins, Morgan Flake, Morgan Philbin, M Somjen Frazer, Daniel Hagen, Jennifer Hirsch
RATIONALE: Despite abundant state-level policy activity in the U.S. related to immigration, no research has examined the mental health impact of the overall policy climate for Latinos, taking into account both inclusionary and exclusionary legislation. OBJECTIVE: To examine associations between the state-level policy climate related to immigration and mental health outcomes among Latinos. METHODS: We created a multi-sectoral policy climate index that included 14 policies in four domains (immigration, race/ethnicity, language, and agricultural worker protections)...
February 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027545/social-and-psychological-state-of-the-chornobyl-clean-up-workers-risk-factors-for-negative-changes
#18
V O Buzunov, K N Loganovsky, L I Krasnikova, M O Bomko, Yu M Belyaev, Zh S Yaroshenko, T Ye Domashevska
: It is generally recognized that the Chornobyl nuclear accident caused strong psychosocial stress affecting the entire population of Ukraine, primarily people involved in recovery operations. But what are the reasons? What is the struc ture of stressors? What are their social, medical and biological consequences, what are strategy and preventive meas ures? Issues that require special research and development. OBJECTIVE: To study social and psychological state of the Chornobyl cleanup workers 1986-1987, and to determine regularities of changes and dangerous risk factors...
December 2016: Problemy Radiat︠s︡iĭnoï Medyt︠s︡yny Ta Radiobiolohiï
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018119/demystifying-the-victimized-state-a-civil-military-crisis-in-waiting
#19
Ross McGarry
The purpose of this article is to illustrate prescient issues relating to current and ex-military communities in the United Kingdom who have featured heavily within the policy arena over the past decade in relation to several key areas of importance. It will be illustrated how this population becomes visible within the public imagination (via military losses), how discourses relating to the harms they experience are structured and articulated within political and policy domains (particularly in relation to mental health) via "state talk" (qua Sim), and what the potential social consequences are for politically rendering an unproblematized populist view of current and ex-military communities (i...
January 2017: Illness, Crises, and Loss
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002457/terrorism-radicalisation-extremism-authoritarianism-and-fundamentalism-a-systematic-review-of-the-quality-and-psychometric-properties-of-assessments
#20
Akimi Scarcella, Ruairi Page, Vivek Furtado
BACKGROUND: Currently, terrorism and suicide bombing are global psychosocial processes that attracts a growing number of psychological and psychiatric contributions to enhance practical counter-terrorism measures. The present study is a systematic review that explores the methodological quality reporting and the psychometric soundness of the instruments developed to identify risk factors of terrorism, extremism, radicalisation, authoritarianism and fundamentalism. METHOD: A systematic search strategy was established to identify instruments and studies developed to screen individuals at risk of committing extremist or terrorist offences using 20 different databases across the fields of law, medicine, psychology, sociology and politics...
2016: PloS One
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