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Striatum AND dendrites

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203148/dopamine-d1-receptor-immunoreactivity-on-fine-processes-of-gfap-positive-astrocytes-in-the-substantia-nigra-pars-reticulata-of-adult-mouse
#1
Katsuhiro Nagatomo, Sechiko Suga, Masato Saitoh, Masahito Kogawa, Kazuto Kobayashi, Yoshio Yamamoto, Katsuya Yamada
Substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), the major output nucleus of the basal ganglia, receives dopamine from dendrites extending from dopaminergic neurons of the adjacent nucleus pars compacta (SNc), which is known for its selective degeneration in Parkinson's disease. As a recipient for dendritically released dopamine, the dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) is a primary candidate due to its very dense immunoreactivity in the SNr. However, the precise location of D1R remains unclear at the cellular level in the SNr except for that reported on axons/axon terminals of presumably striatal GABAergic neurons...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191598/diacylglycerol-kinase-%C3%AE%C2%B5-localizes-to-subsurface-cisterns-of-cerebellar-purkinje-cells
#2
Yasukazu Hozumi, Hiroki Fujiwara, Kenya Kaneko, Satoshi Fujii, Matthew K Topham, Masahiko Watanabe, Kaoru Goto
Following activation of Gq protein-coupled receptors, phospholipase C yields a pair of second messengers: diacylglycerol (DG) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) phosphorylates DG to produce phosphatidic acid, another second messenger. Of the DGK family, DGKε is the only DGK isoform that exhibits substrate specificity for DG with an arachidonoyl acyl chain at the sn-2 position. Recently, we demonstrated that hydrophobic residues in the N-terminus of DGKε play an important role in targeting the endoplasmic reticulum in transfected cells...
February 13, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181190/distribution-of-alox15-in-the-rat-brain-and-its-role-in-prefrontal-cortical-resolvin-d1-formation-and-spatial-working-memory
#3
Suku-Maran Shalini, Christabel Fung-Yih Ho, Yee-Kong Ng, Jie-Xin Tong, Eng-Shi Ong, Deron R Herr, Gavin S Dawe, Wei-Yi Ong
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is enriched in membrane phospholipids of the central nervous system (CNS) and has a role in aging and neuropsychiatric disorders. DHA is metabolized by the enzyme Alox15 to 17S-hydroxy-DHA, which is then converted to 7S-hydroperoxy,17S-hydroxy-DHA by a 5-lipoxygenase, and thence via epoxy intermediates to the anti-inflammatory molecule, resolvin D1 (RvD1 or 7S,8R,17S-trihydroxy-docosa-Z,9E,11E,13Z,15E,19Z-hexaenoic acid). In this study, we investigated the distribution and function of Alox15 in the CNS...
February 8, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128287/striatal-neurons-expressing-d1-and-d2-receptors-are-morphologically-distinct-and-differently-affected-by-dopamine-denervation-in-mice
#4
D Gagnon, S Petryszyn, M G Sanchez, C Bories, J M Beaulieu, Y De Koninck, A Parent, M Parent
The loss of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons in Parkinson's disease induces a reduction in the number of dendritic spines on medium spiny neurons (MSNs) of the striatum expressing D1 or D2 dopamine receptor. Consequences on MSNs expressing both receptors (D1/D2 MSNs) are currently unknown. We looked for changes induced by dopamine denervation in the density, regional distribution and morphological features of D1/D2 MSNs, by comparing 6-OHDA-lesioned double BAC transgenic mice (Drd1a-tdTomato/Drd2-EGFP) to sham-lesioned animals...
