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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327199/glycogen-synthase-kinase-3%C3%AE-regulates-equilibrium-between-neurogenesis-and-gliogenesis-in-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease-a-crosstalk-with-wnt-and-notch-signaling
#1
Sonu Singh, Akanksha Mishra, Sachi Bharti, Virendra Tiwari, Jitendra Singh, Parul, Shubha Shukla
Neurogenesis involves generation of functional newborn neurons from neural stem cells (NSCs). Insufficient formation or accelerated degeneration of newborn neurons may contribute to the severity of motor/nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the functional role of adult neurogenesis in PD is yet not explored and whether glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) affects multiple steps of adult neurogenesis in PD is still unknown. We investigated the possible underlying molecular mechanism of impaired adult neurogenesis associated with PD...
January 11, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314192/parvalbumin-producing-striatal-interneurons-receive-excitatory-inputs-onto-proximal-dendrites-from-the-motor-thalamus-in-male-mice
#2
Yasutake Nakano, Fuyuki Karube, Yasuharu Hirai, Kenta Kobayashi, Hiroyuki Hioki, Shinichiro Okamoto, Hiroshi Kameda, Fumino Fujiyama
In rodents, the dorsolateral striatum regulates voluntary movement by integrating excitatory inputs from the motor-related cerebral cortex and thalamus to produce contingent inhibitory output to other basal ganglia nuclei. Striatal parvalbumin (PV)-producing interneurons receiving this excitatory input then inhibit medium spiny neurons (MSNs) and modify their outputs. To understand basal ganglia function in motor control, it is important to reveal the precise synaptic organization of motor-related cortical and thalamic inputs to striatal PV interneurons...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236669/-optically-dissecting-brain-nicotinic-receptor-function-with-photo-controllable-designer-receptors
#3
Romain Durand-de Cuttoli, Sarah Mondoloni, Alexandre Mourot
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are pentameric ligand-gated ion channels widely expressed in the central nervous system and the periphery. They play an important modulatory role in learning, memory and attention, and have been implicated in various diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, schizophrenia and addiction. These receptors are activated by the endogenous neurotransmitter acetylcholine, or by nicotine, the alkaloid found in tobacco leaves. Both molecules open the ion channel and cause the movement of cations across the membrane, which directly affects neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity...
2017: Biologie Aujourd'hui
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229557/%C3%AE-1b-adrenergic-receptor-localization-and-relationship-to-the-d1-dopamine-receptor-in-the-rat-nucleus-accumbens
#4
Darlene A Mitrano, Kelsey Jackson, Samantha Finley, Allison Seeley
The α1-adrenergic receptors (α1ARs) have been implicated in numerous actions of the brain, including attention and wakefulness. Additionally, they have been identified as contributing to disorders of the brain, such as drug addiction, and recent work has shown a role of these receptors in relapse to psychostimulants. While some functionality is known, the actual subcellular localization of the subtypes of the α1ARs remains to be elucidated. Further, their anatomical relationship to receptors for other neurotransmitters, such as dopamine (DA), remains unclear...
