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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728449/schaffer-collateral-inputs-to-ca1-excitatory-and-inhibitory-neurons-follow-different-connectivity-rules
#1
Osung Kwon, Linqing Feng, Shaul Druckmann, Jinhyun Kim
Neural circuits, governed by a complex interplay between excitatory and inhibitory neurons, are the substrate for information processing, and the organization of synaptic connectivity in neural network is an important determinant of circuit function. Here, we analyzed the fine structure of connectivity in hippocampal CA1 excitatory and inhibitory neurons innervated by Schaffer collaterals (SCs) using mGRASP in male mice. Our previous study revealed spatially structured synaptic connectivity between CA3-CA1 pyramidal cells (PCs)...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706583/serotonergic-signaling-controls-input-specific-synaptic-plasticity-at-striatal-circuits
#2
Anna Cavaccini, Marta Gritti, Andrea Giorgi, Andrea Locarno, Nicolas Heck, Sara Migliarini, Alice Bertero, Maddalena Mereu, Giulia Margiani, Massimo Trusel, Tiziano Catelani, Roberto Marotta, Maria Antonietta De Luca, Jocelyne Caboche, Alessandro Gozzi, Massimo Pasqualetti, Raffaella Tonini
Monoaminergic modulation of cortical and thalamic inputs to the dorsal striatum (DS) is crucial for reward-based learning and action control. While dopamine has been extensively investigated in this context, the synaptic effects of serotonin (5-HT) have been largely unexplored. Here, we investigated how serotonergic signaling affects associative plasticity at glutamatergic synapses on the striatal projection neurons of the direct pathway (dSPNs). Combining chemogenetic and optogenetic approaches reveals that impeding serotonergic signaling preferentially gates spike-timing-dependent long-term depression (t-LTD) at thalamostriatal synapses...
April 25, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680983/sertoli-cells-avert-neuroinflammation-induced-cell-death-and-improve-motor-function-and-striatal-atrophy-in-rat-model-of-huntington-disease
#3
Houssein Ahmadi, Mahdi Eskandarian Boroujeni, Yousef Sadeghi, Mohammad Amin Abdollahifar, Fariba Khodagholi, Gholam Houssein Meftahi, Mohammadmehdi Hadipour, Amir-Hossein Bayat, Fatemeh Shaerzadeh, Abbas Aliaghaei
Huntington's disease (HD) is a genetically heritable disorder, linked with continuing cell loss and degeneration mostly in the striatum. Currently, cell therapy approaches in HD have essentially been focused on replenishing or shielding cells lost over the period of the disease. Herein, we sought to explore the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of primary rat Sertoli cells (SCs) and their paracrine effect against oxidative stress with emphasis on HD. Initially, SCs were isolated and immunophenotypically characterized by positive expression of GATA4...
April 21, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663134/profound-seasonal-changes-in-brain-size-and-architecture-in-the-common-shrew
#4
Javier Lázaro, Moritz Hertel, Chet C Sherwood, Marion Muturi, Dina K N Dechmann
The seasonal changes in brain size of some shrews represent the most drastic reversible transformation in the mammalian central nervous system known to date. Brain mass decreases 10-26% from summer to winter and regrows 9-16% in spring, but the underlying structural changes at the cellular level are not yet understood. Here, we describe the volumetric differences in brain structures between seasons and sexes of the common shrew (Sorex araneus) in detail, confirming that changes in different brain regions vary in the magnitude of change...
April 16, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602186/molecular-mechanisms-underlying-striatal-synaptic-plasticity-relevance-to-chronic-alcohol-consumption-and-seeking
#5
Kim T Blackwell, Armando G Salinas, Parul Tewatia, Brad English, Jeanette Hellgren Kotaleski, David M Lovinger
The striatum, the input structure of the basal ganglia, is a major site of learning and memory for goal-directed actions and habit formation. Spiny projection neurons of the striatum integrate cortical, thalamic, and nigral inputs to learn associations, with cortico-striatal synaptic plasticity as a learning mechanism. Signaling molecules implicated in synaptic plasticity are altered in alcohol withdrawal, which may contribute to overly strong learning and increased alcohol seeking and consumption. To understand how interactions among signaling molecules produce synaptic plasticity, we implemented a mechanistic model of signaling pathways activated by dopamine D1 receptors, acetylcholine receptors, and glutamate...