January 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122114/serotonin-5-ht7-receptor-increases-the-density-of-dendritic-spines-and-facilitates-synaptogenesis-in-forebrain-neurons
#5
Luisa Speranza, Josephine Labus, Floriana Volpicelli, Daria Guseva, Enza Lacivita, Marcello Leopoldo, Gian Carlo Bellenchi, Umberto di Porzio, Monika Bijata, Carla Perrone-Capano, Evgeni Ponimaskin
Precise control of dendritic spine density and synapse formation is critical for normal and pathological brain functions. Therefore, signaling pathways influencing dendrite outgrowth and remodeling remain a subject of extensive investigations. Here we report that prolonged activation of the serotonin 5-HT7 receptor (5-HT7R) with selective agonist LP-211 promotes formation of dendritic spines and facilitates synaptogenesis in postnatal cortical and striatal neurons. Critical role of 5-HT7R in neuronal morphogenesis was confirmed by analysis of neurons isolated from 5-HT7R-deficient mice and by pharmacological inactivation of the receptor...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116173/electroacupuncture-regulates-hippocampal-synaptic-plasticity-via-mir-134-mediated-limk1-function-in-rats-with-ischemic-stroke
#6
Weilin Liu, Jie Wu, Jia Huang, Peiyuan Zhuo, Yunjiao Lin, Lulu Wang, Ruhui Lin, Lidian Chen, Jing Tao
MircoRNAs (miRs) have been implicated in learning and memory, by regulating LIM domain kinase (LIMK1) to induce synaptic-dendritic plasticity. The study aimed to investigate whether miRNAs/LIMK1 signaling was involved in electroacupuncture- (EA-) mediated synaptic-dendritic plasticity in a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion induced cognitive deficit (MICD). Compared to untreatment or non-acupoint-EA treatment, EA at DU20 and DU24 acupoints could shorten escape latency and increase the frequency of crossing platform in Morris water maze test...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115704/wave1-in-neurons-expressing-the-d1-dopamine-receptor-regulates-cellular-and-behavioral-actions-of-cocaine
#7
Ilaria Ceglia, Ko-Woon Lee, Michael E Cahill, Steven M Graves, David Dietz, Dalton J Surmeier, Eric J Nestler, Angus C Nairn, Paul Greengard, Yong Kim
Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) family verprolin homologous protein 1 (WAVE1) regulates actin-related protein 2/3 (Arp2/3) complex-mediated actin polymerization. Our previous studies have found WAVE1 to be inhibited by Cdk5-mediated phosphorylation in brain and to play a role in the regulation of dendritic spine morphology. Here we report that mice in which WAVE1 was knocked out (KO) in neurons expressing the D1 dopamine receptor (D1-KO), but not mice where WAVE1 was knocked out in neurons expressing the D2 dopamine receptor (D2-KO), exhibited a significant decrease in place preference associated with cocaine...
February 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087224/5-ht6-receptor-blockade-regulates-primary-cilia-morphology-in-striatal-neurons
#8
Matthew Brodsky, Adam J Lesiak, Alex Croicu, Nathalie Cohenca, Jane M Sullivan, John F Neumaier
The 5-HT6 receptor has been implicated in a variety of cognitive processes including habitual behaviors, learning, and memory. It is found almost exclusively in the brain, is expressed abundantly in striatum, and localizes to neuronal primary cilia. Primary cilia are antenna-like, sensory organelles found on most neurons that receive both chemical and mechanical signals from other cells and the surrounding environment; however, the effect of 5-HT6 receptor function on cellular morphology has not been examined...
January 10, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018188/cholinergic-interneurons-amplify-corticostriatal-synaptic-responses-in-the-q175-model-of-huntington-s-disease
#9
Asami Tanimura, Sean Austin O Lim, Jose de Jesus Aceves Buendia, Joshua A Goldberg, D James Surmeier
Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by deficits in movement control that are widely viewed as stemming from pathophysiological changes in the striatum. Giant, aspiny cholinergic interneurons (ChIs) are key elements in the striatal circuitry controlling movement, but whether their physiological properties are intact in the HD brain is unclear. To address this issue, the synaptic properties of ChIs were examined using optogenetic approaches in the Q175 mouse model of HD. In ex vivo brain slices, synaptic facilitation at thalamostriatal synapses onto ChIs was reduced in Q175 mice...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940353/white-matter-damage-and-glymphatic-dysfunction-in-a-model-of-vascular-dementia-in-rats-with-no-prior-vascular-pathologies
#10
Poornima Venkat, Michael Chopp, Alex Zacharek, Chengcheng Cui, Li Zhang, Qingjiang Li, Mei Lu, Talan Zhang, Amy Liu, Jieli Chen
We investigated cognitive function, axonal/white matter (WM) changes and glymphatic function of vascular dementia using a multiple microinfarction (MMI) model in retired breeder (RB) rats. The MMI model induces significant (p < 0.05) cognitive decline that worsens with age starting at 2 weeks, which persists until at least 6 weeks after MMI. RB rats subjected to MMI exhibit significant axonal/WM damage identified by decreased myelin thickness, oligodendrocyte progenitor cell numbers, axon density, synaptic protein expression in the cortex and striatum, cortical neuronal branching, and dendritic spine density in the cortex and hippocampus compared with age-matched controls...
