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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467255/altered-translation-initiation-of-gja1-limits-gap-junction-formation-during-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition
#1
Carissa C James, Michael J Zeitz, Patrick J Calhoun, Samy Lamouille, James W Smyth
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is activated during development, wound healing, and pathologies including fibrosis and cancer metastasis. Hallmarks of EMT are remodeling of intercellular junctions and adhesion proteins, including gap junctions. The GJA1 mRNA transcript encoding the gap junction protein connexin43 (Cx43) has been demonstrated to undergo internal translation initiation, yielding truncated isoforms that modulate gap junctions. The PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway is central to translation regulation and is activated during EMT, leading us to hypothesize that altered translation initiation would contribute to gap junction loss...
February 21, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463027/the-connexin-mimetic-peptide-gap27-and-cx43-knockdown-reveal-differential-roles-for-connexin43-in-wound-closure-events-in-skin-model-systems
#2
Chrysovalantou Faniku, Erin O'Shaughnessy, Claire Lorraine, Scott R Johnstone, Annette Graham, Sebastian Greenhough, Patricia E M Martin
In the epidermis, remodelling of Connexin43 is a key event in wound closure. However, controversy between the role of connexin channel and non-channel functions exist. We compared the impact of SiRNA targeted to Connexin43 and the connexin mimetic peptide Gap27 on scrape wound closure rates and hemichannel signalling in adult keratinocytes (AK) and fibroblasts sourced from juvenile foreskin (JFF), human neonatal fibroblasts (HNDF) and adult dermal tissue (ADF). The impact of these agents, following 24 h exposure, on GJA1 (encoding Connexin43), Ki67 and TGF-β1 gene expression, and Connexin43 and pSmad3 protein expression levels, were examined by qPCR and Western Blot respectively...
February 18, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462621/direct-posttranslational-modification-of-astrocytic-connexin-43-proteins-by-the-general-anesthetic-propofol-in-the-cerebral-cortex
#3
Mutsuo Nuriya, Daisuke Yasui, Tomoko Yamada, Takuma Aoki, Masato Yasui
Propofol is widely used as a general anesthetic and is generally considered to exert its action by regulating neuronal firing via facilitation of GABAA receptors. However, accumulating evidence suggests that propofol also acts on astrocytes, including inhibitory effects on gap junctional coupling, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, using acute cortical brain slices prepared from mice of either sex, we characterize propofol-induced molecular changes in astrocytic gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43)...
February 17, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458137/bisphenol-a-alters-oocyte-maturation-by-prematurely-closing-gap-junctions-in-the-cumulus-cell-oocyte-complex
#4
Deyanira Guadalupe Acuña-Hernández, Laura Arreola-Mendoza, Ramsés Santacruz-Márquez, Sihomara Patricia García-Zepeda, Lyda Yuliana Parra-Forero, Jesús Alberto Olivares-Reyes, Isabel Hernández-Ochoa
In ovarian follicles, cumulus cells communicate with the oocyte through gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC), to nurture the oocyte and control its meiosis arrest and division. Bisphenol A (BPA) is a monomer found in polycarbonate-made containers that can induce functional alterations, including impaired oocyte meiotic division and reduced molecule transfer in GJIC. However, how BPA alters oocyte meiotic division is unclear. We investigated whether BPA effects on oocyte meiotic division were correlated with reduced transfer in GJIC...
February 16, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457680/chronic-lead-exposure-enhances-the-sympathoexcitatory-response-associated-with-p2x4-receptor-in-rat-stellate-ganglia
#5
Gaochun Zhu, Zhenying Chen, Bo Dai, Chaoran Zheng, Huaide Jiang, Yurong Xu, Xuan Sheng, Jingjing Guo, Yu Dan, Shangdong Liang, Guilin Li
Chronic lead exposure causes peripheral sympathetic nerve stimulation, including increased blood pressure and heart rate. Purinergic receptors are involved in the sympathoexcitatory response induced by myocardial ischemia injury. However, whether P2X4 receptor participates in sympathoexcitatory response induced by chronic lead exposure and the possible mechanisms are still unknown. The aim of this study was to explore the change of the sympathoexcitatory response induced by chronic lead exposure via the P2X4 receptor in the stellate ganglion (SG)...