March 30, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574227/mtor-signaling-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-mediates-behavioral-sensitization-to-methamphetamine
#6
Shin-Han Huang, Wan-Rong Wu, Li-Ming Lee, Pei-Rong Huang, Jin-Chung Chen
Chronic psychostimulant treatment in rodents readily produces behavioral sensitization, which reflects altered brain function in response to repeated drug exposure. Numerous morphological and biochemical investigations implicate altered neural plasticity in striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) as an essential component in behavioral sensitization. The mammalian target of the rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway, a key regulator of synaptic neuroplasticity, in the ventral striatum of methamphetamine (METH) -sensitized mice was investigated to determine if a link exists with the development of METH sensitization...
March 21, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520722/human-umbilical-cord-matrix-stem-cells-reverse-oxidative-stress-induced-cell-death-and-ameliorate-motor-function-and-striatal-atrophy-in-rat-model-of-huntington-disease
#7
Mohammad Javad Ebrahimi, Abbas Aliaghaei, Mahdi Eskandarian Boroujeni, Fariba Khodagholi, Gholamhoussein Meftahi, Mohammad Amin Abdollahifar, Houssein Ahmadi, Samira Danyali, Mahtab Daftari, Yousef Sadeghi
Huntington disease (HD) is an inherited disorder hallmarked by progressive deterioration of specific neurons, followed by movement and cognitive anomalies. Cell therapy approaches in neurodegenerative conditions have concentrated on the replenishment of lost/dying neurons with functional ones. Multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been represented as a potential remedy for HD. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of umbilical cord matrix stem cells (UCMSCs) and their paracrine effect against oxidative stress with a specific focus on HD...
March 8, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504938/early-structural-and-functional-plasticity-alterations-in-a-susceptibility-period-of-dyt1-dystonia-mouse-striatum
#8
Marta Maltese, Jennifer Stanic, Annalisa Tassone, Giuseppe Sciamanna, Giulia Ponterio, Valentina Vanni, Giuseppina Martella, Paola Imbriani, Paola Bonsi, Nicola Biagio Mercuri, Fabrizio Gardoni, Antonio Pisani
The onset of abnormal movements in DYT1 dystonia is between childhood and adolescence, although it is unclear why clinical manifestations appear during this developmental period. Plasticity at corticostriatal synapses is critically involved in motor memory. In the Tor1a +/Δgag DYT1 dystonia mouse model, long-term potentiation (LTP) appeared prematurely in a critical developmental window in striatal spiny neurons (SPNs), while long-term depression (LTD) was never recorded. Analysis of dendritic spines showed an increase of both spine width and mature mushroom spines in Tor1a +/Δgag neurons, paralleled by an enhanced AMPA receptor (AMPAR) accumulation...
March 5, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497165/mtorc2-in-the-dorsomedial-striatum-of-mice-contributes-to-alcohol-dependent-f-actin-polymerization-structural-modifications-and-consumption
#9
Sophie Laguesse, Nadege Morisot, Khanhky Phamluong, Samuel A Sakhai, Dorit Ron
Actin is highly enriched at dendritic spines, and actin remodeling plays an essential role in structural plasticity. The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) is a regulator of actin polymerization. Here, we report that alcohol consumption increases F-actin content in the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) of mice, thereby altering dendritic spine morphology in a mechanism that requires mTORC2. Specifically, we found that excessive alcohol consumption increases mTORC2 activity in the DMS, and that knockdown of Rictor, an essential component of mTORC2 signaling, reduces actin polymerization, and attenuates the alcohol-dependent alterations in spine head size and the number of mushroom spines...
