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political psychology

Paul E Smaldino, Thomas J Flamson, Richard McElreath
Human sociality depends upon the benefits of mutual aid and extensive communication. However, diverse norms and preferences complicate mutual aid, and ambiguity in meaning hinders communication. Here we demonstrate that these two problems can work together to enhance cooperation through the strategic use of deliberately ambiguous signals: covert signaling. Covert signaling is the transmission of information that is accurately received by its intended audience but obscured when perceived by others. Such signals may allow coordination and enhanced cooperation while also avoiding the alienation or hostile reactions of individuals with different preferences...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Alessandro Pepe, Loredana Addimando, Jamal Dagdouke, Shaher Yagi, Guido Veronese
BACKGROUND: Subjective wellbeing can be defined in terms of good mental state, including positive and negative evaluations that people make of their affect and lives. The aim of this study was to identify specific domains of wellbeing that are salient to Palestinian teachers living in three different contexts (West Bank, Gaza Strip, and Israel) and to map how components of subjective wellbeing vary between the three cohorts. METHODS: Data were gathered from interviews of teachers participating in 16 focus groups and from 36 key informants (including psychologists, counsellors, school principals, lawyers)...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Marwan Diab, Yasser Abu Jamei, Ashraf Kagee, Guido Veronese
BACKGROUND: In the context of violations of human rights and insecurity, the Gaza Community Mental Health Programme (GCMHP) provides mental health services and psychosocial interventions that match local cultural and social norms. The GCMHP uses a community mental health approach to promote the psychological wellbeing of the people living in the Gaza Strip and advocate on mental health issues. METHODS: The GCMHP provides preventive and therapeutic care to a broad public health spectrum of Gazan society...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Hendia Abu Nabaa', Nisreen Shelleh
BACKGROUND: The mammogram is considered a life-saving breast cancer screening procedure for women aged 40 years and older, yet uptake of mammography services by Palestinian women is very low. Breast cancer is the most common cancer, comprising 17% of all reported cancer cases, and the second leading cause of death in women in the occupied Palestinian territory. The aim of this study was to understand the barriers to mammography uptake through an exploratory qualitative study in Ramallah and Salfeet...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Abeer A Nasir, Razan Salah, Abla Sayyed Ahmad, Samah Abu Hijleh, Sa'eed Abu Kattab, Alia Al Kurd, Rawan Al Sharif, Raed Amro, Ahmad Khatib, Hana' Mousa, Walaa Shamasnah, Khammisa Shqerat, Rita Giacaman
BACKGROUND: Hamm is an Arabic word that is used to express suffering. Idioms of distress are communicated differently in different contexts and cultures. Understanding idioms of distress and symptoms can help in diagnosis and lead to socioculturally sensitive health care. METHODS: In this qualitative study, we did semi-structured interviews with men and women of all age groups. Questions focused on the definition, causes, and consequences of Hamm. Responses were analysed by reading and re-reading interview transcripts until themes and subthemes emerged...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Jean M Birbilis
Psychologists' work is always impacted by political events. Donald Trump's election raised many questions regarding my work with clients and students. How would they be impacted? What would they need? How would I respond? How transparent would I be? Students needed to process it. Most clients wanted to talk about it. However, reactions and needs of those who wanted to talk about it varied, and a few did not want to talk about it at all. Nevertheless, the election has been a royal road to the therapeutic alliance and interventions with clients, and it has been a path to deeper learning for students...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychology
Zygfryd Witkiewicz, Slawomir Neffe, Ewa Sliwka, Javier Quagliano
Recent advances in analysis of precursors, simulants and degradation products of chemical warfare agents (CWA) are reviewed. Fast and reliable analysis of precursors, simulants and CWA degradation products is extremely important at a time, when more and more terrorist groups and radical non-state organizations use or plan to use chemical weapons to achieve their own psychological, political and military goals. The review covers the open source literature analysis after the time, when the chemical weapons convention had come into force (1997)...
March 13, 2018: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
Danny Taggart
This brief commentary discusses a recent paper by Speed and Mannion that explores "The Rise of post truth populism in liberal democracies: challenges for health policy." It considers their assertion that through meaningful democratic engagement in health policy, some of the risks brought about by an exclusionary populist politics can be mediated. With an overview of what participation means in modern healthcare policy and implementation, the field of community psychology is presented as one way to engage marginalized groups at risk of exploitation or exclusion by nativist populist policy...
June 25, 2017: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
Marco Tullio Liuzza, Torun Lindholm, Caitlin B Hawley, Marie Gustafsson Sendén, Ingrid Ekström, Mats J Olsson, Jonas K Olofsson
Authoritarianism has resurfaced as a research topic in political psychology, as it appears relevant to explain current political trends. Authoritarian attitudes have been consistently linked to feelings of disgust, an emotion that is thought to have evolved to protect the organism from contamination. We hypothesized that body odour disgust sensitivity (BODS) might be associated with authoritarianism, as chemo-signalling is a primitive system for regulating interpersonal contact and disease avoidance, which are key features also in authoritarianism...
February 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Pat Dudgeon, Christopher Holland
OBJECTIVES: Suicide is an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (hereafter 'Indigenous') population health issue. Over 2015-2016, the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Suicide Prevention Project (ATSISPEP) aimed to identify success factors in Indigenous suicide prevention. CONCLUSIONS: For non-Indigenous practitioners working with indigenous clients at risk of suicide, ATSISPEP identified important considerations to make treatment more effective. The start is acknowledging the differences in the historical, cultural, political, social and economic experiences of Indigenous peoples, and their greater exposure to trauma, psychological distress and risks to mental health...
