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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903692/authoritarianism-institutional-confidence-and-willingness-to-engage-in-collective-action-a-multinational-analysis
#1
Elliot Weiner, Christopher M Federico
The antecedents of collective action have received considerable attention in psychology, political science, and sociology. However, few studies have addressed the extent to which individual differences in psychological needs, motives, and traits predict collective action tendencies. In the present study, we focus on an especially important individual difference: authoritarianism. We examined three key hypotheses: (1) that authoritarianism would be associated with lower willingness to engage in collective action (net of other factors known to predict protest), (2) that the negative relationship between authoritarianism and collective action would be stronger among the politically engaged; and (3) that the negative relationship between authoritarianism and collective action would be weaker among those who lacked confidence in major social institutions...
March 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893298/learning-from-returnee-ethiopian-migrant-domestic-workers-a-qualitative-assessment-to-reduce-the-risk-of-human-trafficking
#2
Joanna Busza, Sehin Teferra, Serawit Omer, Cathy Zimmerman
BACKGROUND: International migration has become a global political priority, with growing concern about the scale of human trafficking, hazardous work conditions, and resulting psychological and physical morbidity among migrants. Ethiopia remains a significant "source" country for female domestic workers to the Middle East and Gulf States, despite widespread reports of exploitation and abuse. Prior to introduction of a "safe migration" intervention, we conducted formative research to elicit lessons learned by women who had worked as domestic workers abroad...
September 11, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882257/safety-climate-and-firefighting-focus-group-results
#3
David M DeJoy, Todd D Smith, Mari-Amanda Dyal
BACKGROUND: Firefighting is a hazardous occupation and there have been numerous calls for fundamental changes in how fire service organizations approach safety and balance safety with other operational priorities. These calls, however, have yielded little systematic research. METHODS: As part of a larger project to develop and test a model of safety climate for the fire service, focus groups were used to identify potentially important dimensions of safety climate pertinent to firefighting...
September 2017: Journal of Safety Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878705/children-affected-by-war-and-armed-conflict-parental-protective-factors-and-resistance-to-mental-health-symptoms
#4
Michelle Slone, Anat Shoshani
This study examined the role of parenting styles and parental warmth in moderating relations between exposure to political life events and mental health symptoms among 277 Israeli adolescents aged 12-14 and their parents, who had been exposed to protracted periods of war, missile bombardments, and terrorism. Adolescents completed the Political Life Events (PLE) scale, Brief Symptom Inventory and questionnaires regarding parenting style and parental warmth. The primary caregiver completed the Child Behavior Checklist for assessment of the child's internalizing and externalizing symptoms...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876630/is-waiting-the-hardest-part-a-critical-study-of-the-experience-of-women-awaiting-breast-biopsy-results
#5
T Hodgkinson, C Govender, S Rayne
BACKGROUND: Most previous research efforts have focused on the psychological effects of receiving a cancer diagnosis rather than the period of waiting for definitive Results. Early detection of cancer is directly linked to successful treatment regimes, yet these procedures evoke significant anxiety in patients. The long wait for medical test Results in state health institutions, with one of the possible outcomes being a cancer diagnosis, means that the days of waiting can induce emotional distress before the diagnosis has even been given...
June 2017: South African Journal of Surgery. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872332/the-road-to-extremism-field-and-experimental-evidence-that-significance-loss-induced-need-for-closure-fosters-radicalization
#6
David Webber, Maxim Babush, Noa Schori-Eyal, Anna Vazeou-Nieuwenhuis, Malkanthi Hettiarachchi, Jocelyn J Bélanger, Manuel Moyano, Humberto M Trujillo, Rohan Gunaratna, Arie W Kruglanski, Michele J Gelfand
The present studies examined the hypothesis that loss of personal significance fuels extremism via the need for cognitive closure. Situations of significance loss-those that make one feel ashamed, humiliated, or demeaned-are inconsistent with the desire for a positive self-image, and instill a sense of uncertainty about the self. Consequently, individuals become motivated to seek certainty and closure that affords the restoration of personal significance. Extremist ideologies should thus increase in appeal, because they promise clear-cut strategies for such restoration...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870159/obstetric-professionals-perceptions-of-non-invasive-prenatal-testing-for-down-syndrome-clinical-usefulness-compared-with-existing-tests-and-ethical-implications
#7
Olivia Miu Yung Ngan, Huso Yi, Samuel Yeung Shan Wong, Daljit Sahota, Shenaz Ahmed
BACKGROUND: While non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for fetal aneuploidy is commercially available in many countries, little is known about how obstetric professionals in non-Western populations perceive the clinical usefulness of NIPT in comparison with existing first-trimester combined screening (FTS) for Down syndrome (DS) or invasive prenatal diagnosis (IPD), or perceptions of their ethical concerns arising from the use of NIPT. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey among 327 obstetric professionals (237 midwives, 90 obstetricians) in Hong Kong...