June 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483281/differential-synaptic-remodeling-by-dopamine-in-direct-and-indirect-striatal-projection-neurons-in-pitx3-mice-a-genetic-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#10
Luz M Suarez, Samuel Alberquilla, Jose R García-Montes, Rosario Moratalla
In toxin-based models of Parkinson's disease (PD), striatal projection neurons (SPNs) exhibit dendritic atrophy and spine loss concurrent with an increase in excitability. Chronic l-DOPA treatment that induces dyskinesia selectively restores spine density and excitability in indirect pathway SPNs (iSPNs), whereas spine loss and hyperexcitability persist in direct pathway SPNs (dSPNs). These alterations have only been characterized in toxin-based models of PD, raising the possibility that they are an artifact of exposure to the toxin, which may engage compensatory mechanisms independent of the PD-like pathology or due to the loss of dopaminergic afferents...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466446/the-cannabinoid-1-receptor-is-abundantly-expressed-in-striatal-striosomes-and-striosome-dendron-bouquets-of-the-substantia-nigra
#11
Margaret I Davis, Jill R Crittenden, Austin Y Feng, David A Kupferschmidt, Alipi Naydenov, Nephi Stella, Ann M Graybiel, David M Lovinger
Presynaptic cannabinoid-1 receptors (CB1-R) bind endogenous and exogenous cannabinoids to modulate neurotransmitter release. CB1-Rs are expressed throughout the basal ganglia, including striatum and substantia nigra, where they play a role in learning and control of motivated actions. However, the pattern of CB1-R expression across different striatal compartments, microcircuits and efferent targets, and the contribution of different CB1-R-expressing neurons to this pattern, are unclear. We use a combination of conventional techniques and novel genetic models to evaluate CB1-R expression in striosome (patch) and matrix compartments of the striatum, and in nigral targets of striatal medium spiny projection neurons (MSNs)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397556/whole-transcriptome-analysis-of-mouse-models-with-mptp-induced-early-stages-of-parkinson-s-disease-reveals-stage-specific-response-of-transcriptome-and-a-possible-role-of-myelin-linked-genes-in-neurodegeneration
#12
A Kh Alieva, V S Zyrin, M M Rudenok, A A Kolacheva, M V Shulskaya, M V Ugryumov, P A Slominsky, M I Shadrina
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. A whole-transcriptome analysis of the substantia nigra and striatum of an MPTP-induced mouse models of the earliest stages of PD was performed. Functional clustering of differentially represented transcripts revealed processes associated with the functioning of synapses, dendrites, axons, and myelination of neuronal projections. All of these processes occur in both the substantia nigra and striatum, but they are aimed at the functioning of neuron terminals in the striatum...
February 3, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374282/the-altered-supramolecular-structure-of-dopamine-d2-receptors-in-disc1-deficient-mice
#13
Taichi Onishi, Hirokazu Sakamoto, Shigeyuki Namiki, Kenzo Hirose
Disc1 is a susceptibility gene for psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. It has been suggested that excess transmission through dopamine type 2 receptors (D2Rs) in the striatum is an underlying mechanism of pathogenesis. In this study, we used super-resolution microscopy to study the distribution of D2Rs at the nanoscale in mice lacking exons 2 and 3 of Disc1 (Disc1-deficient mice). We found that D2Rs in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of wild-type mice form nanoclusters (~ 20,000 nm2 ), and that Disc1-deficient mice have larger and more D2R nanoclusters than wild-type mice...
January 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327199/glycogen-synthase-kinase-3%C3%AE-regulates-equilibrium-between-neurogenesis-and-gliogenesis-in-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease-a-crosstalk-with-wnt-and-notch-signaling
#14
Sonu Singh, Akanksha Mishra, Sachi Bharti, Virendra Tiwari, Jitendra Singh, Parul, Shubha Shukla
Neurogenesis involves generation of functional newborn neurons from neural stem cells (NSCs). Insufficient formation or accelerated degeneration of newborn neurons may contribute to the severity of motor/nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the functional role of adult neurogenesis in PD is yet not explored and whether glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) affects multiple steps of adult neurogenesis in PD is still unknown. We investigated the possible underlying molecular mechanism of impaired adult neurogenesis associated with PD...
January 11, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314192/parvalbumin-producing-striatal-interneurons-receive-excitatory-inputs-onto-proximal-dendrites-from-the-motor-thalamus-in-male-mice
#15
Yasutake Nakano, Fuyuki Karube, Yasuharu Hirai, Kenta Kobayashi, Hiroyuki Hioki, Shinichiro Okamoto, Hiroshi Kameda, Fumino Fujiyama
In rodents, the dorsolateral striatum regulates voluntary movement by integrating excitatory inputs from the motor-related cerebral cortex and thalamus to produce contingent inhibitory output to other basal ganglia nuclei. Striatal parvalbumin (PV)-producing interneurons receiving this excitatory input then inhibit medium spiny neurons (MSNs) and modify their outputs. To understand basal ganglia function in motor control, it is important to reveal the precise synaptic organization of motor-related cortical and thalamic inputs to striatal PV interneurons...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236669/-optically-dissecting-brain-nicotinic-receptor-function-with-photo-controllable-designer-receptors
#16
Romain Durand-de Cuttoli, Sarah Mondoloni, Alexandre Mourot
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are pentameric ligand-gated ion channels widely expressed in the central nervous system and the periphery. They play an important modulatory role in learning, memory and attention, and have been implicated in various diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, schizophrenia and addiction. These receptors are activated by the endogenous neurotransmitter acetylcholine, or by nicotine, the alkaloid found in tobacco leaves. Both molecules open the ion channel and cause the movement of cations across the membrane, which directly affects neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity...
