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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330469/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-exploits-a-molecular-off-switch-of-the-immune-system-for-intracellular-survival
#1
Ulrich von Both, Maurice Berk, Paul-Michael Agapow, Joseph D Wright, Anna Git, Melissa Shea Hamilton, Greg Goldgof, Nazneen Siddiqui, Evangelos Bellos, Victoria J Wright, Lachlan J Coin, Sandra M Newton, Michael Levin
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) survives and multiplies inside human macrophages by subversion of immune mechanisms. Although these immune evasion strategies are well characterised functionally, the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Here we show that during infection of human whole blood with M. tuberculosis, host gene transcriptional suppression, rather than activation, is the predominant response. Spatial, temporal and functional characterisation of repressed genes revealed their involvement in pathogen sensing and phagocytosis, degradation within the phagolysosome and antigen processing and presentation...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326097/turning-good-intentions-into-actions-by-using-the-health-action-process-approach-to-predict-adherence-to-internet-based-depression-prevention-secondary-analysis-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#2
Anna-Carlotta Zarski, Matthias Berking, Dorota Reis, Dirk Lehr, Claudia Buntrock, Ralf Schwarzer, David Daniel Ebert
BACKGROUND: Many individuals engaging in Internet-based interventions fail to complete these treatments as intended. The processes responsible for treatment adherence in Internet-based interventions are still poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent adherence in an Internet-based intervention can be predicted by motivational and volitional factors outlined in the health action process approach (HAPA). METHODS: This study investigated motivational and volitional factors included in HAPA in a randomized controlled trial to predict treatment adherence of N=101 individuals with subclinical depression in the intervention group of a depression prevention intervention (GET...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320594/pivotal-trial-of-the-efficacy-and-safety-of-oxymetazoline-cream-1-0-for-the-treatment-of-persistent-facial-erythema-associated-with-rosacea-findings-from-the-first-reveal-trial
#3
Leon H Kircik, Janet DuBois, Zoe Diana Draelos, Philip Werschler, Kimberly Grande, Fran E Cook-Bolden, Emily Weng, David R Berk, Gurpreet Ahluwalia
An unmet need exists for a safe, tolerable, effective treatment for moderate to severe persistent facial erythema in patients with rosacea. This pivotal phase 3, multicenter, double-blind study evaluated the efficacy and safety of topical oxymetazoline in patients with facial erythema associated with moderate to severe rosacea. Patients were randomly assigned to treatment with oxymetazoline hydrochloride cream 1.0% or vehicle applied once daily for 29 days, and were followed for 28 days posttreatment. The primary efficacy outcome was having at least a 2-grade decrease from baseline on both the Clinician Erythema Assessment (CEA) and the Subject Self-Assessment for rosacea facial redness (SSA) scales (composite success) at 3, 6, 9, and 12 hours postdose on day 29...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318342/group-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-and-weight-regain-after-diet-in-type-2-diabetes-results-from-the-randomised-controlled-power-trial
#4
Kirsten A Berk, Hanneke I M Buijks, Adrie J M Verhoeven, Monique T Mulder, Behiye Özcan, Adriaan van 't Spijker, Reinier Timman, Jan J Busschbach, Eric J Sijbrands
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Weight-loss programmes for adults with type 2 diabetes are less effective in the long term owing to regain of weight. Our aim was to determine the 2 year effectiveness of a cognitive behavioural group therapy (group-CBT) programme in weight maintenance after diet-induced weight loss in overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes, using a randomised, parallel, non-blinded, pragmatic study design. METHODS: We included 158 obese adults (median BMI 36...
January 9, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315805/gender-specific-risk-factors-for-low-bone-mineral-density-in-patients-taking-antipsychotics-for-psychosis
#5
Min Jhon, Taeyoung Yoo, Ju-Yeon Lee, Seon-Young Kim, Jae-Min Kim, Il-Seon Shin, Lana Williams, Michael Berk, Jin-Sang Yoon, Sung-Wan Kim
OBJECTIVE: This study examined clinical and gender-specific risk factors for low bone mineral density (BMD) in adult patients with psychotic disorders. METHODS: The study included 285 community-dwelling patients with psychotic disorders. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure BMD. Clinical characteristics associated with low BMD were identified with logistic regression analysis in total population and each gender. RESULTS: Fifty-eight (20...
January 8, 2018: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313386/detoxification-of-fusarium-contaminated-maize-with-sodium-sulphite-in-vivo-efficacy-with-special-emphasis-on-mycotoxin-residues-and-piglet-health
#6
Anh Tuan Tran, Jeannette Kluess, Andreas Berk, Marleen Paulick, Jana Frahm, Dian Schatzmayr, Janine Winkler, Susanne Kersten, Sven Dänicke
A feeding experiment with piglets was performed to examine the efficacy of a wet preservation of Fusarium (FUS)-contaminated maize with sodium sulphite (SoS) based on deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) residue levels in urine, bile and liquor and health traits of piglets. For this purpose, 80 castrated male piglets (7.57 ± 0.92 kg BW) were assigned to four treatment groups: CON- (control diet, with 0.09 mg DON and <0.01 mg ZEN/kg diet), CON+ (diet CON-, wet-preserved with 5 g SoS/kg maize; containing 0...