February 19, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456632/arrhythmogenic-cardiomyopathy-identification-of-desmosomal-gene-variations-and-desmosomal-protein-expression-in-variation-carriers
#6
Li Wang, Shenghua Liu, Hongliang Zhang, Shengshou Hu, Yingjie Wei
Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (AC) is an inherited disorder that is predominantly present in the right ventricular myocardium. Mutations in the genes encoding the desmosomal protein are thought to underlie the pathogenesis of AC. Since AC is genetically heterogeneous and phenotypically diverse, modifier genes and environmental factors have an important role in disease expression. The aim of the present study was to identify AC-associated desmosomal gene variations, and examine the expression levels of intercalated disc proteins in AC patients who carry the variations (DSG2 p...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439094/uterine-and-placental-distribution-of-selected-extracellular-matrix-ecm-components-in-the-dog
#7
Felix R Graubner, Alois Boos, Selim Aslan, Ibrahim Kücükaslan, Mariusz P Kowalewski
For many years, modifications of the uterine extracellular matrix (ECM) during gestation have not been considered as critical for successful canine (Canis lupus familiaris) pregnancy. However previous reports indicated an effect of free-floating blastocysts on the composition of the uterine ECM. Here, the expression of selected genes involved in structural functions, cell-to-cell communication and inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases were targeted utilizing qPCR and immunohistochemistry. We found that canine free-floating embryos affect gene expression of FN1, ECM1 and TIMP4...
February 9, 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435865/gene-expression-profiles-in-dental-follicles-from-patients-with-impacted-canines
#8
Pamela Uribe, Lena Larsson, Anna Westerlund, Maria Ransjö
Animal studies suggest that the dental follicle (DF) plays a major role in tooth eruption. However, the role of the DF during tooth impaction and related root resorptions in adjacent teeth is not clear. The hypothesis for the present study is that expression of regulatory factors involved in the bone remodelling process necessary for tooth eruption may differ between dental follicles from teeth with different clinical situations. We have analysed the gene expression profiles in the DF obtained from impacted canines, with (N = 3) or without (N = 5) signs of root resorption, and from control teeth (normal erupting teeth, mesiodens) (N = 3)...
February 12, 2018: Odontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434781/metoprolol-protects-cardiomyocytes-in-rabbit-model-of-heart-failure-by-regulating-cx43
#9
Hu Zhai, Wenyi Dai, Yu Wang
This study investigated the protective effect of metoprolol on cardiomyocytes in rabbits with heart failure and its possible mechanism. Sixty New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into infarction group and non-infarction group, 30 in each group. Myocardial infarction was constructed by ligation of anterior descending branch of coronary artery. Coronary artery threading without ligation after thoracotomy was performed for rabbits in non-infarction group. After model construction, rabbits in each group were further divided into control group (n=15) and metoprolol group (n=15), and fed with normal diet and normal diet + metoprolol...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434774/tanshinone-iia-and-astragaloside-iv-promote-the-angiogenesis-of-mesenchymal-stem-cell-derived-endothelial-cell-like-cells-via-upregulation-of-cx37-cx40-and-cx43
#10
Zhe Li, Sha Zhang, Liang Cao, Wei Li, Yu-Chen Ye, Zi-Xuan Shi, Zong-Ren Wang, Lian-Xu Sun, Jia-Wei Wang, Lin-Tao Jia, Wen Wang
Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA) and Astragaloside IV (AGS-IV) were used as therapeutic treatments for coronary heart diseases (CHDs) in ancient China. However, the underlying mechanisms mediating the effects of Tan IIA and AGS-IV in angiogenesis remain unknown. In the present study, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were induced to differentiate into endothelial cell (EC)-like cells in vitro and the effects of Tan IIA and/or AGS-IV on the functions of these cells, including cell proliferation and tube formation, were assessed...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395647/expression-of-connexin43-in-cerebral-arteries-of-patients-with-moyamoya-disease