September 5, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861751/bias-and-ignorance-in-demographic-perception
#8
REVIEW
D Landy, B Guay, T Marghetis
When it comes to knowledge of demographic facts, misinformation appears to be the norm. Americans massively overestimate the proportions of their fellow citizens who are immigrants, Muslim, LGBTQ, and Latino, but underestimate those who are White or Christian. Previous explanations of these estimation errors have invoked topic-specific mechanisms such as xenophobia or media bias. We reconsidered this pattern of errors in the light of more than 30 years of research on the psychological processes involved in proportion estimation and decision-making under uncertainty...
August 31, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843724/working-class-conservatism-a-system-justification-perspective
#9
REVIEW
John T Jost
Working class conservatism is a perennial issue in social science, but researchers have struggled to provide an adequate characterization. In social psychology, the question has too often been framed in 'either/or' terms of whether the disadvantaged are more or less likely to support the status quo than the advantaged. This is a crude rendering of the issue obscuring the fact that even if most working class voters are not conservative, millions are-and conservatives could not win elections without their support...
August 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836103/melancholy-acculturation-and-relief-a-brief-essay-on-the-religion-of-ordinarity
#10
Hyon-Uk Shin
Han is not an idiosyncratic, psychological experience that is peculiar to Koreans, but a multifaceted mode of melancholy experienced by many and various people. What makes this psychological experience particularly familiar to Koreans, however, is that this phenomenon is colored by various, macroscopic factors common in the Korean context, such as sociocultural rigidness, historical instability, political feudality, and economic vulnerability. In this sense, han is an acculturated, multifaceted melancholy. Not only that, it has developed its own religiousness, the goal of which is the restoration of ordinarity, because the state of han premises extraordinary, abnormal, or tension-provoking situations...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831841/ethics-and-issues-of-secondary-prevention-efforts-in-child-sexual-abuse
#11
Kieran F McCartan, Hannah L Merdian, Derek E Perkins, Danielle Kettleborough
This article discusses the ethical, practical, and moral issues surrounding secondary prevention efforts of child sexual abuse from a professional and practice-based perspective. Transcripts of a semistructured consultation event with n = 15 international experts on the secondary prevention of child sexual abuse were analysed using thematic qualitative analysis. The research identified four main critical areas linked to secondary prevention efforts, including, the psychology of self-reporting and disclosure; the interaction with and within existing legal, social, and professional frameworks; the scale and type of an appropriate response; and potential hurdles (i...
August 1, 2017: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820659/politics-doctors-assisted-reproductive-technologies-religion-transgenerational-understandings-and-experiences-of-single-motherhood-in-spain
#12
Ana Bravo-Moreno
The aim is to achieve a transgenerational view of single motherhood in Spain, to look at which contexts it arises in, how it changes with the introduction of assisted reproduction, and how the role of religion in Spanish society permeates medical practice and affects the lives of women patients. I examine single motherhood and investigate two interconnected themes: a) being a mother and being mothered are both permeated with socio-cultural, political, religious, economic and psychological significance; b) Spain led Europe in multiple births due to assisted reproduction, thus ethical conflicts and patient rights are analysed...
August 18, 2017: Health Care for Women International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803368/political-affiliation-spirituality-and-religiosity-links-to-emerging-adults-life-satisfaction-and-optimism
#13
Cansu Berivan Ozmen, Gina M Brelsford, Caili R Danieu
The goal of this study was to extend the existing literature regarding the intersection between belief systems shaping psychological processes and subjective well-being among emerging adults. A nationwide sample of 3966 college students reported on their political affiliation, spirituality, and religiosity in relation to their subjective well-being. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that politically conservative participants were significantly more optimistic and satisfied with life than their liberal counterparts and Republican emerging adults reported significantly higher life satisfaction than Democrats...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795823/correction-to-sun-and-chen-2017
#14
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Is Political Behavior a Viable Coping Strategy to Perceived Organizational Politics? Unveiling the Underlying Resource Dynamics" by Shuhua Sun and Huaizhong Chen (Journal of Applied Psychology, Advanced Online Publication, May 22, 2017, np). Table 1 contained a formatting error. Correlation coefficient values in the last four cells of column 6 were misplaced with correlation coefficient values in the last four cells of column 7. All versions of this article have been corrected. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2017-22542-001...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790040/two-tales-of-cardiovascular-risks-middle-aged-women-living-in-sweden-and-scotland-a-cross-sectional-comparative-study
#15
Carina Wennerholm, Catherine Bromley, AnnaKarin Johansson, Staffan Nilsson, John Frank, Tomas Faresjö
OBJECTIVES: To compare cardiovascular risk factors as well as rates of cardiovascular diseases in middle-aged women from urban areas in Scotland and Sweden. DESIGN: Comparative cross-sectional study. SETTING: Data from the general population in urban areas of Scotland and the general population in two major Swedish cities in southeast Sweden, south of Stockholm. PARTICIPANTS: Comparable data of middle-aged women (40-65 years) from the Scottish Health Survey (n=6250) and the Swedish QWIN study (n=741) were merged together into a new dataset (n=6991 participants)...