February 2018: Archives of Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313270/ultrasound-elastography-based-assessment-of-the-elasticity-of-the-supraspinatus-muscle-in-impingement-syndrome-does-elastography-has-any-diagnostic-value
#7
Adnan Demirel, Murat Baykara, Tuba Tülay Koca, Ejder Berk
Ultrasound elastography (UE) is a new ultrasound-based imaging technique that provides information about elasticity and stiffness of tissues. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify the diagnostic importance of UE in supraspinatus impingement syndrome. Forty-one subjects, aged 38-70 years, were included in the study. UE was used to determine the elasticity of the supraspinatus muscle. The strain ratio was calculated as the evaluation criteria to measure the elasticity of the muscle. High strain ratio indicated low elasticity...
January 8, 2018: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311417/theoretical-and-experimental-comparison-of-proton-and-helium-beam-radiography-using-silicon-pixel-detectors
#8
Tim Gehrke, Carlo Amato, Simon Berke, Maria Martisikova
Ion-beam radiography (iRAD) could potentially improve the quality control of ion-beam therapy. The main advantage of iRAD is the possibility to directly measure the integrated stopping power. Until now there is no clinical implementation of iRAD. Topics of ongoing research include developing dedicated detection systems to achieve the desired spatial resolution (SR) and investigating different ion types as imaging radiation. This work focuses on the theoretical and experimental comparison of proton (pRAD) and helium-beam radiography (αRAD)...
January 9, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304087/human-visual-exploration-reduces-uncertainty-about-the-sensed-world
#9
M Berk Mirza, Rick A Adams, Christoph Mathys, Karl J Friston
In previous papers, we introduced a normative scheme for scene construction and epistemic (visual) searches based upon active inference. This scheme provides a principled account of how people decide where to look, when categorising a visual scene based on its contents. In this paper, we use active inference to explain the visual searches of normal human subjects; enabling us to answer some key questions about visual foraging and salience attribution. First, we asked whether there is any evidence for 'epistemic foraging'; i...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299968/effect-of-capacity-for-care-on-cat-admission-trends-at-the-guelph-humane-society-2011-2015
#10
Natasha Janke, Olaf Berke, Eyal Klement, D T Tyler Flockhart, Jason Coe, Shane Bateman
In recent years, there has been a growing concern regarding populations of cats who are homeless. Shelters are constantly overwhelmed by the influx of cats without caregivers and are seeking solutions to enhance positive outcomes for them. In 2014, the Guelph Humane Society implemented a population management program to expedite the movement of cats through the shelter by decreasing the average nonhuman animal's length of stay using scheduled intakes to control for overcrowding and by implementing strategies to increase adoption rates...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289598/why-should-neuroscientists-worry-about-iron-the-emerging-role-of-ferroptosis-in-the-pathophysiology-of-neuroprogressive-diseases
#11
REVIEW
Gerwyn Morris, Michael Berk, André F Carvalho, Michael Maes, Adam J Walker, Basant K Puri
Ferroptosis is a unique form of programmed death, characterised by cytosolic accumulation of iron, lipid hydroperoxides and their metabolites, and effected by the fatal peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the plasma membrane. It is a major driver of cell death in neurodegenerative neurological diseases. Moreover, cascades underpinning ferroptosis could be active drivers of neuropathology in major psychiatric disorders. Oxidative and nitrosative stress can adversely affect mechanisms and proteins governing cellular iron homeostasis, such as the iron regulatory protein/iron response element system, and can ultimately be a source of abnormally high levels of iron and a source of lethal levels of lipid membrane peroxidation...
December 28, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288172/effectiveness-and-cost-effectiveness-of-a-guided-internet-and-mobile-based-depression-intervention-for-individuals-with-chronic-back-pain-protocol-of-a-multi-centre-randomised-controlled-trial
#12
Jiaxi Lin, Lasse Sander, Sarah Paganini, Sandra Schlicker, David Ebert, Matthias Berking, Jürgen Bengel, Stephanie Nobis, Dirk Lehr, Oskar Mittag, Heleen Riper, Harald Baumeister
INTRODUCTION: Depression often co-occurs with chronic back pain (CBP). Internet and mobile-based interventions (IMIs) might be a promising approach for effectively treating depression in this patient group. In the present study, we will evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a guided depression IMI for individuals with CBP (eSano BackCare-D) integrated into orthopaedic healthcare. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: In this multicentre randomised controlled trial of parallel design, the groups eSano BackCare-D versus treatment as usual will be compared...
