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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027020/analysis-of-ca-2-response-of-osteocyte-network-by-three-dimensional-time-lapse-imaging-in-living-bone
#1
Tomoyo Tanaka, Mitsuhiro Hoshijima, Junko Sunaga, Takashi Nishida, Mana Hashimoto, Naoya Odagaki, Ryuta Osumi, Taiji Aadachi, Hiroshi Kamioka
Osteocytes form a three-dimensional (3D) cellular network within the mineralized bone matrix. The cellular network has important roles in mechanosensation and mechanotransduction related to bone homeostasis. We visualized the embedded osteocyte network in chick calvariae and observed the flow-induced Ca(2+) signaling in osteocytes using 3D time-lapse imaging. In response to the flow, intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) significantly increased in developmentally mature osteocytes in comparison with young osteocytes in the bone matrix...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025971/role-of-connexin-43-in-different-forms-of-intercellular-communication-gap-junctions-extracellular-vesicles-and-tunnelling-nanotubes
#2
REVIEW
Teresa M Ribeiro-Rodrigues, Tânia Martins-Marques, Sandrine Morel, Brenda R Kwak, Henrique Girão
Communication is important to ensure the correct and efficient flow of information, which is required to sustain active social networks. A fine-tuned communication between cells is vital to maintain the homeostasis and function of multicellular or unicellular organisms in a community environment. Although there are different levels of complexity, intercellular communication, in prokaryotes to mammalians, can occur through secreted molecules (either soluble or encapsulated in vesicles), tubular structures connecting close cells or intercellular channels that link the cytoplasm of adjacent cells...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023478/regeneration-of-glycocalyx-by-heparan-sulfate-and-sphingosine-1-phosphate-restores-inter-endothelial-communication
#3
Solomon A Mensah, Ming J Cheng, Homa Homayoni, Brian D Plouffe, Arthur J Coury, Eno E Ebong
Vasculoprotective endothelium glycocalyx (GCX) shedding plays a critical role in vascular disease. Previous work demonstrated that GCX degradation disrupts endothelial cell (EC) gap junction connexin (Cx) proteins, likely blocking interendothelial molecular transport that maintains EC and vascular tissue homeostasis to resist disease. Here, we focused on GCX regeneration and tested the hypothesis that vasculoprotective EC function can be stimulated via replacement of GCX when it is shed. We used EC with [i] intact heparan sulfate (HS), the most abundant GCX component; [ii] degraded HS; or [iii] HS that was restored after enzyme degradation, by cellular self-recovery or artificially...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022008/inflammatory-activation-of-human-cardiac-fibroblasts-leads-to-altered-calcium-signaling-decreased-connexin-43-expression-and-increased-glutamate-secretion
#4
Eva Skiöldebrand, Annika Lundqvist, Ulrika Björklund, Mikael Sandstedt, Anders Lindahl, Elisabeth Hansson, Lillemor Mattsson Hultén
Cardiac fibroblasts, which are abundant in heart tissue, are involved not only in extracellular matrix homeostasis and repair, but also in cardiac remodeling after a myocardial infarction that, in turn, can lead to loss of cardiac function and heart failure. Ca(2+) signaling is functionally important in many cell types, but the roles of fibroblast signaling and inflammation in the pathogenesis of heart disease are unclear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that inflammatory activation affects cardiac fibroblasts, both in terms of Ca(2+) signaling and their capacity for intercellular communication through the gap junction channel protein connexin 43 (Cx43)...
October 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021339/phosphorylation-regulates-connexin43-zo-1-binding-and-release-an-important-step-in-gap-junction-turnover
#5
Anastasia F Thévenin, Rachel A Margraf, Charles G Fisher, Rachael M Kells-Andrews, Matthias M Falk
To investigate whether connexin phosphorylation regulates ZO-1's known role in gap junction (GJ) function, we generated and analyzed a series of phosphomimetic and phosphorylation-dead mutants by exchanging known conserved regulatory serine (S) residues 255, 279/282, 365, 368, and 373 located in the C-terminal domain of connexin43 (Cx43) into glutamic acid (E) or alanine (A) residues. All connexin mutants were translated into stable, full-length proteins and assembled into GJs when expressed in HeLa or MDCK cells...