#11
Jiaqi Liao, Tao Hong, Jinxian Xu, Erming Zeng, Bin Tang, Wentao Lai
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Moyamoya disease has a high incidence of cerebral vascular accident in children and adolescents, which can endanger the physical and mental health of children and adults seriously. However, the etiology and the pathogenesis of moyamoya disease remain unclear. Connexin43 (Cx43) is a predominant intercellular gap junction protein that plays an important role in the normal function of arteries and the development of several cardiovascular diseases. We aimed to preliminarily investigate pathological changes and the expression of Cx43 in cerebral arteries of patients with moyamoya disease...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393359/connexin-43-sumoylation-improves-gap-junction-functions-between-liver-cancer-stem-cells-and-enhances-their-sensitivity-to-hsvtk-gcv
#12
Yimeng Shen, Yanxia Li, Xiaofang Ma, Qiaohao Wan, Zhongmin Jiang, Yixin Liu, Dianying Zhang, Xiaozhi Liu, Wenhan Wu
Connexin 43 (Cx43) can be modified and regulated by small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO)1; however, its role in liver cancer stem cells is poorly understood. In this study, we found a significant difference in the expression of Cx43 and SUMO1 between cancer stem cells and non-cancer stem cells in liver cancer. In liver cancer stem cells, Cx43 was almost absent, although the level of SUMO1 was significantly higher than that in non-cancer stem cells. Further experiments confirmed that the conjugated site of Cx43 by SUMO1 was located in Lys-144 and Lys-237, both of which are highly conserved among species...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392082/apelin-ameliorates-high-glucose-induced-downregulation-of-connexin-43-via-ampk-dependent-pathway-in-neonatal-rat-cardiomyocytes
#13
Xiaoting Li, Lu Yu, Jing Gao, Xukun Bi, Juhong Zhang, Shiming Xu, Meihui Wang, Mengmeng Chen, Fuyu Qiu, Guosheng Fu
Diabetes Mellitus is a common disorder, with increasing risk of cardiac arrhythmias. Studies have shown that altered connexin expression and gap junction remodeling under hyperglycemia contribute to the high prevalence of cardiac arrhythmias and even sudden death. Connexin 43 (Cx43), a major protein that assembles to form cardiac gap junctions, has been found to be downregulated under high glucose conditions, along with inhibition of gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC). While, apelin, a beneficial adipokine, increases Cx43 protein expression in mouse and human embryonic stem cells during cardiac differentiation...
February 2018: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386573/circadian-coordination-of-atp-release-in-the-urothelium-via-connexin43-hemichannels
#14
Atsushi Sengiku, Masakatsu Ueda, Jin Kono, Takeshi Sano, Nobuyuki Nishikawa, Sumihiro Kunisue, Kojiro Tsujihana, Louis S Liou, Akihiro Kanematsu, Shigeki Shimba, Masao Doi, Hitoshi Okamura, Osamu Ogawa, Hiromitsu Negoro
Day-night changes in the storage capacity of the urinary bladder are indispensable for sound sleep. Connexin 43 (Cx43), a major gap junction protein, forms hemichannels as a pathway of ATP in other cell types, and the urinary bladder utilizes ATP as a mechanotransduction signals to modulate its capacity. Here, we demonstrate that the circadian clock of the urothelium regulates diurnal ATP release through Cx43 hemichannels. Cx43 was expressed in human and mouse urothelium, and clock genes oscillated in the mouse urothelium accompanied by daily cycles in the expression of Cx43 and extracellular ATP release into the bladder lumen...
January 31, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378341/nagarse-treatment-of-cardiac-subsarcolemmal-and-interfibrillar-mitochondria-leads-to-artefacts-in-mitochondrial-protein-quantification
#15
Gábor Koncsos, Zoltán V Varga, Tamás Baranyai, Péter Ferdinandy, Rainer Schulz, Zoltán Giricz, Kerstin Boengler
INTRODUCTION: In the heart, subsarcolemmal (SSM), interfibrillar (IFM) and perinuclear mitochondria represent three subtypes of mitochondria. The most commonly used protease during IFM isolation is the nagarse, however, its effect on the detection of mitochondrial proteins is still unclear. Therefore, we investigated whether nagarse treatment influences the quantification of mitochondrial proteins. METHODS: SSM and IFM were isolated from hearts of mice and rats...