February 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922607/endocytosis-following-dopamine-d2-receptor-activation-is-critical-for-neuronal-activity-and-dendritic-spine-formation-via-rabex-5-pdgfr%C3%AE-signaling-in-striatopallidal-medium-spiny-neurons
#11
N Shioda, Y Yabuki, Y Wang, M Uchigashima, T Hikida, T Sasaoka, H Mori, M Watanabe, M Sasahara, K Fukunaga
Aberrant dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) activity is associated with neuropsychiatric disorders, making those receptors targets for antipsychotic drugs. Here, we report that novel signaling through the intracellularly localized D2R long isoform (D2LR) elicits extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation and dendritic spine formation through Rabex-5/platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β (PDGFRβ)-mediated endocytosis in mouse striatum. We found that D2LR directly binds to and activates Rabex-5, promoting early-endosome formation...
December 6, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785835/a-dense-cluster-of-d1-cells-in-the-mouse-nucleus-accumbens
#12
Sarah Petryszyn, Maria Gabriela Sánchez, Dave Gagnon, Jean-Martin Beaulieu, André Parent, Martin Parent
The striatum is known to be largely composed of intermingled medium-sized projection neurons expressing either the D1 or the D2 dopamine receptors. In the present study, we took advantage of the double BAC Drd1a-TdTomato/Drd2-GFP (D1 /D2 ) transgenic mice to reveal the presence of a peculiar cluster of densely-packed D1 + cells located in the shell compartment of the nucleus accumbens. This spherical cluster has a diameter of 110 µm and is exclusively composed by D1 + cells, which are all immunoreactive for the neuronal nuclear marker (NeuN)...
October 27, 2016: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771350/synaptotagmin-7-and-syncrip-proteins-are-ubiquitously-expressed-in-the-rat-brain-and-co-localize-in-purkinje-neurons
#13
Larisa Tratnjek, Marko Živin, Gordana Glavan
Synaptotagmin 7 (SYT7) is ubiquitously expressed calcium sensor, involved in neuronal membrane trafficking. Immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that SYT7 interacts with Synaptotagmin-binding, cytoplasmic RNA-interacting protein (SYNCRIP). SYNCRIP is a component of mRNA granules, which are transported to dendrites and are prerequisite for synaptic plasticity. Given the potential significance of SYT7 regulation in processes of neurodegeneration, which are characterized by high level of synaptic vulnerability, we aimed to analyse and compare the distribution of SYT7 and SYNCRIP proteins in the adult rat striatum, hippocampus, cerebral and cerebellar cortex...
January 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766766/region-specific-activation-of-the-akt-and-mtorc1-pathway-in-response-to-excessive-alcohol-intake-in-rodents
#14
Sophie Laguesse, Nadege Morisot, Khanhky Phamluong, Dorit Ron
We previously reported that the kinase AKT is activated in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of rodents in response to excessive consumption of alcohol. One of the important downstream targets of AKT is the mammalian Target Of Rapamycin in Complex 1 (mTORC1), which was also activated by alcohol intake. mTORC1 controls dendritic protein translation, and we showed that the mTORC1-dependent translational machinery is activated in the NAc in response to alcohol intake. Importantly, systemic or intra-NAc inhibition of the AKT/mTORC1 pathway attenuated alcohol-drinking behaviors...
October 20, 2016: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27735948/transactivation-of-trkb-by-sigma-1-receptor-mediates-cocaine-induced-changes-in-dendritic-spine-density-and-morphology-in-hippocampal-and-cortical-neurons
#15
Minhan Ka, Yeon-Hee Kook, Ke Liao, Shilpa Buch, Woo-Yang Kim
Cocaine is a highly addictive narcotic associated with dendritic spine plasticity in the striatum. However, it remains elusive whether cocaine modifies spines in a cell type-specific or region-specific manner or whether it alters different types of synapses in the brain. In addition, there is a paucity of data on the regulatory mechanism(s) involved in cocaine-induced modification of spine density. In the current study, we report that cocaine exposure differentially alters spine density, spine morphology, and the types of synapses in hippocampal and cortical neurons...
