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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647288/gap-junctions-pannexins-and-pain
#1
REVIEW
David C Spray, Menachem Hanani
Enhanced expression and function of gap junctions and pannexin (Panx) channels has been associated with both peripheral and central mechanisms of pain sensitization. At the level of the sensory ganglia, evidence includes augmented gap junction and pannexin1 expression in glial cells and neurons in inflammatory and neuropathic pain models and increased synchrony and enhanced cross-excitation among sensory neurons by gap junction-mediated coupling. In spinal cord and in suprapinal areas, evidence is largely limited to increased expression of relevant proteins, although in several rodent pain models, hypersensitivity is reduced by treatment with gap junction/Panx1 channel blocking compounds...
June 21, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642095/ginsenoside-rg1-alleviates-corticosterone-induced-dysfunction-of-gap-junctions-in-astrocytes
#2
Cong-Yuan Xia, Shi-Feng Chu, Shuai Zhang, Yan Gao, Qian Ren, Yu-Xia Lou, Piao Luo, Man-Tong Tian, Zhi-Qi Wang, Guo-Hua Du, Yoshihisa Tomioka, Tohru Yamakuni, Yi Zhang, Zhen-Zhen Wang, Nai-Hong Chen
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1), one of the major bioactive ingredients of Panax Ginseng C. A. Mey, has neuroprotective effects in animal models of depression, but the mechanism underlying these effects is still largely unknown. AIM OF THE STUDY: Gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) dysfunction is a potentially novel pathogenic mechanism for depression. Thus, we investigated that whether antidepressant-like effects of Rg1 were related to GJIC...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642043/mitochondrial-cx43-an-important-component-of-cardiac-preconditioning
#3
REVIEW
Antonio Rodríguez-Sinovas, Marisol Ruiz-Meana, Amanda Denuc, David García-Dorado
Connexin 43 (Cx43) forms gap junction channels that are essential for the propagation of electrical depolarization in cardiomyocytes, but also with important roles in the pathophysiology of reperfusion injury. However, more recent studies have shown that Cx43 has also important functions independent from intercellular communication between adjacent cardiomyocytes. Some of these actions have been related to the presence of Cx43 in the mitochondria of these cells (mitoCx43). The functions of mitoCx43 have not been completely elucidated, but there is strong evidence indicating that mitoCx43 modulates mitochondrial respiration at respiratory complex I, production of radical oxygen species and ATP synthesis...
June 20, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637680/myoendothelial-gap-junctions-mediate-regulation-of-angiopoietin-2-induced-vascular-hyporeactivity-after-hypoxia-through-connexin-43-gated-camp-transfer
#4
Jing Xu, Guang-Ming Yang, Tao Li, Liang-Ming Liu
Angiopoietin-2 (Ang2) contributes to vascular hyporeactivity after hemorrhagic shock and hypoxia through upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), in a vascular endothelial cell (VEC)-specific and Ang2/Tie2 receptor-dependent manner. While iNOS is primarily expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), the mechanisms of signal transfer from VECs to VSMCs are unknown. A double-sided co-culture model with VECs and VSMCs from Sprague Dawley rats was used to investigate the role of myoendothelial gap junctions (MEGJs), the connexin (Cx) isoforms involved and other relevant mechanisms...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627584/gastric-electrical-stimulation-improves-enteric-neuronal-survival
#5
Nian Wang, Kun Li, Shuangning Song, Jie Chen
Research and clinical experience with vagotomy have confirmed that damage to the central nervous system severely affects physiological movement in the gastrointestinal system. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of synchronized dual-pulse gastric electrical stimulation (SGES) on the apoptosis of enteric neurons and the possible pathways involved in these effects in vagotomized rats. For this purpose, Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomized into a control group, an early subdiaphragmatic vagotomized group (ESDV group), an early subdiaphragmatic vagotomized group with short-term SGES (ESDV + SSGES group), a terminal subdiaphragmatic vagotomized group (TSDV group) and a terminal subdiaphragmatic vagotomized group with long-term SGES (TSDV + LSGES group)...
