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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821660/contribution-of-astroglial-cx43-hemichannels-to-the-modulation-of-glutamatergic-currents-by-d-serine-in-the-mouse-prefrontal-cortex
#1
Claire Meunier, Nan Wang, Chenju Yi, Glenn Dallerac, Pascal Ezan, Annette Koulakoff, Luc Leybaert, Christian Giaume
Astrocytes interact dynamically with neurons by modifying synaptic activity and plasticity. This interplay occurs through a process named gliotransmission, meaning that neuroactive molecules are released by astrocytes. Acting as a gliotransmitter, D-serine co-agonist of the NMDA receptor at the glycine binding site, can be released by astrocytes in a calcium [Ca(2+)]i-dependent manner. A typical feature of astrocytes is their high expression level of connexin43 (Cx43), a protein forming gap junction channels and hemichannels associated with dynamic neuroglial interactions...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817206/loureirin-b-promotes-insulin-secretion-through-inhibition-of-katp-channel-and-influx-of-intracellular-calcium
#2
Yijie Sha, Yuelin Zhang, Jing Cao, Kai Qian, Bing Niu, Qin Chen
The development of new diabetes drugs continues to be explored. Loureirin B, a flavonoid, extracted from Dracaena cochinchinensis, has been confirmed to increase insulin secretion and decrease blood glucose levels. For searching the promotion of insulin secretion with the treatment of loureirin B, experiments were employed based on cell experiments and computational methods. Firstly, promotion of insulin secretion was dependent on extracellular glucose concentration. At the genetic level, loureirin B enhanced the relative mRNA level of Pdx-1 and MafA...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810580/connexin-43-enhances-paclitaxel-cytotoxicity-in-colorectal-cancer-cell-lines
#3
Siqi Wang, Shiwu Zhang, Zhenying Zhao, Chunze Zhang, Xiaoyun Yang, Yijia Wang
Colorectal cancer has a relatively low sensitivity to paclitaxel. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of connexin 43 (Cx43), which is a structural component of gap junctional communication (GJC), in paclitaxel cytotoxicity in colorectal cancer cells. Three colorectal cancer cell lines (HCT106, HCT116 and LoVo) were transfected with Cx43 and used to examine paclitaxel cytotoxicity. A western blot assay was used to confirm Cx43 expression in transfected cell lines as well as the expression of several proteins that are associated with paclitaxel cytotoxicity...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803831/localization-of-connexin-43-gap-junctions-and-hemichannels-in-tanycytes-of-adult-mice
#4
Anett Szilvásy-Szabó, Edina Varga, Zsuzsa Beliczai, Ronald M Lechan, Csaba Fekete
Tanycytes are specialized glial cells lining the lateral walls and the floor of the third ventricle behind the optic chiasm. In addition to functioning as barrier cells, they also have an important role in the regulation of neuroendocrine axes and energy homeostasis. To determine whether tanycytes communicate with each other via Connexin 43 (Cx43) gap junctions, individual tanycytes were loaded with Lucifer yellow (LY) through a patch pipette. In all cases, LY filled a larger group of tanycytes as well as blood vessels adjacent to tanycyte processes...
August 10, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795432/subcellular-reorganization-and-altered-phosphorylation-of-the-astrocytic-gap-junction-protein-connexin43-in-human-and-experimental-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#5
Tushar Deshpande, Tingsong Li, Michel K Herde, Albert Becker, Hartmut Vatter, Martin K Schwarz, Christian Henneberger, Christian Steinhäuser, Peter Bedner
Dysfunctional astrocytes are increasingly recognized as key players in the development and progression of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). One of the dramatic changes astrocytes undergo in MTLE with hippocampal sclerosis (HS) is loss of gap junction coupling. To further elucidate molecular mechanism(s) underlying this alteration, we assessed expression, cellular localization and phosphorylation status of astrocytic gap junction proteins in human and experimental MTLE-HS. In addition to conventional confocal analysis of immunohistochemical staining we employed expansion microscopy, which allowed visualization of blood-brain-barrier (BBB) associated cellular elements at a sub-µm scale...
