Read by QxMD icon Read

Striatum AND dendrites

Mohammad Javad Ebrahimi, Abbas Aliaghaei, Mahdi Eskandarian Boroujeni, Fariba Khodagholi, Gholamhoussein Meftahi, Mohammad Amin Abdollahifar, Houssein Ahmadi, Samira Danyali, Mahtab Daftari, Yousef Sadeghi
Huntington disease (HD) is an inherited disorder hallmarked by progressive deterioration of specific neurons, followed by movement and cognitive anomalies. Cell therapy approaches in neurodegenerative conditions have concentrated on the replenishment of lost/dying neurons with functional ones. Multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been represented as a potential remedy for HD. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of umbilical cord matrix stem cells (UCMSCs) and their paracrine effect against oxidative stress with a specific focus on HD...
March 8, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
Marta Maltese, Jennifer Stanic, Annalisa Tassone, Giuseppe Sciamanna, Giulia Ponterio, Valentina Vanni, Giuseppina Martella, Paola Imbriani, Paola Bonsi, Nicola Biagio Mercuri, Fabrizio Gardoni, Antonio Pisani
The onset of abnormal movements in DYT1 dystonia is between childhood and adolescence, though it is unclear why clinical manifestations appear during this developmental period. Plasticity at corticostriatal synapses is critically involved in motor memory. In the Tor1a +/Δgag DYT1 dystonia mouse model, long-term potentiation (LTP) appeared prematurely in a critical developmental window in striatal spiny neurons (SPNs), while long-term depression (LTD) was never recorded. Analysis of dendritic spines showed an increase of both spine width and mature mushroom spines in Tor1a +/Δgag neurons, paralleled by an enhanced AMPA receptor (AMPAR) accumulation...
March 5, 2018: ELife
Sophie Laguesse, Nadege Morisot, Khanhky Phamluong, Samuel A Sakhai, Dorit Ron
Actin is highly enriched at dendritic spines, and actin remodeling plays an essential role in structural plasticity. The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) is a regulator of actin polymerization. Here, we report that alcohol consumption increases F-actin content in the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) of mice, thereby altering dendritic spine morphology in a mechanism that requires mTORC2. Specifically, we found that excessive alcohol consumption increases mTORC2 activity in the DMS, and that knockdown of Rictor, an essential component of mTORC2 signaling, reduces actin polymerization, and attenuates the alcohol-dependent alterations in spine head size and the number of mushroom spines...
February 7, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Luz M Suarez, Samuel Alberquilla, Jose R García-Montes, Rosario Moratalla
In toxin-based models of Parkinson's disease (PD), striatal projection neurons (SPNs) exhibit dendritic atrophy and spine loss concurrent with an increase in excitability. Chronic L-DOPA-treatment that induces dyskinesia selectively restores spine density and excitability in indirect pathway SPNs (iSPNs), whereas spine loss and hyper-excitability persist in direct pathway SPNs (dSPNs). These alterations have only been characterized in toxin-based models of PD, raising the possibility that they are an artifact of exposure to the toxin, which may engage compensatory mechanisms independent of the PD-like pathology or due to the loss of dopaminergic afferents...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Margaret I Davis, Jill R Crittenden, Austin Y Feng, David A Kupferschmidt, Alipi Naydenov, Nephi Stella, Ann M Graybiel, David M Lovinger
Presynaptic cannabinoid-1 receptors (CB1-R) bind endogenous and exogenous cannabinoids to modulate neurotransmitter release. CB1-Rs are expressed throughout the basal ganglia, including striatum and substantia nigra, where they play a role in learning and control of motivated actions. However, the pattern of CB1-R expression across different striatal compartments, microcircuits and efferent targets, and the contribution of different CB1-R-expressing neurons to this pattern, are unclear. We use a combination of conventional techniques and novel genetic models to evaluate CB1-R expression in striosome (patch) and matrix compartments of the striatum, and in nigral targets of striatal medium spiny projection neurons (MSNs)...
2018: PloS One
A Kh Alieva, V S Zyrin, M M Rudenok, A A Kolacheva, M V Shulskaya, M V Ugryumov, P A Slominsky, M I Shadrina
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. A whole-transcriptome analysis of the substantia nigra and striatum of an MPTP-induced mouse models of the earliest stages of PD was performed. Functional clustering of differentially represented transcripts revealed processes associated with the functioning of synapses, dendrites, axons, and myelination of neuronal projections. All of these processes occur in both the substantia nigra and striatum, but they are aimed at the functioning of neuron terminals in the striatum...