January 26, 2018: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378301/connexin43-and-zonula-occludens-1-are-targets-of-akt-in-cardiomyocytes-that-correlate-with-cardiac-contractile-dysfunction-in-akt-deficient-hearts
#16
Sangmi Ock, Wang Soo Lee, Hyun Min Kim, Kyu-Sang Park, Young-Kook Kim, Hyun Kook, Woo Jin Park, Tae Jin Lee, E D Abel, Jaetaek Kim
While deletion of Akt1 results in a smaller heart size and Akt2-/- mice are mildly insulin resistant, Akt1-/-/Akt2-/- mice exhibit perinatal lethality, indicating a large degree of functional overlap between the isoforms of the serine/threonine kinase Akt. The present study aimed to determine the cooperative contribution of Akt1 and Akt2 on the structure and contractile function of adult hearts. To generate an inducible, cardiomyocyte-restricted Akt2 knockout (KO) model, Akt2flox/flox mice were crossed with tamoxifen-inducible MerCreMer transgenic (MCM) mice and germline Akt1-/- mice to generate the following genotypes:Akt1+/+; Akt2flox/flox (WT), Akt2flox/flox; α-MHC-MCM (iAkt2 KO), Akt1-/-, and Akt1-/-; Akt2flox/flox; α-MHC-MCM mice (Akt1-/-/iAkt2 KO)...
January 31, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366904/expression-and-function-of-connexin-43-protein-in-mouse-and-human-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cells-as-hemichannels-and-gap-junction-proteins
#17
Shin-Ichi Akanuma, Hideyuki Higashi, Souhei Maruyama, Koji Murakami, Masanori Tachikawa, Yoshiyuki Kubo, Ken-Ichi Hosoya
The changes in the transport function of the outer blood-retinal barrier (BRB), formed by retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, under pathological conditions need to be understood to normalize the retinal homeostasis in retinal diseases. Connexin 43 (Cx43) is known to be one of the basic units of gap junctions and hemichannels, which are opened by changes in extracellular conditions. The purpose of this study was to clarify the expression of Cx43 in RPE cells of the retina and Cx43 contribution to compound transport functions in RPE cells...
January 23, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354784/aberrant-expression-of-cx-isoforms-in-the-adult-caput-epididymis-exposed-to-estradiol-benzoate-or-flutamide-at-the-weaning
#18
Ki-Ho Lee
Connexin (Cx) involves in the regulation of various physiological functions of tissue by forming a channel, a gap junction which allows direct cell-cell communication, between adjacent cells. The effect of a single subcutaneous treatment of estradiol benzoate (EB) or flutamide (Flu) at the weaning age on the expression of Cx isoforms in the adult caput epididymis was evaluated in this research. Using quantitative real-time PCR analysis, a low-dose of EB [0.015 μg/kg body weight (BW)] caused significant decreases of Cx30...
December 2017: Balsaeng'gwa Saengsig
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340064/antitumor-activity-of-resveratrol-against-human-osteosarcoma-cells-a-key-role-of-cx43-and-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-pathway
#19
Da Xie, Gui-Zhou Zheng, Peng Xie, Qi-Hao Zhang, Fei-Xiang Lin, Bo Chang, Qin-Xiao Hu, Shi-Xin Du, Xue-Dong Li
Osteosarcoma is a high-grade bone sarcoma with strong invasive ability. However, treatment with traditional chemotherapeutic drugs is limited by low tolerability and side effects. Resveratrol has been reported previously to have selective antitumor effect on various tumor cells while little is known about its effects and underlying mechanism in osteosarcoma biology. In this study, we found that resveratrol inhibits proliferation and glycolysis, induces apoptosis and reduces the invasiveness of U2-OS cells in vitro...
December 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328946/kaempferol-alleviates-lps-induced-neuroinflammation-and-bbb-dysfunction-in-mice-via-inhibiting-hmgb1-release-and-down-regulating-tlr4-myd88-pathway
#20
Xiao Cheng, Ying-Lin Yang, Huan Yang, Yue-Hua Wang, Guan-Hua Du
Kaempferol is a natural flavonoid with many biological activities including anti-oxidation and anti-inflammation. Nevertheless, its anti-neuroinflammation role and the relevant mechanism remain unclear. The present study was to investigate effects of kaempferol against LPS-induced neuroinflammation and blood-brain barrier dysfunction as well as the mechanism in mice. BALB/c mice were treated with LPS 5mg/kg to induce inflammation after pre-treatment with kaempferol 25, 50, or 100mg/kg for 7days. The results showed that kaempferol reduced the production of various pro-inflammatory factors and inflammatory proteins including IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, MCP-1, COX-2 and iNOS in brain tissues...
January 9, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
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