Read by QxMD icon Read

Striatum AND dendrites

Larisa Tratnjek, Marko Živin, Gordana Glavan
Synaptotagmin 7 (SYT7) is ubiquitously expressed calcium sensor, involved in neuronal membrane trafficking. Immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that SYT7 interacts with Synaptotagmin-binding, cytoplasmic RNA-interacting protein (SYNCRIP). SYNCRIP is a component of mRNA granules, which are transported to dendrites and are prerequisite for synaptic plasticity. Given the potential significance of SYT7 regulation in processes of neurodegeneration, which are characterized by high level of synaptic vulnerability, we aimed to analyse and compare the distribution of SYT7 and SYNCRIP proteins in the adult rat striatum, hippocampus, cerebral and cerebellar cortex...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Sophie Laguesse, Nadege Morisot, Khanhky Phamluong, Dorit Ron
We previously reported that the kinase AKT is activated in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of rodents in response to excessive consumption of alcohol. One of the important downstream targets of AKT is the mammalian Target Of Rapamycin in Complex 1 (mTORC1), which was also activated by alcohol intake. mTORC1 controls dendritic protein translation, and we showed that the mTORC1-dependent translational machinery is activated in the NAc in response to alcohol intake. Importantly, systemic or intra-NAc inhibition of the AKT/mTORC1 pathway attenuated alcohol-drinking behaviors...
October 20, 2016: Addiction Biology
Minhan Ka, Yeon-Hee Kook, Ke Liao, Shilpa Buch, Woo-Yang Kim
Cocaine is a highly addictive narcotic associated with dendritic spine plasticity in the striatum. However, it remains elusive whether cocaine modifies spines in a cell type-specific or region-specific manner or whether it alters different types of synapses in the brain. In addition, there is a paucity of data on the regulatory mechanism(s) involved in cocaine-induced modification of spine density. In the current study, we report that cocaine exposure differentially alters spine density, spine morphology, and the types of synapses in hippocampal and cortical neurons...
October 13, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
Christoph Straub, Jessica Lizette Saulnier, Aurelien Bègue, Danielle D Feng, Kee Wui Huang, Bernardo Luis Sabatini
The striatum, the entry nucleus of the basal ganglia, lacks laminar or columnar organization of its principal cells; nevertheless, functional data suggest that it is spatially organized. Here we examine whether the connectivity and synaptic organization of striatal GABAergic interneurons contributes to such spatial organization. Focusing on the two main classes of striatal GABAergic interneurons (fast-spiking interneurons [FSIs] and low-threshold-spiking interneurons [LTSIs]), we apply a combination of optogenetics and viral tracing approaches to dissect striatal microcircuits in mice...
October 5, 2016: Neuron
Jill R Crittenden, Paul W Tillberg, Michael H Riad, Yasuyuki Shima, Charles R Gerfen, Jeffrey Curry, David E Housman, Sacha B Nelson, Edward S Boyden, Ann M Graybiel
The dopamine systems of the brain powerfully influence movement and motivation. We demonstrate that striatonigral fibers originating in striosomes form highly unusual bouquet-like arborizations that target bundles of ventrally extending dopamine-containing dendrites and clusters of their parent nigral cell bodies. Retrograde tracing showed that these clustered cell bodies in turn project to the striatum as part of the classic nigrostriatal pathway. Thus, these striosome-dendron formations, here termed "striosome-dendron bouquets," likely represent subsystems with the nigro-striato-nigral loop that are affected in human disorders including Parkinson's disease...
October 4, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Kellie S Gross, Dieter D Brandner, Luis A Martinez, M Foster Olive, Robert L Meisel, Paul G Mermelstein
The group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR1a and mGluR5) are important modulators of neuronal structure and function. Although these receptors share common signaling pathways, they are capable of having distinct effects on cellular plasticity. We investigated the individual effects of mGluR1a or mGluR5 activation on dendritic spine density in medium spiny neurons in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), which has become relevant with the potential use of group I mGluR based therapeutics in the treatment of drug addiction...
2016: PloS One
Marine Salery, Marc Dos Santos, Estefani Saint-Jour, Lara Moumné, Christiane Pagès, Vincent Kappès, Sébastien Parnaudeau, Jocelyne Caboche, Peter Vanhoutte
BACKGROUND: Addiction relies on persistent alterations of neuronal properties, which depends on gene regulation. Activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc) is an immediate early gene that modulates neuronal plasticity underlying learning and memory. Its role in cocaine-induced neuronal and behavioral adaptations remains elusive. METHODS: Acute cocaine-treated mice were used for quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, immunocytochemistry, and confocal imaging from striatum...