February 3, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Taichi Onishi, Hirokazu Sakamoto, Shigeyuki Namiki, Kenzo Hirose
Disc1 is a susceptibility gene for psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. It has been suggested that excess transmission through dopamine type 2 receptors (D2Rs) in the striatum is an underlying mechanism of pathogenesis. In this study, we used super-resolution microscopy to study the distribution of D2Rs at the nanoscale in mice lacking exons 2 and 3 of Disc1 (Disc1-deficient mice). We found that D2Rs in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of wild-type mice form nanoclusters (~ 20,000 nm2), and that Disc1-deficient mice have larger and more D2R nanoclusters than wild-type mice...
January 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sonu Singh, Akanksha Mishra, Sachi Bharti, Virendra Tiwari, Jitendra Singh, Parul, Shubha Shukla
Neurogenesis involves generation of functional newborn neurons from neural stem cells (NSCs). Insufficient formation or accelerated degeneration of newborn neurons may contribute to the severity of motor/nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the functional role of adult neurogenesis in PD is yet not explored and whether glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) affects multiple steps of adult neurogenesis in PD is still unknown. We investigated the possible underlying molecular mechanism of impaired adult neurogenesis associated with PD...
January 11, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Yasutake Nakano, Fuyuki Karube, Yasuharu Hirai, Kenta Kobayashi, Hiroyuki Hioki, Shinichiro Okamoto, Hiroshi Kameda, Fumino Fujiyama
In rodents, the dorsolateral striatum regulates voluntary movement by integrating excitatory inputs from the motor-related cerebral cortex and thalamus to produce contingent inhibitory output to other basal ganglia nuclei. Striatal parvalbumin (PV)-producing interneurons receiving this excitatory input then inhibit medium spiny neurons (MSNs) and modify their outputs. To understand basal ganglia function in motor control, it is important to reveal the precise synaptic organization of motor-related cortical and thalamic inputs to striatal PV interneurons...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Romain Durand-de Cuttoli, Sarah Mondoloni, Alexandre Mourot
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are pentameric ligand-gated ion channels widely expressed in the central nervous system and the periphery. They play an important modulatory role in learning, memory and attention, and have been implicated in various diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, schizophrenia and addiction. These receptors are activated by the endogenous neurotransmitter acetylcholine, or by nicotine, the alkaloid found in tobacco leaves. Both molecules open the ion channel and cause the movement of cations across the membrane, which directly affects neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity...
2017: Biologie Aujourd'hui
Darlene A Mitrano, Kelsey Jackson, Samantha Finley, Allison Seeley
The α1-adrenergic receptors (α1ARs) have been implicated in numerous actions of the brain, including attention and wakefulness. Additionally, they have been identified as contributing to disorders of the brain, such as drug addiction, and recent work has shown a role of these receptors in relapse to psychostimulants. While some functionality is known, the actual subcellular localization of the subtypes of the α1ARs remains to be elucidated. Further, their anatomical relationship to receptors for other neurotransmitters, such as dopamine (DA), remains unclear...
February 10, 2018: Neuroscience
Farid N Garas, Eszter Kormann, Rahul S Shah, Federica Vinciati, Yoland Smith, Peter J Magill, Andrew Sharott
Calretinin-expressing (CR+) interneurons are the most common type of striatal interneuron in primates. However, because CR+ interneurons are relatively scarce in rodent striatum, little is known about their molecular and other properties, and they are typically excluded from models of striatal circuitry. Moreover, CR+ interneurons are often treated in models as a single homogenous population, despite previous descriptions of their heterogeneous structures and spatial distributions in rodents and primates. Here, we demonstrate that, in rodents, the combinatorial expression of secretagogin (Scgn), specificity protein 8 (SP8) and/or LIM homeobox protein 7 (Lhx7) separates striatal CR+ interneurons into three structurally and topographically distinct cell populations...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
David Reyes-Corona, Nallely Vázquez-Hernández, Lourdes Escobedo, Carlos E Orozco-Barrios, Jose Ayala-Davila, Mario Gil Moreno, Miriam E Amaro-Lara, Yazmin M Flores-Martinez, Armando J Espadas-Alvarez, Manuel A Fernandez-Parrilla, Juan A Gonzalez-Barrios, M E Gutierrez-Castillo, Ignacio González-Burgos, Daniel Martinez-Fong
The structural effect of neurturin (NRTN) on the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system in animals remains unknown, although NRTN has been shown to be effective in Parkinson's disease animal models. Herein, we aimed to demonstrate that NRTN overexpression in dopaminergic neurons stimulates both neurite outgrowths in the nigrostriatal pathway and striatal dendritic spines in aging rats with chronic 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesion. At week 12 after lesion, pTracer-mNRTN-His or pGreenLantern-1 plasmids were intranigrally transfected using the NTS-polyplex nanoparticles system...