2017: Biologie Aujourd'hui
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229557/%C3%AE-1b-adrenergic-receptor-localization-and-relationship-to-the-d1-dopamine-receptor-in-the-rat-nucleus-accumbens
#17
Darlene A Mitrano, Kelsey Jackson, Samantha Finley, Allison Seeley
The α1-adrenergic receptors (α1ARs) have been implicated in numerous actions of the brain, including attention and wakefulness. Additionally, they have been identified as contributing to disorders of the brain, such as drug addiction, and recent work has shown a role of these receptors in relapse to psychostimulants. While some functionality is known, the actual subcellular localization of the subtypes of the α1ARs remains to be elucidated. Further, their anatomical relationship to receptors for other neurotransmitters, such as dopamine (DA), remains unclear...
February 10, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218729/structural-and-molecular-heterogeneity-of-calretinin-expressing-interneurons-in-the-rodent-and-primate-striatum
#18
Farid N Garas, Eszter Kormann, Rahul S Shah, Federica Vinciati, Yoland Smith, Peter J Magill, Andrew Sharott
Calretinin-expressing (CR+) interneurons are the most common type of striatal interneuron in primates. However, because CR+ interneurons are relatively scarce in rodent striatum, little is known about their molecular and other properties, and they are typically excluded from models of striatal circuitry. Moreover, CR+ interneurons are often treated in models as a single homogenous population, despite previous descriptions of their heterogeneous structures and spatial distributions in rodents and primates. Here, we demonstrate that, in rodents, the combinatorial expression of secretagogin (Scgn), specificity protein 8 (SP8) and/or LIM homeobox protein 7 (Lhx7) separates striatal CR+ interneurons into three structurally and topographically distinct cell populations...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176874/neurturin-overexpression-in-dopaminergic-neurons-induces-presynaptic-and-postsynaptic-structural-changes-in-rats-with-chronic-6-hydroxydopamine-lesion
#19
David Reyes-Corona, Nallely Vázquez-Hernández, Lourdes Escobedo, Carlos E Orozco-Barrios, Jose Ayala-Davila, Mario Gil Moreno, Miriam E Amaro-Lara, Yazmin M Flores-Martinez, Armando J Espadas-Alvarez, Manuel A Fernandez-Parrilla, Juan A Gonzalez-Barrios, M E Gutierrez-Castillo, Ignacio González-Burgos, Daniel Martinez-Fong
The structural effect of neurturin (NRTN) on the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system in animals remains unknown, although NRTN has been shown to be effective in Parkinson's disease animal models. Herein, we aimed to demonstrate that NRTN overexpression in dopaminergic neurons stimulates both neurite outgrowths in the nigrostriatal pathway and striatal dendritic spines in aging rats with chronic 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesion. At week 12 after lesion, pTracer-mNRTN-His or pGreenLantern-1 plasmids were intranigrally transfected using the NTS-polyplex nanoparticles system...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176843/hiv-1-and-cocaine-disrupt-dopamine-reuptake-and-medium-spiny-neurons-in-female-rat-striatum
#20
Mehrak Javadi-Paydar, Robert F Roscoe, Adam R Denton, Charles F Mactutus, Rosemarie M Booze
HIV-1 and addictive drugs, such as cocaine (COC), may act in combination to produce serious neurological complications. In the present experiments, striatal brain slices from HIV-1 transgenic (Tg) and F344 control female rats were studied. First, we examined dopamine (DA) reuptake in control, HIV-1, COC-treated (5µM) and HIV-1+COC-treated, striatal slices using fast scan cyclic voltammetry. COC-treated striatal slices from F344 control animals significantly increased DA reuptake time (T80), relative to untreated control slices...
2017: PloS One
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