October 11, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019935/cardiotoxic-effects-of-short-term-doxorubicin-administration-involvement-of-connexin-43-in-calcium-impairment
#6
Michela Pecoraro, Antonio Rodríguez-Sinovas, Stefania Marzocco, Michele Ciccarelli, Guido Iaccarino, Aldo Pinto, Ada Popolo
The use of Doxorubicin (DOXO), a potent antineoplastic agent, is limited by the development of cardiotoxicity. DOXO-induced cardiotoxicity is multifactorial, although alterations in calcium homeostasis, seem to be involved. Since even the Connexin43 (Cx43) plays a pivotal role in these two phenomena, in this study we have analyzed the effects of DOXO on Cx43 expression and localization. Damage caused by anthracyclines on cardiomyocytes is immediate after each injection, in the present study we used a short-term model of DOXO-induced cardiomyopathy...
October 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987458/presence-of-cardiomyocytes-exhibiting-purkinje-type-morphology-and-prominent-connexin-45-immunoreactivity-in-the-myocardial-sleeves-of-cardiac-veins
#7
Szilvia Kugler, Nándor Nagy, Gergely Rácz, Anna-Mária Tőkés, Bence Dorogi, Ágnes Nemeskéri
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary vein (PV) myocardium is a known source of atrial fibrillation. A debated question is whether myocardial extensions into caval veins and coronary sinus (CS) have similar properties. No studies have documented specific pacemaker and/or conducting properties for the human extracardiac myocardium. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to characterize the histology and immunohistochemical features of myocardial sleeves in the wall of cardiac veins. METHODS: Sections of 32 human hearts were investigated...
October 4, 2017: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983585/complex-role-of-connexin-43-in-astrocytic-tumors-and-possible-promotion-of-glioma%C3%A2-associated-epileptic-discharge-review
#8
Hui Dong, Xing-Wang Zhou, Xiang Wang, Yuan Yang, Jie-Wen Luo, Yan-Hui Liu, Qing Mao
Connexin (Cx)43 is a multifunction protein which forms gap junction channels and hemi‑channels. It also contains abundant binding domains which possess the ability to interact with certain Cx43‑associated proteins and therefore serve a fundamental role in various physiological and pathological functions. However, the understanding of the association between cancer and Cx43 along with Cx43‑gap junctions (GJ) remains unclear. All available data illustrate that Cx43 and its associated GJ serve important functions in cancers...
September 26, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981455/a-unique-tgfb1-driven-genomic-program-links-astrocytosis-low-grade-inflammation-and-partial-demyelination-in-spinal-cord-periplaques-from-progressive-multiple-sclerosis-patients
#9
Serge Nataf, Marc Barritault, Laurent Pays
We previously reported that, in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with a progressive form of the disease, spinal cord periplaques extend distance away from plaque borders and are characterized by the co-occurrence of partial demyelination, astrocytosis and low-grade inflammation. However, transcriptomic analyses did not allow providing a comprehensive view of molecular events in astrocytes vs. oligodendrocytes. Here, we re-assessed our transcriptomic data and performed co-expression analyses to characterize astrocyte vs...
October 5, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978514/relationship-of-cx43-regulation-of-vascular-permeability-to-osteopontin-tight-junction-protein-pathway-after-sepsis-in-rats
#10
Jie Zhang, Guangming Yang, Yu Zhu, Xiaoyong Peng, Tao Li, Liangming Liu
Our previous study demonstrated that connexin (Cx)43 participates in the regulation of vascular permeability in severe sepsis. Whether OPN is involved in Cx43 regulation of vascular permeability after sepsis and the relationship with tight-junction proteins are not clear. In this study, we investigated the role of zo-1 and clauidn-5 in Cx43 regulation of vascular permeability and its relationship to OPN. The expression of zo-1 and claudin-5 were decreased in CLP rats and LPS-treated pulmonary vein VECs. Cx43 over-expressed lentivirus induced the degradation of zo-1 and claudin-5, while Cx43 RNAi lentivirus abrogate the degradation of zo-1 and cludin-5 induced by LPS...