2017: PloS One
Mehrak Javadi-Paydar, Robert F Roscoe, Adam R Denton, Charles F Mactutus, Rosemarie M Booze
HIV-1 and addictive drugs, such as cocaine (COC), may act in combination to produce serious neurological complications. In the present experiments, striatal brain slices from HIV-1 transgenic (Tg) and F344 control female rats were studied. First, we examined dopamine (DA) reuptake in control, HIV-1, COC-treated (5µM) and HIV-1+COC-treated, striatal slices using fast scan cyclic voltammetry. COC-treated striatal slices from F344 control animals significantly increased DA reuptake time (T80), relative to untreated control slices...
2017: PloS One
Na Zhou, Sean P Masterson, James K Damron, William Guido, Martha E Bickford
The pulvinar nucleus is a large thalamic structure involved in the integration of visual and motor signals. The pulvinar forms extensive connections with striate and extrastriate cortical areas, but the impact of these connections on cortical circuits has not previously been directly tested. Using a variety of anatomical, optogenetic, and in vitro physiological techniques in male and female mice, we show that pulvinocortical terminals are densely distributed in the extrastriate cortex where they form synaptic connections with spines and small-diameter dendrites...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Xiaohan Zhang, Shenquan Liu, Feibiao Zhan, Jing Wang, Xiaofang Jiang
The damage of dopaminergic neurons that innervate the striatum has been considered to be the proximate cause of Parkinson's disease (PD). In the dopamine-denervated state, the loss of dendritic spines and the decrease of dendritic length may prevent medium spiny neuron (MSN) from receiving too much excitatory stimuli from the cortex, thereby reducing the symptom of Parkinson's disease. However, the reduction in dendritic spine density obtained by different experiments is significantly different. We developed a biological-based network computational model to quantify the effect of dendritic spine loss and dendrites tree degeneration on basal ganglia (BG) signal regulation...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
Henna Martiskainen, Kaisa M A Paldanius, Teemu Natunen, Mari Takalo, Mikael Marttinen, Stina Leskelä, Nadine Huber, Petra Mäkinen, Enni Bertling, Hiramani Dhungana, Mikko Huuskonen, Paavo Honkakoski, Pirta Hotulainen, Kirsi Rilla, Jari Koistinaho, Hilkka Soininen, Tarja Malm, Annakaisa Haapasalo, Mikko Hiltunen
BACKGROUND: DHCR24, involved in the de novo synthesis of cholesterol and protection of neuronal cells against different stress conditions, has been shown to be selectively downregulated in neurons of the affected brain areas in Alzheimer's disease. METHODS: Here, we investigated whether the overexpression of DHCR24 protects neurons against inflammation-induced neuronal death using co-cultures of mouse embryonic primary cortical neurons and BV2 microglial cells upon acute neuroinflammation...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Laura Hui-Ru Tan, Angela Jin-Rong Tan, Yu-Ying Ng, John Jia-En Chua, Wee-Siong Chew, Sneha Muralidharan, Federico Torta, Bamaprasad Dutta, Siu Kwan Sze, Deron R Herr, Wei-Yi Ong
Sphingomyelinases are a family of enzymes that hydrolyze sphingomyelin to generate phosphocholine and ceramide. The brain distribution and function of neutral sphingomyelinase 2 (nSMase2) were elucidated in this study. nSMase2 mRNA expression was greatest in the striatum, followed by the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum, thalamus, brainstem, and olfactory bulb. The striatum had the highest level of nSMase2 protein expression, followed by the prefrontal cortex, thalamus, hippocampus, brainstem, and cerebellum...
October 17, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
Marc Dos Santos, Emma N Cahill, Gregory Dal Bo, Peter Vanhoutte, Jocelyne Caboche, Bruno Giros, Nicolas Heck
The development of addictive behavior is associated with functional and structural plasticity in the mesocorticolimbic pathway. Increased connectivity upon cocaine administration has been inferred from increases in dendritic spine density, but without observations of presynaptic elements. Recently, we established a method that enables analyses of both dendritic spines and glutamatergic boutons and presented evidence that cocaine induces changes in striatal connectivity. As the pharmacological and behavioral effects of cocaine directly implicate dopaminergic neurons and their afferents, a remaining question is whether dopaminergic striatal innervations also undergo structural plasticity...
October 12, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
Gerard J Marek
Recordings made from layer V (L5) pyramidal cells of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and neocortex in rodent slice preparations have shown that serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) and serotonergic hallucinogens induce an increase in the frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) in the apical dendritic field by activating 5-HT2A receptors. Serotonergic hallucinogens induce late EPSCs and increase recurrent network activity when subcortical or mid-cortical regions are stimulated at low frequencies (e...
August 23, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"