March 1, 2018: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
Linda Urselmans, Steve Phelps
We introduce a Schelling model in which people are modelled as agents following simple behavioural rules which dictate their tolerance to others, their corresponding preference for particular locations, and in turn their movement through a geographic or social space. Our innovation over previous work is to allow agents to adapt their tolerance to others in response to their local environment, in line with contemporary theories from social psychology. We show that adaptive tolerance leads to a polarization in tolerance levels, with distinct modes at either extreme of the distribution...
2018: PloS One
Ian Lubek, Monica Ghabrial, Naomi Ennis, Sara Crann, Amanda Jenkins, Michelle Green, Joel Badali, William Salmon, Janice Moodley, Elizabeth Sulima, Jefferey Yen, Kieran O'Doherty, Paula Barata
A "standard" historiographical overview of the development of health psychology in the United States, alongside behavioral medicine, first summarizes previous disciplinary and professional histories. A "historicist" approach follows, focussing on a collective biographical summary of accumulated contributions of one cohort (1967-1971) at State University of New York at Stony Brook. Foundational developments of the two areas are highlighted, contextualized within their socio-political context, as are innovative cross-boundary collaboration on "precursor" studies from the 1960s and 1970s, before the official disciplines emerged...
March 2018: Journal of Health Psychology
Ian Lubek, Michael Murray
Academic (sub)disciplines develop in time and place when particular ideas/practices are nurtured within social, gendered, cultural, community, economic and political contexts. Different histories employ different analyses, some with external views of scientific outputs describing research and practice, and others with internal, behind-the-scenes examinations of these developments, through oral histories and personal recollections. This collection, written by historians of (social) science, or practitioners or pioneering participants, uses different historiographical methods to contextualize health-related activities within the sub-discipline of health psychology and the evolving critical and/or community approaches...
March 2018: Journal of Health Psychology
(no author information available yet)
The 29th Annual Scientific Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology was held 24—28 September 2017 in Sydney, Australia. The conference theme was "Healthy Places, Healthy People—Where Are the Connections?" The focus of this year's conference was the recognition that there are many different places (the natural environment, the built environment, and the social environment) and many different people (the young, the old, the disadvantaged, and the marginalized), and that the connections between them may be physical, psychological, social, or political...
February 1, 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
Joan McCarthy, Settimio Monteverde
In the last three decades, considerable theoretical and empirical research has been undertaken on the topic of moral distress among health professionals. Understood as a psychological and emotional response to the experience of moral wrongdoing, there is evidence to suggest that-if unaddressed-it contributes to staff demoralization, desensitization and burnout and, ultimately, to lower standards of patient safety and quality of care. However, more recently, the concept of moral distress has been subjected to important criticisms...
February 28, 2018: HEC Forum: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Hospitals' Ethical and Legal Issues
Aliya Hisam, Iqra Safoor, Nawal Khurshid, Aakash Aslam, Farhan Zaid, Ayesha Muzaffar
Objective: To find out the association of psychological stress with political activism on social networking sites (SNS) in adults. To find association of psychological stress and political activism with age, gender and occupational status. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study of 8 months (Aug 2014 to March 2015) was conducted on young adults between age group of 20-40 years of different universities of Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Closed ended standardized questionnaires (i...
November 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
Amie L Haas, Byron L Zamboanga, Melina Bersamin, Travis Hyke
The social and political climate regarding marijuana use has been changing in the US over the past decade. Research suggests that many adolescents report relatively easy access to marijuana and perceptions that recreational use involves minimal harm despite a growing body of research implicating the deleterious effects of use on cognitive and psychological development. Not surprisingly, prevalence rates have been rising in recent years, making it important to identify risk and protective factors associated with adolescent marijuana use...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Primary Prevention
Guido Veronese, Gianpiero Barola
Within a preventive framework, we outline a school-based intervention aimed at strengthening skills of survival and psychological functioning in children who have experienced war and political violence in the Gaza Strip. In accordance with a socio-ecological perspective on wellbeing and resilience, the pilot study aimed at evaluating the outcomes of a psychosocial narrative school-based intervention with a group of school-aged children in the aftermath of war. The intervention was oriented at empowering positive emotions, life satisfaction, and optimism in children as protective factors in preventing posttraumatic reactions after war...
February 1, 2018: Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry
Johnathan Caleb Peterson, Carly Jacobs, John Hibbing, Kevin Smith
Research suggests that people can accurately predict the political affiliations of others using only information extracted from the face. It is less clear from this research, however, what particular facial physiological processes or features communicate such information. Using a model of emotion developed in psychology that treats emotional expressivity as an individual-level trait, this article provides a theoretical account of why emotional expressivity may provide reliable signals of political orientation, and it tests the theory in four empirical studies...
February 14, 2018: Politics and the Life Sciences: the Journal of the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences
Peter J Collins, Ulrike Hahn, Ylva von Gerber, Erik J Olsson
Much of what we believe we know, we know through the testimony of others (Coady, 1992). While there has been long-standing evidence that people are sensitive to the characteristics of the sources of testimony, for example in the context of persuasion, researchers have only recently begun to explore the wider implications of source reliability considerations for the nature of our beliefs. Likewise, much remains to be established concerning what factors influence source reliability. In this paper, we examine, both theoretically and empirically, the implications of using message content as a cue to source reliability...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
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