June 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621931/tunable-surface-repellency-maintains-stemness-and-redox-capacity-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#6
Daniel A Balikov, Spencer William Crowder, Timothy C Boire, Jung Bok Lee, Mukesh K Gupta, Aidan M Fenix, Holley N Lewis, Caitlyn M Ambrose, Philip A Short, Chang-Soo Kim, Dylan T Burnette, Matthew A Reilly, N Sanjeeva Murthy, Mi-Lan Kang, Won Shik Kim, Hak-Joon Sung
Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) hold great promise for regenerative medicine due to their multipotent differentiation capacity and immunomodulatory capabilities. Substantial research has elucidated mechanisms by which extracellular cues regulate hMSC fate decisions, but considerably less work has addressed how material properties can be leveraged to maintain undifferentiated stem cells. Here, we show that synthetic culture substrates designed to exhibit moderate cell-repellency promote high stemness and low oxidative stress - two indicators of naïve, healthy stem cells - in commercial and patient-derived hMSCs...
June 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615614/effects-of-connexin43-overexpression-on-u251-cell-growth-migration-and-apoptosis
#7
Jia Lu, Mingyue Yu, Zhen Lin, Su Lue, Hao Zhang, Hang Zhao, Yanyan Xu, Haiyan Liu
BACKGROUND Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly aggressive malignant brain tumor with a high incidence in adults. Connexin43 (Cx43) has general roles in tumorigenesis and is expressed in U251 glioma cells. Accordingly, the effects of Cx43 on the growth, migration, and apoptosis and the underlying mechanisms mediating Cx43-dependent migration and apoptosis were examined in U251 cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS A Cx43-overexpressing U251 cell line was generated to analyze the effects of Cx43 overexpression on cell growth, wound healing, and apoptosis-related protein expression after treatment with temozolomide...
June 15, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611680/mono-heteromeric-configurations-of-gap-junction-channels-formed-by-connexin43-and-connexin45-reduce-unitary-conductance-and-determine-both-voltage-gating-and-metabolic-flux-asymmetry
#8
Guoqiang Zhong, Nazem Akoum, Daniel A Appadurai, Volodya Hayrapetyan, Osman Ahmed, Agustin D Martinez, Eric C Beyer, Alonso P Moreno
In cardiac tissues, the expression of multiple connexins (Cx40, Cx43, Cx45, and Cx30.2) is a requirement for proper development and function. Gap junctions formed by these connexins have distinct permeability and gating mechanisms. Since a single cell can express more than one connexin isoform, the formation of hetero-multimeric gap junction channels provides a tissue with an enormous repertoire of combinations to modulate intercellular communication. To study further the perm-selectivity and gating properties of channels containing Cx43 and Cx45, we studied two monoheteromeric combinations in which a HeLa cell co-transfected with Cx43 and Cx45 was paired with a cell expressing only one of these connexins...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607585/aberrant-cx43-expression-and-mislocalization-in-metastatic-human-melanomas
#9
Katanya C Alaga, Melissa Crawford, Lina Dagnino, Dale W Laird
At present, it is unclear if melanocytes contain Cx43 gap junctions and whether Cx43 expression is regulated in melanoma onset and progression. To this end, we cultured pure populations of mouse melanocytes and found that they had no detectable Cx43 and exhibited an inability for dye transfer indicating they were devoid of functional gap junctions. Given the evidence that melanomas acquire the expression of other connexin isoforms during tumor progression, we assessed if Cx43 was also expressed and assembled into gap junctions at any stage of human melanoma onset and progression to distant metastases...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602541/connexin-43-enhances-bax-activation-via-jnk-activation-in-sunitinib-induced-apoptosis-in-mesothelioma-cells
#10
Miaki Uzu, Hiromi Sato, Ayaka Shimizu, Yukihiro Shibata, Koichi Ueno, Akihiro Hisaka
The constituent protein of gap junctions, connexin (Cx), interacts with various proteins via its C-terminus region, including kinases, cell-adhesion proteins, and a pro-apoptotic protein, Bax. This molecular interaction may affect expression and functioning of the interacting proteins and modulate the cellular physiology. In our previous work, Cx43 was found to interact directly with Bax and in the presence of sunitinib, lead to the Bax-mediated apoptosis in mesothelioma cells. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of how Cx43 promotes Bax-mediated apoptosis using the same cell line...