December 8, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218729/structural-and-molecular-heterogeneity-of-calretinin-expressing-interneurons-in-the-rodent-and-primate-striatum
#5
Farid N Garas, Eszter Kormann, Rahul S Shah, Federica Vinciati, Yoland Smith, Peter J Magill, Andrew Sharott
Calretinin-expressing (CR+) interneurons are the most common type of striatal interneuron in primates. However, because CR+ interneurons are relatively scarce in rodent striatum, little is known about their molecular and other properties, and they are typically excluded from models of striatal circuitry. Moreover, CR+ interneurons are often treated in models as a single homogenous population, despite previous descriptions of their heterogeneous structures and spatial distributions in rodents and primates. Here, we demonstrate that, in rodents, the combinatorial expression of secretagogin (Scgn), specificity protein 8 (SP8) and/or LIM homeobox protein 7 (Lhx7) separates striatal CR+ interneurons into 3 structurally- and topographically-distinct cell populations...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176874/neurturin-overexpression-in-dopaminergic-neurons-induces-presynaptic-and-postsynaptic-structural-changes-in-rats-with-chronic-6-hydroxydopamine-lesion
#6
David Reyes-Corona, Nallely Vázquez-Hernández, Lourdes Escobedo, Carlos E Orozco-Barrios, Jose Ayala-Davila, Mario Gil Moreno, Miriam E Amaro-Lara, Yazmin M Flores-Martinez, Armando J Espadas-Alvarez, Manuel A Fernandez-Parrilla, Juan A Gonzalez-Barrios, M E Gutierrez-Castillo, Ignacio González-Burgos, Daniel Martinez-Fong
The structural effect of neurturin (NRTN) on the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system in animals remains unknown, although NRTN has been shown to be effective in Parkinson's disease animal models. Herein, we aimed to demonstrate that NRTN overexpression in dopaminergic neurons stimulates both neurite outgrowths in the nigrostriatal pathway and striatal dendritic spines in aging rats with chronic 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesion. At week 12 after lesion, pTracer-mNRTN-His or pGreenLantern-1 plasmids were intranigrally transfected using the NTS-polyplex nanoparticles system...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176843/hiv-1-and-cocaine-disrupt-dopamine-reuptake-and-medium-spiny-neurons-in-female-rat-striatum
#7
Mehrak Javadi-Paydar, Robert F Roscoe, Adam R Denton, Charles F Mactutus, Rosemarie M Booze
HIV-1 and addictive drugs, such as cocaine (COC), may act in combination to produce serious neurological complications. In the present experiments, striatal brain slices from HIV-1 transgenic (Tg) and F344 control female rats were studied. First, we examined dopamine (DA) reuptake in control, HIV-1, COC-treated (5µM) and HIV-1+COC-treated, striatal slices using fast scan cyclic voltammetry. COC-treated striatal slices from F344 control animals significantly increased DA reuptake time (T80), relative to untreated control slices...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175956/the-mouse-pulvinar-nucleus-links-the-lateral-extrastriate-cortex-striatum-and-amygdala
#8
N Zhou, S P Masterson, J K Damron, W Guido, M E Bickford
The pulvinar nucleus is a large thalamic structure involved in the integration of visual and motor signals. The pulvinar forms extensive connections with striate and extrastriate cortical areas, but the impact of these connections on cortical circuits has not previously been directly tested. Using a variety of anatomical, optogenetic, and in vitro physiological techniques in male and female mice, we show that pulvinocortical terminals are densely distributed in the extrastriate cortex where they form synaptic connections with spines and small diameter dendrites...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123477/the-effects-of-medium-spiny-neuron-morphologcial-changes-on-basal-ganglia-network-under-external-electric-field-a-computational-modeling-study
#9
Xiaohan Zhang, Shenquan Liu, Feibiao Zhan, Jing Wang, Xiaofang Jiang
The damage of dopaminergic neurons that innervate the striatum has been considered to be the proximate cause of Parkinson's disease (PD). In the dopamine-denervated state, the loss of dendritic spines and the decrease of dendritic length may prevent medium spiny neuron (MSN) from receiving too much excitatory stimuli from the cortex, thereby reducing the symptom of Parkinson's disease. However, the reduction in dendritic spine density obtained by different experiments is significantly different. We developed a biological-based network computational model to quantify the effect of dendritic spine loss and dendrites tree degeneration on basal ganglia (BG) signal regulation...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115990/dhcr24-exerts-neuroprotection-upon-inflammation-induced-neuronal-death
#10
Henna Martiskainen, Kaisa M A Paldanius, Teemu Natunen, Mari Takalo, Mikael Marttinen, Stina Leskelä, Nadine Huber, Petra Mäkinen, Enni Bertling, Hiramani Dhungana, Mikko Huuskonen, Paavo Honkakoski, Pirta Hotulainen, Kirsi Rilla, Jari Koistinaho, Hilkka Soininen, Tarja Malm, Annakaisa Haapasalo, Mikko Hiltunen
BACKGROUND: DHCR24, involved in the de novo synthesis of cholesterol and protection of neuronal cells against different stress conditions, has been shown to be selectively downregulated in neurons of the affected brain areas in Alzheimer's disease. METHODS: Here, we investigated whether the overexpression of DHCR24 protects neurons against inflammation-induced neuronal death using co-cultures of mouse embryonic primary cortical neurons and BV2 microglial cells upon acute neuroinflammation...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043558/enriched-expression-of-neutral-sphingomyelinase-2-in-the-striatum-is-essential-for-regulation-of-lipid-raft-content-and-motor-coordination
#11
Laura Hui-Ru Tan, Angela Jin-Rong Tan, Yu-Ying Ng, John Jia-En Chua, Wee-Siong Chew, Sneha Muralidharan, Federico Torta, Bamaprasad Dutta, Siu Kwan Sze, Deron R Herr, Wei-Yi Ong
Sphingomyelinases are a family of enzymes that hydrolyze sphingomyelin to generate phosphocholine and ceramide. The brain distribution and function of neutral sphingomyelinase 2 (nSMase2) were elucidated in this study. nSMase2 mRNA expression was greatest in the striatum, followed by the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum, thalamus, brainstem, and olfactory bulb. The striatum had the highest level of nSMase2 protein expression, followed by the prefrontal cortex, thalamus, hippocampus, brainstem, and cerebellum...