December 28, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287587/simulations-for-designing-and-interpreting-intervention-trials-in-infectious-diseases
#13
M Elizabeth Halloran, Kari Auranen, Sarah Baird, Nicole E Basta, Steven E Bellan, Ron Brookmeyer, Ben S Cooper, Victor DeGruttola, James P Hughes, Justin Lessler, Eric T Lofgren, Ira M Longini, Jukka-Pekka Onnela, Berk Özler, George R Seage, Thomas A Smith, Alessandro Vespignani, Emilia Vynnycky, Marc Lipsitch
BACKGROUND: Interventions in infectious diseases can have both direct effects on individuals who receive the intervention as well as indirect effects in the population. In addition, intervention combinations can have complex interactions at the population level, which are often difficult to adequately assess with standard study designs and analytical methods. DISCUSSION: Herein, we urge the adoption of a new paradigm for the design and interpretation of intervention trials in infectious diseases, particularly with regard to emerging infectious diseases, one that more accurately reflects the dynamics of the transmission process...
December 29, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277494/accessory-occipital-suture-mimicking-fracture-in-head-trauma
#14
Ibrahim F Naldemir, Derya Guclu, H Baki Altınsoy, H Berk Canga, Omer Onbas
The occipital bone is a complex structure due to its anatomy and accessory sutures. Fracture - accessory suture differential diagnosis should be performed carefully in patients with a history of head trauma [4]. In this case report we wanted to emphasize that accessory sutures can be difficult to diagnose in patients with head trauma. We also specified the points to be considered in the suture - fracture differentional diagnosis. A bilateral, symmetrical fissure line was observed in the occipital bone basal part of the patient who was admitted to our emergency department due to head trauma...
December 21, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250815/current-and-emerging-pharmacotherapies-for-cessation-of-tobacco-smoking
#15
Nieves Gómez-Coronado, Adam J Walker, Michael Berk, Seetal Dodd
Tobacco use disorder is a chronic illness. With its high comorbidity rate, it is a major cause of years of life lost or years lived with disability; however, is also considered the most preventable cause of death in developed countries. Since the development of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in 1978, treatment options have continued to evolve and expand. Despite this, currently available treatments remain insufficient, with less than 25% of smokers remaining abstinent after one year after treatment. In this article, we review existing and emerging smoking cessation pharmacotherapies, affording a special emphasis on the most promising agents that are currently being investigated...
December 17, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250705/cognitive-functioning-following-stabilisation-from-first-episode-mania
#16
Rothanthi Daglas, Kelly Allott, Murat Yücel, Lisa P Henry, Craig A Macneil, Melissa K Hasty, Michael Berk, Sue M Cotton
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine cognitive functioning in people following first-episode mania relative to a demographically similar healthy control group. METHODS: Forty-one patients, who had recently stabilised from a first manic episode, and twenty-one healthy controls, were compared in an extensive cognitive assessment. RESULTS: First-episode mania participants had significantly lower Full-Scale IQ (FSIQ) relative to healthy controls; however, this finding could be driven by premorbid differences in intellectual functioning...
December 18, 2017: International Journal of Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244206/deficits-in-general-emotion-regulation-skills-evidence-of-a-transdiagnostic-factor
#17
Christian Aljoscha Lukas, David Daniel Ebert, Hugo Trevisi Fuentes, Franz Caspar, Matthias Berking
OBJECTIVE: Deficits in emotion regulation (ER) skills are discussed as a transdiagnostic factor contributing to the development and maintenance of various mental disorders. However, systematic comparisons of a broad range of ER skills across diagnostic groups that are based on comparable definitions and measures of ER are still rare. METHOD: Therefore, we conducted two studies assessing a broad range of ER skills with the Emotion Regulation Skills Questionnaire in individuals meeting criteria for mental disorders (N1  = 1448; N2  = 137) and in a general population sample (N = 214)...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241042/the-adenovirus-e1a-c-terminus-suppresses-a-delayed-antiviral-response-and-modulates-ras-signaling
#18
Nathan R Zemke, Arnold J Berk
The N-terminal half of adenovirus e1a assembles multimeric complexes with host proteins that repress innate immune responses and force host cells into S-phase. In contrast, the functions of e1a's C-terminal interactions with FOXK, DCAF7, and CtBP are unknown. We found that these interactions modulate RAS signaling, and that a single e1a molecule must bind all three of these host proteins to suppress activation of a subset of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs). These ISGs were otherwise induced in primary respiratory epithelial cells at 12 hr p...
December 13, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238835/what-s-in-a-name-dermoscopy-vs-dermatoscopy
#19
Juliana Berk-Krauss, Mary E Laird
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2017: JAMA Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228492/das-interesse-an-solarien-und-sonnenschutz-im-deutschsprachigen-raum
#20
Michael C Kirchberger, Laura F Kirchberger, Thomas K Eigentler, Raphael Reinhard, Carola Berking, Gerold Schuler, Lucie Heinzerling, Markus V Heppt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft, Journal of the German Society of Dermatology: JDDG
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