August 10, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794110/involvement-of-connexin43-phosphorylation-and-gap-junctional-communication-in-vasopressin-induced-rock-dependent-vasoconstriction-after-hemorrhagic-shock
#6
Guangming Yang, Xiaoyong Peng, Yue Wu, Tao Li, Liangming Liu
We examined the roles played by gap junctions (GJs) and the GJ channel protein connexin43 (Cx43) in arginine vasopressin (AVP)-induced vasoconstriction after hemorrhagic shock, and their relationship to Rho kinase (ROCK) and protein kinase C (PKC). The results showed AVP induced an endothelium-independent contraction in rat superior mesenteric arteries (SMAs). Blocking the GJs significantly decreased the contractile response of SMAs and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) to AVP after shock and hypoxia. The selective Cx43-mimetic peptide inhibited the vascular contractile effect of AVP after shock and hypoxia...
August 9, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790385/connexin-43-enhances-tumor-suppressing-activity-of-artesunate-via-gap-junction-dependent-as-well-as-independent-pathways-in-human-breast-cancer-cells
#7
Asif Raza, Archita Ghoshal, S Chockalingam, Siddhartha Sankar Ghosh
The gap junction (GJ) protein connexin-43 (Cx43) is considered as a tumour suppressor protein for its role in reversing the phenotype of the cancer cells. In this study, we exploited the antitumor property of Cx43 in conjunction with the artesunate (ART), a plant-based active anti-malarial compound. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by ART resulted in DNA damage, which in turn led to DNA damage response by activation of DNA damage repair proteins. GJ deficient MCF-7 cells transfected with Cx43 gene showed an increased sensitivity towards dose-dependent ART treatment and required a significantly lower dose of ART to attain its IC50, as compared to parental cells...
August 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780624/carbon-monoxide-releasing-molecule-2-inhibits-connexin-43-hemichannel-activity-in-spinal-cord-astrocytes-to-attenuate-neuropathic-pain
#8
Hui Wang, Xuejun Sun
Carbon monoxide-releasing molecule (CORM-2) acts as a carbon monoxide (CO) deliverer in a more controlled manner without altering carboxyhemoglobin level and exerts potential function in inhibiting inflammation and/or acute nociception. However, the regulatory mechanism of CORM-2 on spinal nerve ligation (SNL)-induced neuropathic pain is not currently clear. Our study aims to investigate the role of CORM-2 in neuropathic pain and the underlying mechanism. We found that spinal cord astrocytes were dramatically activated on day 7 after SNL...
August 6, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772035/bioelectrical-signals-improve-cardiac-function-and-modify-gene-expression-of-extracellular-matrix-components
#9
Karin Macfelda, Barbara Kapeller, Alexander Holly, Bruno K Podesser, Udo Losert, Kersten Brandes, Peter Goettel, Johannes Mueller
AIMS: Beyond the influence of stimulating devices on cardiac excitation, their use in treating patients with heart failure has positive effects on the myocardium at the molecular level. Electrical signals can induce a wide spectrum of effects in living tissue. Therefore, we sought to determine whether applying electrical microcurrent directly to failing hearts leads to functional improvement. METHODS AND RESULTS: Sixteen male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) with heart failure underwent application of a patch electrode to the left ventricular epicardium and placement of a subcutaneous counter electrode...
August 2017: ESC Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771997/epac1-pde4-and-pkc-protein-expression-and-their-correlation-with-akap95-and-cx43-in-esophagus-cancer-tissues
#10
Zhiyu Guan, Winxin Zhuang, Hui Lei, Dai Wang, Youliang Yao, Dongbei Guo, Qian Sun, Yun Chen, Xiaoyi Chen, Hongyan Lin, Bogang Teng, Yongxing Zhang
BACKGROUND: This study examined the expression of exchange protein directly activated by cAMP1 (Epac1), PDE4, and PKC in esophageal cancer tissues, and analyzed the association of each protein with the pathological parameters of the samples. METHODS: Epac1, PDE4, and PKC protein expression was evaluated by PV-9000 two-step immunohistochemical techniques in 51 esophageal cancer specimens and 10 para-carcinoma tissues. RESULTS: The positive expression rates of Epac1 and PKC in esophageal cancer tissues (62...