October 13, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27710792/principles-of-synaptic-organization-of-gabaergic-interneurons-in-the-striatum
#16
Christoph Straub, Jessica Lizette Saulnier, Aurelien Bègue, Danielle D Feng, Kee Wui Huang, Bernardo Luis Sabatini
The striatum, the entry nucleus of the basal ganglia, lacks laminar or columnar organization of its principal cells; nevertheless, functional data suggest that it is spatially organized. Here we examine whether the connectivity and synaptic organization of striatal GABAergic interneurons contributes to such spatial organization. Focusing on the two main classes of striatal GABAergic interneurons (fast-spiking interneurons [FSIs] and low-threshold-spiking interneurons [LTSIs]), we apply a combination of optogenetics and viral tracing approaches to dissect striatal microcircuits in mice...
October 5, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647894/striosome-dendron-bouquets-highlight-a-unique-striatonigral-circuit-targeting-dopamine-containing-neurons
#17
Jill R Crittenden, Paul W Tillberg, Michael H Riad, Yasuyuki Shima, Charles R Gerfen, Jeffrey Curry, David E Housman, Sacha B Nelson, Edward S Boyden, Ann M Graybiel
The dopamine systems of the brain powerfully influence movement and motivation. We demonstrate that striatonigral fibers originating in striosomes form highly unusual bouquet-like arborizations that target bundles of ventrally extending dopamine-containing dendrites and clusters of their parent nigral cell bodies. Retrograde tracing showed that these clustered cell bodies in turn project to the striatum as part of the classic nigrostriatal pathway. Thus, these striosome-dendron formations, here termed "striosome-dendron bouquets," likely represent subsystems with the nigro-striato-nigral loop that are affected in human disorders including Parkinson's disease...
October 4, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618534/opposite-effects-of-mglur1a-and-mglur5-activation-on-nucleus-accumbens-medium-spiny-neuron-dendritic-spine-density
#18
Kellie S Gross, Dieter D Brandner, Luis A Martinez, M Foster Olive, Robert L Meisel, Paul G Mermelstein
The group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR1a and mGluR5) are important modulators of neuronal structure and function. Although these receptors share common signaling pathways, they are capable of having distinct effects on cellular plasticity. We investigated the individual effects of mGluR1a or mGluR5 activation on dendritic spine density in medium spiny neurons in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), which has become relevant with the potential use of group I mGluR based therapeutics in the treatment of drug addiction...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27567310/activity-regulated-cytoskeleton-associated-protein-accumulates-in-the-nucleus-in-response-to-cocaine-and-acts-as-a-brake-on-chromatin-remodeling-and-long-term-behavioral-alterations
#19
Marine Salery, Marc Dos Santos, Estefani Saint-Jour, Lara Moumné, Christiane Pagès, Vincent Kappès, Sébastien Parnaudeau, Jocelyne Caboche, Peter Vanhoutte
BACKGROUND: Addiction relies on persistent alterations of neuronal properties, which depends on gene regulation. Activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc) is an immediate early gene that modulates neuronal plasticity underlying learning and memory. Its role in cocaine-induced neuronal and behavioral adaptations remains elusive. METHODS: Acute cocaine-treated mice were used for quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, immunocytochemistry, and confocal imaging from striatum...
June 16, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27555380/dynamic-alterations-of-rat-nucleus-accumbens-dendritic-spines-over-2-months-of-abstinence-from-extended-access-cocaine-self-administration
#20
Daniel T Christian, Xiaoting Wang, Eugenia L Chen, Lakshya K Sehgal, Michael N Ghassemlou, Julia J Miao, Derenik Estepanian, Cameron H Araghi, Grace E Stutzmann, Marina E Wolf
Chronic cocaine exposure influences the density and morphology of dendritic spines on medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a critical brain region for cocaine craving. However, the relationship between spine plasticity and craving remains unclear. To study this relationship, we trained rats to self-administer cocaine using an extended-access regimen (6 h per day, 10 days); controls self-administered saline. Previously, a time-dependent intensification (incubation) of cue-induced cocaine craving has been demonstrated after withdrawal from this regimen; furthermore, Ca(2+)-permeable AMPA receptors (CP-AMPARs) increase in the NAc core after ~1 month of withdrawal and thereafter mediate the expression of incubated craving...
February 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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