August 7, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782970/review-of-cold-war-freud-psychiatry-in-communist-europe-and-psiquiatr%C3%A3-a-psico%C3%A3-nalisis-y-cultura-comunista-batallas-ideol%C3%A3-gicas-en-la-guerra-fria-psychiatry-psychoanalysis-and-communist-culture-ideological-battles-in-the-cold-war
#16
Marco Innamorati
Reviews the books, Cold War Freud by D. Herzog (2016), Psychiatry in Communist Europe edited by M. Savelli and S. Marks (2015), and Psiquiatría, Psicoánalisis y Cultura Comunista: Batallas Ideológicas en la Guerra Fria [Psychiatry, psychoanalysis and communist culture: Ideological battles in the Cold War] by H. Vezzetti. On the whole, the three books show how the Cold War influenced, in various ways, psychiatric and psychotherapeutic cultures. Beyond the Iron Curtain, as one can perceive from the book edited by Savelli and Marks (2015), politics explicitly set the agenda for the psychological sciences, using them even to invent ad hoc nosologies, useful for purposes related to power...
August 2017: History of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746007/learning-and-doing-working-with-fromm-and-applying-what-i-learned
#17
Michael Maccoby
From 1960 to 1970 Erich Fromm was my teacher, analyst, and colleague. For the next ten years, we regularly corresponded about our work and views of public policy. As my analyst, Fromm had strengths and weaknesses. He influenced my research and practice on leadership and on transforming organizations to further both productivity and human development. His concepts can help us understand the current global political and cultural crisis that, while rooted in profound historic social, economic, and technological change, calls for depth psychological insights...
August 2017: Psychoanalytic Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743067/-we-must-cooperate-with-one-another-against-the-enemy-agency-and-activism-in-school-aged-children-as-protective-factors-against-ongoing-war-trauma-and-political-violence-in-the-gaza-strip
#18
Guido Veronese, Alessandro Pepe, Alaa Jaradah, Feda Murannak, Housam Hamdouna
This exploratory qualitative study investigated self-perceived risk and protection factors that may reinforce the ability of children living in refugee camps on the Gaza Strip to adjust to a traumatic and risky life context characterized by loss and dispossession. The sample comprised 200 Palestinian children recruited at primary schools in four refugee camps in the Gaza Strip following the Israeli military operation "Pillar of Defence" in 2012. Thematic content analysis was applied to written materials and narratives produced by the children...
July 22, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730890/the-biopsychosocial-model-of-illness-a-model-whose-time-has-come
#19
Derick T Wade, Peter W Halligan
The biopsychosocial model outlined in Engel's classic Science paper four decades ago emerged from dissatisfaction with the biomedical model of illness, which remains the dominant healthcare model. Engel's call to arms for a biopsychosocial model has been taken up in several healthcare fields, but it has not been accepted in the more economically dominant and politically powerful acute medical and surgical domains. It is widely used in research into complex healthcare interventions, it is the basis of the World Health Organisation's International Classification of Functioning (WHO ICF), it is used clinically, and it is used to structure clinical guidelines...
August 2017: Clinical Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728584/professionals-perception-of-intimate-partner-violence-in-young-people-a-qualitative-study-in-northern-spain
#20
Amaia Maquibar, Carmen Vives-Cases, Anna-Karin Hurtig, Isabel Goicolea
BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a public health problem with devastating effects on young women's health. These negative effects increase when the exposure to IPV lasts for a long time and exposure at an early age increases the risk of adult IPV. Despite efforts made in the last few decades, data show little progress has been made towards its reduction. Thus, the aim of the study reported here is to explore professionals' perceptions regarding intimate partner violence (IPV) among young people, focusing on the characteristics of the phenomenon and their perceptions about existing programmes and campaigns aimed at addressing it...
July 20, 2017: Reproductive Health
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