June 16, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
Daniel T Christian, Xiaoting Wang, Eugenia L Chen, Lakshya K Sehgal, Michael N Ghassemlou, Julia J Miao, Derenik Estepanian, Cameron H Araghi, Grace E Stutzmann, Marina E Wolf
Chronic cocaine exposure influences the density and morphology of dendritic spines on medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a critical brain region for cocaine craving. However, the relationship between spine plasticity and craving remains unclear. To study this relationship, we trained rats to self-administer cocaine using an extended-access regimen (6 h/day, 10 days); controls self-administered saline. Previously, a time-dependent intensification (incubation) of cue-induced cocaine craving has been demonstrated after withdrawal from this regimen; furthermore, Ca(2+)-permeable AMPA receptors (CP-AMPARs) increase in the NAc core after ~1 month of withdrawal and thereafter mediate the expression of incubated craving...
August 24, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Dibyadeep Datta, Dominique Arion, Kaitlyn M Roman, David W Volk, David A Lewis
OBJECTIVE: Lower dendritic spine density on layer 3 pyramidal cells in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) appears to contribute to cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia, whereas psychosis is associated with excessive dopamine release in the striatum. These findings may be related via excitatory projections from the DLPFC to the ventral mesencephalon, the location of dopamine cells projecting to the striatum. Consistent with this hypothesis, deletion of the actin-related protein-2/3 (ARP2/3) complex, which regulates the actin cytoskeleton supporting dendritic spines, produced spine loss in cortical pyramidal cells and striatal hyperdopaminergia in mice...
August 13, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
Masaaki Sato, Masako Kawano, Yuchio Yanagawa, Yasunori Hayashi
Imaging studies of the subcortical striatum in vivo have been technically challenging despite its functional importance in movement control and procedural learning. Here, we report a method for imaging striatal neuronal circuits in mice in vivo using two-photon microscopy. Cell bodies and intermingled dendrites of GABAergic neurons labeled with fluorescent proteins were imaged in the dorsal striatum through an imaging window implanted in the overlying cortex. This technique could be highly useful for studying the structure and function of striatal networks at cellular and subcellular resolutions in normal mice, as well as in mouse models of neurological disorders...
July 8, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Tomas Garzon-Muvdi, Antonella Mangraviti, Debebe Theodros, Eileen Kim, Michael Jay Yellin, Henry Marsh, Michael Lim
INTRODUCTION: FLT3L induces expansion and recruitment of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) into the brain. By increasing antigen presentation, FLT3L agonists may enhance an immune response against glioblastoma (GBM). Previous results suggest that the antitumor response generated by FLT3 is secondary to production of interferon gamma. We studied the effect of FLT3L treatment of mice with a syngeneic GBM model. METHODS: Under ACUC approval, 32 mice underwent implantation of 130 000 GL261 cells in the left striatum using a stereotactic frame...
August 2016: Neurosurgery
Bridget A Matikainen-Ankney, Nebojsa Kezunovic, Roxana E Mesias, Yuan Tian, Frances M Williams, George W Huntley, Deanna L Benson
UNLABELLED: Mutations in the gene encoding leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) can cause Parkinson's disease (PD), and the most common disease-associated mutation, G2019S, increases kinase activity. Because LRRK2 expression levels rise during synaptogenesis and are highest in dorsal striatal spiny projection neurons (SPNs), we tested the hypothesis that the LRRK2-G2019S mutation would alter development of excitatory synaptic networks in dorsal striatum. To circumvent experimental confounds associated with LRRK2 overexpression, we used mice expressing LRRK2-G2019S or D2017A (kinase-dead) knockin mutations...
July 6, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Wang-Shu Xu, Xuan Sun, Cheng-Guang Song, Xiao-Peng Mu, Wen-Ping Ma, Xing-Hu Zhang, Chuan-Sheng Zhao
Bumetanide has been shown to lessen cerebral edema and reduce the infarct area in the acute stage of cerebral ischemia. Few studies focus on the effects of bumetanide on neuroprotection and neurogenesis in the chronic stage of cerebral ischemia. We established a rat model of cerebral ischemia by injecting endothelin-1 in the left cortical motor area and left corpus striatum. Seven days later, bumetanide 200 µg/kg/day was injected into the lateral ventricle for 21 consecutive days with a mini-osmotic pump. Results demonstrated that the number of neuroblasts cells and the total length of dendrites increased, escape latency reduced, and the number of platform crossings increased in the rat hippocampal dentate gyrus in the chronic stage of cerebral ischemia...
