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Geri Kreitzer, Monn Monn Myat
Epithelial cells play a key role in insuring physiological homeostasis by acting as a barrier between the outside environment and internal organs. They are also responsible for the vectorial transport of ions and fluid essential to the function of many organs. To accomplish these tasks, epithelial cells must generate an asymmetrically organized plasma membrane comprised of structurally and functionally distinct apical and basolateral membranes. Adherent and occluding junctions, respectively, anchor cells within a layer and prevent lateral diffusion of proteins in the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane and restrict passage of proteins and solutes through intercellular spaces...
March 6, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
Thomas Roseberry, Anatol Kreitzer
The ability to stop ongoing movement is fundamental to animal survival. Behavioural arrest involves the hierarchical integration of information throughout the forebrain, which ultimately leads to the coordinated inhibition and activation of specific brainstem motor centres. Recent advances have shed light on multiple regions and pathways involved in this critical behavioural process. Here, we synthesize these new findings together with previous work to build a more complete understanding of the circuit mechanisms underlying suppression of ongoing action...
April 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Natalie Kreitzer, Kimberly Hart, Christopher J Lindsell, Brittany Betham, Yair Gozal, Norberto O Andaluz, Michael S Lyons, Jordan Bonomo, Opeolu Adeoye
Patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) with associated intracranial injury, or complicated mTBI, are at risk of deterioration. Clinical management differs within and between institutions. We conducted an exploratory analysis to determine which of these patients are unlikely to have an adverse outcome and may be future targets for less resource intensive care. This single center retrospective cohort study included patients presenting to the ED with blunt complicated mTBI between January 2001 and December 2010...
January 25, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Aviad Haramati, Sian Cotton, Jamie S Padmore, Hedy S Wald, Peggy A Weissinger
The high prevalence of physician burnout is of great concern and may begin with observed declines in empathy and increases in stress and burnout in medical and health professions students. While underlying causes have been described, there is less certainty on how to create effective interventions in curricula and workplace. In October 2015, The Center for Innovation and Leadership in Education (CENTILE) at Georgetown University, together with MedStar Health, Georgetown's clinical partner, and six academic institutions sponsored a conference in Washington, DC...
February 2017: Medical Teacher
Mary Jo Kreitzer, Maryanna Klatt
Stress and burnout of healthcare providers has become a major healthcare issue that has implications for not only workforce projections, but the cost and quality of care and the lives of healthcare providers and their families. Burnout, characterized by loss of enthusiasm for work, feelings of cynicism and a low sense of personal accomplishment is associated with early retirement, alcohol use, and suicidal ideation. Healthcare professional "wellbeing" or "care of the caregiver" is a topic that has not been significantly addressed in the education of healthcare professionals...
December 12, 2016: Medical Teacher
Geetika Kharkwal, Karen Brami-Cherrier, José E Lizardi-Ortiz, Alexandra B Nelson, Maria Ramos, Daniel Del Barrio, David Sulzer, Anatol C Kreitzer, Emiliana Borrelli
Typical antipsychotics can cause disabling side effects. Specifically, antagonism of D2R signaling by the typical antipsychotic haloperidol induces parkinsonism in humans and catalepsy in rodents. Striatal dopamine D2 receptors (D2R) are major regulators of motor activity through their signaling on striatal projection neurons and interneurons. We show that D2R signaling on cholinergic interneurons contributes to an in vitro pause in firing of these otherwise tonically active neurons and to the striatal dopamine/acetylcholine balance...
July 6, 2016: Neuron
Hyun Joo Lee, Andrew J Weitz, David Bernal-Casas, Ben A Duffy, ManKin Choy, Alexxai V Kravitz, Anatol C Kreitzer, Jin Hyung Lee
A central theory of basal ganglia function is that striatal neurons expressing the D1 and D2 dopamine receptors exert opposing brain-wide influences. However, the causal influence of each population has never been measured at the whole-brain scale. Here, we selectively stimulated D1 or D2 receptor-expressing neurons while visualizing whole-brain activity with fMRI. Excitation of either inhibitory population evoked robust positive BOLD signals within striatum, while downstream regions exhibited significantly different and generally opposing responses consistent with-though not easily predicted from-contemporary models of basal ganglia function...
July 20, 2016: Neuron
Julianna Pacheco, Rebecca Kreitzer
The stability of abortion opinions suggests that pre-adult factors influence these attitudes more than contemporaneous political events. Surprisingly, however, we know little about the origins of abortion opinions, no doubt because the majority of research focuses on cross-sectional analyses of patterns across cohorts. We use a developmental model that links familial and contextual factors during adolescence to abortion attitudes years later when respondents are between 21 and 38 years old. Findings show that religious adherence and maternal gender role values are significant predictors of adult abortion opinions, even after controlling for contemporaneous religious adherence and the respondents' own views on gender roles...
2016: Public Opinion Quarterly
Neha Ghildayal, Pamela Jo Johnson, Roni L Evans, Mary Jo Kreitzer
BACKGROUND: Many people suffering from low back pain (LBP) have found conventional medical treatments to be ineffective for managing their LBP and are increasingly turning to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) to find pain relief. A comprehensive picture of CAM use in the LBP population, including all of the most commonly used modalities, is needed. STUDY OBJECTIVE: To examine prevalence and perceived benefit of CAM use within the US LBP population by limiting vs nonlimiting LBP and to evaluate the odds of past year CAM use within the LBP population...