August 3, 2017: Thoracic Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769766/breakthrough-cancer-pain-is-associated-with-spinal-gap-junction-activation-via-regulation-of-connexin-43-in-a-mouse-model
#11
Xin Li, Siqing Jiang, Hui Yang, Qian Liao, Shousong Cao, Xuebin Yan, Dong Huang
Breakthrough cancer pain (BTcP) is a high-intensity, short-duration, unpredictable and uncontrollable pain. Recent studies have shown that activation of gap junction (GJ) in spinal cord plays an important role in the pathogenesis of BTcP. We examined the expressions of Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), connexin (Cx) 43 protein and phosphorylation of Cx43 (p-Cx43) in the spinal cord of mice. In addition, we investigated the effects of Gap26, a selective GJ blocker, on the expressions of GFAP, Cx43 and p-Cx43 in BTcP mice...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769076/connexin-43-is-required-for-the-maintenance-of-mitochondrial-integrity-in-brown-adipose-tissue
#12
Sang-Nam Kim, Hyun-Jung Kwon, Seo-Woo Im, Yeon-Ho Son, Seun Akindehin, Young-Suk Jung, Se Jeong Lee, Im Joo Rhyu, Il Yong Kim, Je-Kyoung Seong, Jinu Lee, Hee-Chan Yoo, James G Granneman, Yun-Hee Lee
We investigated the role of connexin 43 (Cx43) in maintaining the integrity of mitochondria in brown adipose tissue (BAT). The functional effects of Cx43 were evaluated using inducible, adipocyte-specific Cx43 knockout in mice (Gja1 (adipoq) KO) and by overexpression and knockdown of Cx43 in cultured adipocytes. Mitochondrial morphology was evaluated by electron microscopy and mitochondrial function and autophagy were assessed by immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry, and qPCR. The metabolic effects of adipocyte-specific knockout of Cx43 were assessed during cold stress and following high fat diet feeding...
August 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760564/junctional-delay-frequency-and-direction-dependent-uncoupling-of-human-heterotypic-cx45-cx43-gap-junction-channels
#13
Willy G Ye, Benny Yue, Hiroshi Aoyama, Nicholas K Kim, John A Cameron, Honghong Chen, Donglin Bai
Gap junction (GJ) channels form low resistance passages between cardiomyocytes and play a role in the rapid propagation of action potentials in the heart. A GJ channel is formed by two properly docked hemichannels and each hemichannel is a hexamer of connexins. Connexin40 (Cx40) and Cx43 are the dominant connexins in atrial myocytes, while Cx45 is mostly expressed in the sinoatrial (SA) and atrioventricular (AV) nodes which directly connect nodal cells with atrial myocytes, possibly via heterotypic Cx40/Cx45 and/or Cx43/Cx45 GJs...
July 29, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759642/distinctive-actions-of-connexin-46-and-connexin-50-in-anterior-pituitary-folliculostellate-cells
#14
María Leiza Vitale, Christopher J Garcia, Casimir D Akpovi, R-Marc Pelletier
Folliculostellate cell gap junctions establish a network for the transmission of information within the anterior pituitary. Connexins make up gap junction channels. Changes in connexin (Cx) turnover modify gap junction-mediated intercellular communication. We have reported that cytokines and hormones influence Cx43 turnover and coupling in folliculostellate cells and in the folliculostellate cell line TtT/GF. In addition, the expression of different connexins alters intercellular communication and connexins may have functions besides cell coupling...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755467/connexin-43-and-aquaporin-4-are-markers-of-artag-related-astroglial-response
#15
Gabor G Kovacs, Ahmed Yousef, Sabine Kaindl, Virginia M Lee, John Q Trojanowski
AIMS: Ageing-related tau astrogliopathy (ARTAG) appears in subependymal, subpial, perivascular, white matter (WM) and grey matter (GM) locations. Physical effects, blood-brain barrier dysfunction, blood- or vessel-related factors have been considered as aetiology. Since Connexin-43 (Cx43) and Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) are related to these, we hypothesized that their immunoreactivity varies with ARTAG in a location-specific manner. METHODS: We performed a morphometric immunohistochemical study measuring the densities of immunoreactivity (IR) of Cx43, AQP4, AT8 (phospho-tau), and glial fibrillar acidic protein (GFAP)...