October 17, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027032/cocaine-increases-dopaminergic-connectivity-in-the-nucleus-accumbens
#12
Marc Dos Santos, Emma N Cahill, Gregory Dal Bo, Peter Vanhoutte, Jocelyne Caboche, Bruno Giros, Nicolas Heck
The development of addictive behavior is associated with functional and structural plasticity in the mesocorticolimbic pathway. Increased connectivity upon cocaine administration has been inferred from increases in dendritic spine density, but without observations of presynaptic elements. Recently, we established a method that enables analyses of both dendritic spines and glutamatergic boutons and presented evidence that cocaine induces changes in striatal connectivity. As the pharmacological and behavioral effects of cocaine directly implicate dopaminergic neurons and their afferents, a remaining question is whether dopaminergic striatal innervations also undergo structural plasticity...
October 12, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831734/interactions-of-hallucinogens-with-the-glutamatergic-system-permissive-network-effects-mediated-through-cortical-layer-v-pyramidal-neurons
#13
Gerard J Marek
Recordings made from layer V (L5) pyramidal cells of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and neocortex in rodent slice preparations have shown that serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) and serotonergic hallucinogens induce an increase in the frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) in the apical dendritic field by activating 5-HT2A receptors. Serotonergic hallucinogens induce late EPSCs and increase recurrent network activity when subcortical or mid-cortical regions are stimulated at low frequencies (e...
August 23, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802898/neurochemical-evidence-that-cocaine-and-amphetamine-regulated-transcript-cart-55-102-peptide-modulates-the-dopaminergic-reward-system-by-decreasing-the-dopamine-release-in-the-mouse-nucleus-accumbens
#14
Angelina Rakovska, Maria Baranyi, Katalin Windisch, Polina Petkova-Kirova, Hristo Gagov, Reni Kalfin
CART (Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript) peptide is a neurotransmitter naturally occurring in the CNS and found mostly in nucleus accumbens, ventrotegmental area, ventral pallidum, amygdalae and striatum, brain regions associated with drug addiction. In the nucleus accumbens, known for its significant role in motivation, pleasure, reward and reinforcement learning, CART peptide inhibits cocaine and amphetamine-induced dopamine-mediated increases in locomotor activity and behavior, suggesting a CART peptide interaction with the dopaminergic system...
August 9, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798977/risperidone-and-aripiprazole-alleviate-prenatal-valproic-acid-induced-abnormalities-in-behaviors-and-dendritic-spine-density-in-mice
#15
Yuta Hara, Yukio Ago, Atsuki Taruta, Shigeru Hasebe, Haruki Kawase, Wataru Tanabe, Shinji Tsukada, Takanobu Nakazawa, Hitoshi Hashimoto, Toshio Matsuda, Kazuhiro Takuma
RATIONALE: Rodents exposed prenatally to valproic acid (VPA) exhibit autism spectrum disorder (ASD)-like behavioral abnormalities. We recently found that prenatal VPA exposure causes hypofunction of the prefrontal dopaminergic system in mice. This suggests that the dopaminergic system may be a potential pharmacological target for treatment of behavioral abnormalities in ASD patients. OBJECTIVES: In the present study, we examined the effects of antipsychotic drugs, which affect the dopaminergic system, on the social interaction deficits, recognition memory impairment, and reduction in dendritic spine density in the VPA mouse model of ASD...