January 2016: Global Advances in Health and Medicine: Improving Healthcare Outcomes Worldwide
Bonnie R Sakallaris, William L Miller, Robert Saper, Mary Jo Kreitzer, Wayne Jonas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Global Advances in Health and Medicine: Improving Healthcare Outcomes Worldwide
Mary Jo Kreitzer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Global Advances in Health and Medicine: Improving Healthcare Outcomes Worldwide
Philip R L Parker, Arnaud L Lalive, Anatol C Kreitzer
Movement suppression in Parkinson's disease (PD) is thought to arise from increased efficacy of the indirect pathway basal ganglia circuit, relative to the direct pathway. However, the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms remain elusive. To examine whether changes in the strength of synaptic inputs to these circuits contribute to this imbalance, we obtained paired whole-cell recordings from striatal direct- and indirect-pathway medium spiny neurons (dMSNs and iMSNs) and optically stimulated inputs from sensorimotor cortex or intralaminar thalamus in brain slices from control and dopamine-depleted mice...
February 17, 2016: Neuron
Thomas K Roseberry, A Moses Lee, Arnaud L Lalive, Linda Wilbrecht, Antonello Bonci, Anatol C Kreitzer
The basal ganglia (BG) are critical for adaptive motor control, but the circuit principles underlying their pathway-specific modulation of target regions are not well understood. Here, we dissect the mechanisms underlying BG direct and indirect pathway-mediated control of the mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR), a brainstem target of BG that is critical for locomotion. We optogenetically dissect the locomotor function of the three neurochemically distinct cell types within the MLR: glutamatergic, GABAergic, and cholinergic neurons...
January 28, 2016: Cell
Bipul R Acharya, Cedric Espenel, Fotine Libanje, Joel Raingeaud, Jessica Morgan, Fanny Jaulin, Geri Kreitzer
The kinesin KIF17 localizes at microtubule plus-ends where it contributes to regulation of microtubule stabilization and epithelial polarization. We now show that KIF17 localizes at cell-cell adhesions and that KIF17 depletion inhibits accumulation of actin at the apical pole of cells grown in 3D organotypic cultures and alters the distribution of actin and E-cadherin in cells cultured in 2D on solid supports. Overexpression of full-length KIF17 constructs or truncation mutants containing the N-terminal motor domain resulted in accumulation of newly incorporated GFP-actin into junctional actin foci, cleared E-cadherin from cytoplasmic vesicles and stabilized cell-cell adhesions to challenge with calcium depletion...
March 1, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
Mary Jo Kreitzer, Rob Saper
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2015: Global Advances in Health and Medicine: Improving Healthcare Outcomes Worldwide
Mary Jo Kreitzer, Robert Saper
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2015: Global Advances in Health and Medicine: Improving Healthcare Outcomes Worldwide
Charles Kircher, Natalie Kreitzer, Opeolu Adeoye
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: With the recent demonstration of the effectiveness of rapid recanalization of large vessel occlusions in acute ischemic stroke, it is important to assess the current status of pre and intrahospital workflow for acute stroke. RECENT FINDINGS: We will review trends in the evaluation and treatment of acute stroke and offer suggestions for how best to advance the workflow for acute stroke care in the coming years. SUMMARY: Future research is needed for: field use of clinical scores for predicting large vessel occlusions, telemedicine to facilitate prehospital triage, and pre and intrahospital processes for optimizing stroke care delivery...
February 2016: Current Opinion in Neurology
Natalie Kreitzer, Opeolu Adeoye
Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage is a true neurological emergency, and its management is made more complicated when patients are anticoagulated, as reversal of anticoagulation must be initiated simultaneously with diagnosis, treatment, and disposition. Recent advances such as newer laboratory testing and rapid computed tomography for diagnosis, blood pressure reduction to reduce hematoma expansion, and new anticoagulant reversal agents may allow for improved outcomes. Management of intracranial pressure is particularly important in anticoagulated patients, as is identifying patients who may benefit from rapid neurosurgical intervention and/or emergent transport to facilities capable of managing this disease...
December 2015: Emergency Medicine Practice
Christopher H Donahue, Anatol C Kreitzer
In this issue of Neuron, Sippy et al. (2015) provide the clearest evidence to date that information is differentially encoded in the direct and indirect pathways of the striatum. The results support the classical notion that the direct pathway plays a critical role in initiating actions.
October 21, 2015: Neuron
Benjamin Kligler, Audrey J Brooks, Victoria Maizes, Elizabeth Goldblatt, Maryanna Klatt, Mary S Koithan, Mary Jo Kreitzer, Jeannie K Lee, Ana Marie Lopez, Hilary McClafferty, Robert Rhode, Irene Sandvold, Robert Saper, Douglas Taren, Eden Wells, Patricia Lebensohn
In October 2014, the National Center for Integrative Primary Healthcare (NCIPH) was launched as a collaboration between the University of Arizona Center for Integrative Medicine and the Academic Consortium for Integrative Health and Medicine and supported by a grant from the Health Resources and Services Administration. A primary goal of the NCIPH is to develop a core set of integrative healthcare (IH) competencies and educational programs that will span the interprofessional primary care training and practice spectra and ultimately become a required part of primary care education...
September 2015: Global Advances in Health and Medicine: Improving Healthcare Outcomes Worldwide
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