July 29, 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755423/epac1-pde4-and-pkc-protein-expression-and-their-association-with-akap95-cx43-and-cyclind2-e1-in-breast-cancer-tissues
#16
Ping Huang, Qian Sun, Wenxin Zhuang, Kuan Peng, Dai Wang, Youliang Yao, Dongbei Guo, Lu Zhang, Chuhan Shen, Mengyun Sun, Chaoying Tang, Bogang Teng, Yongxing Zhang
BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to investigate the exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac1), PDE4, and PKC expression in breast cancer tissues, and the correlation between these proteins and AKAP95, Cx43, cyclin D2, and cyclin E1. METHODS: PV-9000 two-step immunohistochemistry was used to analyze protein expression. RESULTS: The positive rate of Epac1 protein expression in breast cancer tissues (58%) was higher than in para-carcinoma tissues (10%) (P < 0...
July 29, 2017: Thoracic Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754342/intramolecular-signaling-in-a-cardiac-connexin-role-of-cytoplasmic-domain-dimerization
#17
Andrew J Trease, Juan M V Capuccino, Jorge Contreras, Andrew L Harris, Paul L Sorgen
Gap junctions, composed of connexins, mediate electrical coupling and impulse propagation in the working myocardium. In the human heart, the spatio-temporal regulation and distinct functional properties of the three dominant connexins (Cx43, Cx45, and Cx40) suggests non-redundant physiological roles for each isoform. There are substantial differences in gating properties, expression, and trafficking among these isoforms, however, little is known about the determinants of these different phenotypes. To gain insight regarding these determinants, we focused on the carboxyl-terminal (CT) domain because of its importance in channel regulation and large degree of sequence divergence among connexin family members...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752625/reduction-of-ischemic-brain-edema-by-combined-use-of-paeoniflorin-and-astragaloside-iv-via-down-regulating-connexin-43
#18
Heling Chu, Chuyi Huang, Zidan Gao, Jing Dong, Yuping Tang, Qiang Dong
Paeoniflorin (PF) and astragaloside IV (AS-IV) have protective effects on cerebral ischemia. We aimed to test the effects of combined use of PF and AS-IV on ischemic brain edema and investigate whether the effects were dependent on connexin43 (Cx43). We detected the expression of Cx43 induced by PF and AS-IV after cerebral ischemia. We also examined the effects of combined use of PF and AS-IV on ischemic edema and further investigated the related pathways. We demonstrated PF and AS-IV decreased Cx43 and aquaporin4 (AQP4) associating with reduction of brain edema by dry-wet weight and brain-specific gravity methods after cerebral ischemia...
July 28, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740514/normal-versus-pathological-cardiac-fibroblast-derived-extracellular-matrix-differentially-modulates-cardiosphere-derived-cell-paracrine-properties-and-commitment
#19
Francesca Pagano, Francesco Angelini, Clotilde Castaldo, Vittorio Picchio, Elisa Messina, Sebastiano Sciarretta, Ciro Maiello, Giuseppe Biondi-Zoccai, Giacomo Frati, Franca di Meglio, Daria Nurzynska, Isotta Chimenti
Human resident cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) isolated as cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs) are under clinical evaluation as a therapeutic product for cardiac regenerative medicine. Unfortunately, limited engraftment and differentiation potential of transplanted cells significantly hamper therapeutic success. Moreover, maladaptive remodelling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) during heart failure progression provides impaired biological and mechanical signals to cardiac cells, including CPCs. In this study, we aimed at investigating the differential effect on the phenotype of human CDCs of cardiac fibroblast-derived ECM substrates from healthy or diseased hearts, named, respectively, normal or pathological cardiogel (CG-N/P)...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716730/interaction-of-small-g-protein-signaling-modulator-3-with-connexin-43-contributes-to-myocardial-infarction-in-rat-hearts
#20
Chang Youn Lee, Jung-Won Choi, Sunhye Shin, Jiyun Lee, Hyang-Hee Seo, Soyeon Lim, Seahyoung Lee, Hyun-Chul Joo, Sang Woo Kim, Ki-Chul Hwang
Connexin 43 (Cx43), a ubiquitous connexin expressed in the heart and skin, is associated with a variety of hereditary conditions. Therefore, the characterization of Cx43-interacting proteins and their dynamics is important to understand not only the molecular mechanisms underlying pathological malfunction of gap junction-mediated intercellular communication but also to identify novel and unanticipated biological functions of Cx43. In the present study, we observed potential targets of Cx43 to determine new molecular functions in cardio-protection...
July 14, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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