November 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733355/erk-mapk-signaling-is-required-for-pathway-specific-striatal-motor-functions
#16
Scott R Hutton, James M Otis, Erin M Kim, Yashna Lamsal, Garret D Stuber, William D Snider
The ERK/MAPK intracellular signaling pathway is hypothesized to be a key regulator of striatal activity via modulation of synaptic plasticity and gene transcription. However, prior investigations into striatal ERK/MAPK functions have yielded conflicting results. Further, these studies have not delineated the cell-type-specific roles of ERK/MAPK signaling due to the reliance on globally administered pharmacological ERK/MAPK inhibitors and the use of genetic models that only partially reduce total ERK/MAPK activity...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634551/mechanisms-and-consequences-of-dopamine-depletion-induced-attenuation-of-the-spinophilin-neurofilament-medium-interaction
#17
Andrew C Hiday, Michael C Edler, Asma B Salek, Cameron W Morris, Morrent Thang, Tyler J Rentz, Kristie L Rose, Lisa M Jones, Anthony J Baucum
Signaling changes that occur in the striatum following the loss of dopamine neurons in the Parkinson disease (PD) are poorly understood. While increases in the activity of kinases and decreases in the activity of phosphatases have been observed, the specific consequences of these changes are less well understood. Phosphatases, such as protein phosphatase 1 (PP1), are highly promiscuous and obtain substrate selectivity via targeting proteins. Spinophilin is the major PP1-targeting protein enriched in the postsynaptic density of striatal dendritic spines...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633952/chronic-methylphenidate-regulates-genes-and-proteins-mediating-neuroplasticity-in-the-juvenile-rat-brain
#18
Emmanuel Quansah, Tiziana Sgamma, Estabraq Jaddoa, Tyra S C Zetterström
Methylphenidate (MPH) is the front-line psychostimulant medication prescribed for alleviating the symptoms associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. Here, we investigated the effects of chronic MPH (2.0mg/kg, twice daily for 15days) exposure to young rats (20-25days old at start of treatment) on the expression of genes and proteins associated with neuroplasticity, such as activity regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc), insulin receptor substrate protein 53 (IRSp53), cell division control protein 42 (Cdc42), and actin-related protein 2 (Arp2)...
June 17, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578004/alterations-of-striatal-indirect-pathway-neurons-precede-motor-deficits-in-two-mouse-models-of-huntington-s-disease
#19
Irene Sebastianutto, Maria Angela Cenci, Tim Fieblinger
Striatal neurons forming the indirect pathway (iSPNs) are particularly vulnerable in Huntington's disease (HD). In this study we set out to investigate morphological and physiological alterations of iSPNs in two mouse models of HD with relatively slow disease progression (long CAG repeat R6/2 and zQ175-KI). Both were crossed with a transgenic mouse line expressing eGFP in iSPNs. Using the open-field and rotarod tests, we first defined two time points in relation to the occurrence of motor deficits in each model...
September 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576726/nicotine-induced-and-d1-receptor-dependent-dendritic-remodeling-in-a-subset-of-dorsolateral-striatum-medium-spiny-neurons
#20
Daniel G Ehlinger, Julian C Burke, Craig G McDonald, Robert F Smith, Hadley C Bergstrom
Nicotine is one of the most addictive substances known, targeting multiple memory systems, including the ventral and dorsal striatum. One form of neuroplasticity commonly associated with nicotine is dendrite remodeling. Nicotine-induced dendritic remodeling of ventral striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) is well-documented. Whether MSN dendrites in the dorsal striatum undergo a similar pattern of nicotine-induced structural remodeling is unknown. A morphometric analysis of Golgi-stained MSNs in rat revealed a natural asymmetry in dendritic morphology across the mediolateral axis, with larger, more complex MSNs found in the dorsolateral striatum (DLS)...
May 31, 2017: Neuroscience
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