May 27, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592345/the-effect-of-kinetic-heat-shock-on-bovine-oocyte-maturation-and-subsequent-gene-expression-of-targeted-genes
#11
Krishna C Pavani, António Rocha, Erica Baron, Joana Lourenço, Marwa Faheem, Fernando Moreira da Silva
The exposure of oocytes to heat stress during the maturation process results in harmful effects to their internal organelles, low fertilization capability and higher embryonic losses. In the present experiment the effect of heat shock (HS) during the maturation process was assessed. In Assay 1, oocytes from winter (December-March; n = 100) and summer (June-September; n = 100) months were collected and matured to analyse their HS tolerance. Total RNA was extracted from matured oocytes and cDNA synthesis was performed, followed by qPCR for selected genes (Cx43, CDH1, DNMT1, HSPA14), compared with two reference genes (GAPDH and SDHA)...
June 8, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588504/tnf%C3%AE-modulates-cardiac-conduction-by-altering-electrical-coupling-between-myocytes
#12
Sharon A George, Patrick J Calhoun, Robert G Gourdie, James W Smyth, Steven Poelzing
Background: Tumor Necrosis Factor α (TNFα) upregulation during acute inflammatory response has been associated with numerous cardiac effects including modulating Connexin43 and vascular permeability. This may in turn alter cardiac gap junctional (GJ) coupling and extracellular volume (ephaptic coupling) respectively. We hypothesized that acute exposure to pathophysiological TNFα levels can modulate conduction velocity (CV) in the heart by altering electrical coupling: GJ and ephaptic. Methods and Results: Hearts were optically mapped to determine CV from control, TNFα and TNFα + high calcium (2...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586033/sufentanil-attenuates-oxaliplatin-cytotoxicity-via-inhibiting-connexin-43%C3%A2-composed-gap-junction-function
#13
Qi Zhang, Min Su
Comprehensive strategies for the treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC) have become increasingly important. One of the most important factors is pain relief. Therefore, patients with CRC are concurrently treated with analgesics and chemotherapeutic agents; however, the effects of analgesics on the therapeutic activity of chemotherapeutic agents remain largely unknown. The present study investigated the effects of three widely used analgesics in clinics: Fentanyl, remifentanil and sufentanil, on the cytotoxicity of oxaliplatin, a commonly used chemotherapeutic agent for CRC...
July 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584630/connexin-43-key-roles-in-the-skin
#14
Xiao-Fei Zhang, Xiaofeng Cui
Gap junctions are tightly packed intercellular channels that serve a common purpose of allowing the intercellular exchange of small metabolites, second messengers and electrical signals. Connexins (Cxs) are gap junction proteins. Currently, 20 and 21 members of Cxs have been characterized in mice and humans, respectively. Connexin 43 (Cx43) is the most ubiquitously expressed type of Cx in the skin. It is produced by various different types of skin cell, such as keratinocytes, fibroblasts, endothelial and basal cells, melanocytes and dermal papilla cells...
June 2017: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577298/cx43-suppresses-evx1-expression-to-regulate-joint-initiation-in-the-regenerating-fin
#15
Gabrielle Dardis, Robert Tryon, Quynh Ton, Stephen L Johnson, M Kathryn Iovine
BACKGROUND: How joints are correctly positioned in the vertebrate skeleton remains poorly understood. From our studies on the regenerating fin, we have evidence that the gap junction protein Cx43 suppresses joint formation by suppressing the expression of the evx1 transcription factor. Joint morphogenesis proceeds through at least two discrete stages. First, cells that will produce the joint condense in a single row on the bone matrix ("initiation"). Second, these cells separate coincident with articulation of the bone matrix...