October 4, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974518/involvement-of-connexin-43-phosphorylation-and-gap-junctional-communication-between-smooth-muscle-cells-in-vasopressin-induced-rock-dependent-vasoconstriction-after-hemorrhagic-shock
#11
Guangming Yang, Xiaoyong Peng, Yue Wu, Tao Li, Liangming Liu
We examined the roles played by gap junctions (GJs) and the GJ channel protein connexin 43 (Cx43) in arginine vasopressin (AVP)-induced vasoconstriction after hemorrhagic shock and their relationship to Rho kinase (ROCK) and protein kinase C (PKC). The results showed that AVP induced an endothelium-independent contraction in rat superior mesenteric arteries (SMAs). Blocking the GJs significantly decreased the contractile response of SMAs and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) to AVP after shock and hypoxia...
October 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969971/biomimetic-electrical-stimulation-induces-rat-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-to-differentiate-into-cardiomyocyte-like-cells-via-tgf-beta-1-in-vitro
#12
REVIEW
Xueling He, Liang Li, Min Tang, Ye Zeng, Huiming Li, Xiaoqin Yu
Electrical conductance is one of the factors of the microenvironment of cardiomyocytes, and electrical stimulation (ES) has been shown to modulate the differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) toward a cardiomyogenic fate. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) stimulates the cardiomyogenic marker expression in BMSCs. Herein, we promoted the differentiation of BMSCs into cardiomyocyte-like cells using ES to confirm if TGF-β1 mediates this event in vitro. ES increased protein levels of TGF-β1 in BMSCs, and this effect was better than that observed with 5-azacytidine (5-Aza)...
September 29, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967023/grape-pomace-reduced-reperfusion-arrhythmias-in-rats-with-a-high-fat-fructose-diet
#13
Diahann J Perdicaro, Cecilia Rodriguez Lanzi, Ariel R Fontana, Andrea Antoniolli, Patricia Piccoli, Roberto M Miatello, Emiliano R Diez, Marcela A Vazquez Prieto
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a risk factor for sudden cardiac death in humans, but animal models are needed for the study of this association. Grape pomace (GP), obtained from the winemaking process, contains phenolic compounds with potential cardioprotective effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate if a high-fat-fructose (HFF) diet facilitates the occurrence of arrhythmias during the reperfusion, and if a GP supplementation could counteract these effects. Wistar rats were fed with control (Ctrl), HFF diet and HFF plus GP (1 g kg(-1) day(-1)) for six weeks...
October 2, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962867/ginsenoside-re-prevents-angiotensin-ii-induced-gap-junction-remodeling-by-activation-of-ppar%C3%AE-in-isolated-beating-rat-atria
#14
Bo Zhang, Xun Cui, Hong-Hua Jin, Lan Hong, Xia Liu, Xiang Li, Qing-Gao Zhang, Li-Ping Liu
AIMS: Ginsenoside Re (G-Re), a major ginsenoside in ginseng, has many beneficial pharmacological effects on negative cardiac contractility, electromechanical alternans, antiarrhythmia, angiogenic regeneration and cardiac electrophysiological function. However, effects of G-Re on gap-junction remodeling are unclear. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of G-Re on angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced downregulation of connexin-40 (CX40) and -43 (CX43) in beating rat left atria...
September 26, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960405/expression-of-connexin43-cx43-in-the-human-hair-follicle-emphasis-on-the-cx43-protein-levels-in-the-bulge-and-through-the-keratinization-process
#15
A Fernandez-Flores, A Varela-Vazquez, M D Mayan, E Fonseca
INTRODUCTION: Gap junctions form communication compartments between cells. These channels assemble from connexin (Cx) subunits. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the immunoexpression of Cx43 in adult human hair follicles. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cases were retrospectively obtained from our archives. RESULTS: We identified immunoexpression of Cx43 in the matrix, the papilla, the outer root sheath, the bulge, the medulla, the cortex, the shaft, and the secretory part of the sebaceous gland...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955784/cyclic-mechanical-stretch-contributes-to-network-development-of-osteocyte-like-cells-with-morphological-change-and-autophagy-promotion-but-without-preferential-cell-alignment-in-rat
#16
Nao Inaba, Shinichiro Kuroshima, Yusuke Uto, Muneteru Sasaki, Takashi Sawase
Osteocytes play important roles in controlling bone quality as well as preferential alignment of biological apatite c-axis/collagen fibers. However, the relationship between osteocytes and mechanical stress remains unclear due to the difficulty of three-dimensional (3D) culture of osteocytes in vitro. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cyclic mechanical stretch on 3D-cultured osteocyte-like cells. Osteocyte-like cells were established using rat calvarial osteoblasts cultured in a 3D culture system...