May 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
Keigo Tamakoshi, Kentaro Kawanaka, Hideaki Onishi, Yasuyuki Takamatsu, Kazuto Ishida
BACKGROUND: In this study, we examined the effects of motor skills training on the sensorimotor function and the expression of genes associated with synaptic plasticity after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in rats. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were subjected to ICH or sham operation. ICH was caused by the injection of collagenase into the left striatum. Rats were randomly assigned to no training, acrobatic training, and sham groups. The acrobatic group performed 5 types of acrobatic tasks from 4 to 28 days after surgery...
August 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Marco Aurelio M Freire, Joanilson S Guimaraes, Jose Ronaldo Santos, Hougelle Simplício, Walace Gomez-Leal
Excitotoxicity is the major component in neuropathological conditions, related to harmful action of imbalanced concentrations of glutamate and its agonists in the nervous tissue, ultimately resulting in cell death. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of an acute striatal lesion induced by a focal N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) microinjection on the morphometry of NADPH diaphorase-reactive neurons (NADPH-d(+) ), a subset of cells which release nitric oxide (NO) in the brain and are known by its resistance in pathological conditions...
May 29, 2016: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
Yun-Ping Deng, Anton Reiner
We have previously found that thalamostriatal axodendritic terminals are reduced as early as 1 month of age in heterozygous Q140 HD mice (Deng et al., 2013). As cholinergic interneurons are a major target of thalamic axodendritic terminals, we examined the VGLUT2 immunolabeled thalamic input to striatal cholinergic interneurons in heterozygous Q140 males at 1 and 4 months of age, using choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunolabeling to identify cholinergic interneurons. Although blinded neuron counts showed that ChAT+ perikarya were normal in abundance in Q140 mice, size measurements indicated they were significantly smaller...
May 24, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Tamara Andres, Thomas Ernst, Kenichi Oishi, David Greenstein, Helenna Nakama, Linda Chang
Methamphetamine (Meth) use disorder continues to be highly prevalent worldwide. Meth users have higher impulsivity and brain abnormalities that may be different between current and past Meth users. The current study assessed impulsivity and depressive symptoms in 94 participants (27 current Meth users, 32 past Meth users and 35 non-drug user controls). Additionally, brain microstructure was assessed using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI); fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) were assessed in the striatum, and FA, MD, radial and axial diffusivity were quantified in five white matter structures using DtiStudio...
September 2016: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
Caodu Buren, Gaqi Tu, Matthew P Parsons, Marja D Sepers, Lynn A Raymond
Corticostriatal cocultures are utilized to recapitulate the cortex-striatum connection in vitro as a convenient model to investigate the development, function, and regulation of synapses formed between cortical and striatal neurons. However, optimization of this dissociated neuronal system to more closely reproduce in vivo circuits has not yet been explored. We studied the effect of varying the plating ratio of cortical to striatal neurons on striatal spiny projection neuron (SPN) characteristics in primary neuronal cocultures...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Daniel J Liput, Van B Lu, Margaret I Davis, Henry L Puhl, Stephen R Ikeda
Rem2 is a member of the RGK subfamily of RAS small GTPases. Rem2 inhibits high voltage activated calcium channels, is involved in synaptogenesis, and regulates dendritic morphology. Rem2 is the primary RGK protein expressed in the nervous system, but to date, the precise expression patterns of this protein are unknown. In this study, we characterized Rem2 expression in the mouse nervous system. In the CNS, Rem2 mRNA was detected in all regions examined, but was enriched in the striatum. An antibody specific for Rem2 was validated using a Rem2 knockout mouse model and used to show abundant expression in striatonigral and striatopallidal medium spiny neurons but not in several interneuron populations...
2016: Scientific Reports
Vibeke M Bruinenberg, Danique van Vliet, Amos Attali, Martijn C de Wilde, Mirjam Kuhn, Francjan J van Spronsen, Eddy A van der Zee
The inherited metabolic disease phenylketonuria (PKU) is characterized by increased concentrations of phenylalanine in the blood and brain, and as a consequence neurotransmitter metabolism, white matter, and synapse functioning are affected. A specific nutrient combination (SNC) has been shown to improve synapse formation, morphology and function. This could become an interesting new nutritional approach for PKU. To assess whether treatment with SNC can affect synapses, we treated PKU mice with SNC or an isocaloric control diet and wild-type (WT) mice with an isocaloric control for 12 weeks, starting at postnatal day 31...
2016: Nutrients
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"