June 2, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576854/mdivi-1-induced-acute-changes-in-the-angiogenic-profile-after-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-female-mice
#16
Sudhakar Veeranki, Suresh C Tyagi
The aim of this study is to determine the effects of mitochondrial division inhibitor 1 (Mdivi-1), the mitochondrial fission inhibitor, on the angiogenic profiles after the ischemia reperfusion injury (IR injury) in female mice. Female mice were treated with Mdivi-1 inhibitor, 2 days prior, on the day of IR injury and 2 days after IR injury, for a period of 5 days. Both control and treatment groups underwent 30 min of ischemia and 72 h of reperfusion. On the day 3, mice were sacrificed and the ischemic and nonischemic portions of heart tissue were collected...
June 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576298/intracellular-trafficking-pathways-of-cx43-gap-junction-channels
#17
Irina Epifantseva, Robin Shaw
Gap Junction (GJ) channels, including the most common Connexin 43 (Cx43), have fundamental roles in excitable tissues by facilitating rapid transmission of action potentials between adjacent cells. For instance, synchronization during each heartbeat is regulated by these ion channels at the cardiomyocyte cell-cell border. Cx43 protein has a short half-life, and rapid synthesis and timely delivery of those proteins to particular subdomains are crucial for the cellular organization of gap junctions and maintenance of intracellular coupling...
May 30, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572024/maternal-exposure-to-polybrominated-diphenyl-ether-bde-209-during-lactation-affects-germ-cell-survival-with-altered-testicular-glucose-homeostasis-and-oxidative-status-through-down-regulation-of-cx43-and-p27kip1-in-prepubertal-mice-offspring
#18
Debarshi Sarkar, Shio Kumar Singh
BDE-209, a congener of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), is mainly used as flame retardant and accounts for over 82% of total PBDE usage. PBDEs have recently been detected in human milk and cord blood. BDE-209 possesses weak estrogenic/anti-estrogenic properties and evokes hyperglycemia through impaired glucose homeostasis in rat liver. However, little is known of the effect of lactational exposure to BDE-209 on germ cell survival in relation to testicular glucose homeostasis, estradiol and oxidative status during prepubertal period...
May 29, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566289/microtubule-assisted-altered-trafficking-of-astrocytic-gap-junction-protein-connexin-43-is-associated-with-depletion-of-connexin-47-during-mouse-hepatitis-virus-infection
#19
Rahul Basu, Abhishek Bose, Deepthi Thomas, Jayasri Das Sarma
Gap junctions (GJs) are important for maintenance of central nervous system (CNS) homeostasis. GJ proteins, connexin 43 (Cx43) and connexin 47 (Cx47), play crucial role in production and maintenance of central nervous system (CNS) myelin. Cx43 is mainly expressed by astrocytes in the CNS, and forms gap junction intercellular communications (GJICs) between astrocytes (Cx43/Cx43) and astrocytes to oligodendrocytes (Cx43/Cx47). Mutations of these connexin (Cx) proteins cause dysmyelinating diseases in humans. Previously it has been shown that Cx43 localization and expression is altered due to mouse hepatitis virus (MHV)-A59 infection both in vivo and in vitro; however, its mechanism and association with loss of myelin protein was not elaborated...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28565963/genomic-instability-induced-in-distant-progeny-of-bystander-cells-depends-on-the-connexins-expressed-in-the-irradiated-cells
#20
Sonia M de Toledo, Manuela Buonanno, Andrew L Harris, Edouard I Azzam
PURPOSE: To examine the time window during which intercellular signaling though gap junctions mediates non-targeted (bystander) effects induced by moderate doses of ionizing radiation; and to investigate the impact of gap junction communication on genomic instability in distant progeny of bystander cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A layered cell culture system was developed to investigate the propagation of harmful effects from irradiated normal or tumor cells that express specific connexins to contiguous bystander normal human fibroblasts...
June 15, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
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