September 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952288/expression-of-connexins-in-porcine-buccal-pouch-mucosa-cells-during-real-time-long-term-cell-proliferation-in-vitro-a-primary-culture-approach
#17
M Dyszkiewicz-Konwińska, A Bryja, K Jopek, J Budna, D Bukowska, P Antosik, M Bruska, M Nowicki, M Zabel, B Kempisty
In this study we investigated the expression of connexins Cx36, Cx37, Cx40, Cx43, and Cx45 mRNAs during real-time cellular proliferation in vitro. The oral mucosa cells were isolated from 80 pubertal crossbred Landrace gilts. The cells were transferred into primary in vitro culture (IVC) and cultured for 30 days. The cells were collected to RNA isolation after 7, 15 and 30 days of IVC and were checked for their real-time proliferative status using real-time cell analysis (RTCA). We found an increased expression of Cx43 mRNA after 30 days of IVC as compared to control (P<0...
July 2017: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948071/correlation-between-connexin-and-traumatic-brain-injury-in-patients
#18
Bonian Chen, Liwei Sun, Xiaozhe Wu, Jun Ma
BACKGROUND: Identification of molecular alterations of damaged tissue in patients with neurological disorders can provide novel insight and potential therapeutic target for treatment of the diseases. It has been suggested by animal studies that connexins (CXs), a family of gap junction proteins, could contribute to neuronal cell death and associate with neurological deficits during trauma-induced damage. Nevertheless, whether specific CXs are involved in traumatic brain injury (TBI) has remained unexplored in human patients...
September 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938400/il-1%C3%AE-inhibits-connexin-43-and-disrupts-decidualization-of-human-endometrial-stromal-cells-through-erk1-2-and-p38-map-kinase
#19
Jie Yu, Sarah L Berga, Wei Zou, D Grace Yook, Joshua C Pan, Aurora Arroyo Andrade, Lijuan Zhao, Neil Sidell, Indrani C Bagchi, Milan K Bagchi, Robert N Taylor
Inflammation can interfere with endometrial receptivity. We examined how IL-1β affects expression of the uterine gap junction protein, Cx43, which is known to be critical for embryonic implantation. We used an in vitro model of human endometrial stromal cells (ESC), Western blotting and a combination of validated, selective kinase inhibitors to evaluate five canonical IL-1β signaling pathways. Cx43 and two other markers of ESC differentiation (prolactin and VEGF) were inhibited predominantly via IL-1β-activated ERK1/2 and p38 MAP kinase cascades...
September 11, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935953/very-low-density-lipoprotein-of-metabolic-syndrome-modulates-gap-junctions-and-slows-cardiac-conduction
#20
Hsiang-Chun Lee, Chih-Chieh Chen, Wei-Chung Tsai, Hsin-Ting Lin, Yi-Lin Shiao, Sheng-Hsiung Sheu, Bin-Nan Wu, Chu-Huang Chen, Wen-Ter Lai
Very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) is a hallmark of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and each manifestation of MetS is related to atrial fibrillation (AF) risks. Slowed atrial conduction is a mechanism of AF in MetS. We hypothesized that VLDL can modulate and reduce atrial gap junctions. VLDLs were separated from normal (Normal-VLDL) and MetS (MetS-VLDL) individuals. VLDLs (15 µg/g) and equivalent volumes of saline (CTL) were injected respectively to C57BL/6 mice for 6 weeks. Electrocardiograms demonstrated that MetS-VLDL induced prolongation of P wave (P = 0...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
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