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Connexin43

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037777/multipotency-of-skeletal-muscle-stem-cells-on-their-native-substrate-and-the-expression-of-connexin-43-during-adoption-of-adipogenic-and-osteogenic-fate
#1
Mohamed I Elashry, Manuela Heimann, Sabine Wenisch, Ketan Patel, Stefan Arnhold
Muscle regeneration is performed by resident muscle stem cells called satellite cells (SC). However they are multipotent, being able to adopt adipogenic and osteogenic fate under the correct stimuli. Since SC behavior can be regulated by the extra-cellular matrix, we examined the robustness of the myogenic programme of SC on their native substrate-the surface of a myofiber. We show that the native substrate supports myogenic differentiation judged by the expression of members of the Myogenic Determination Factor (MRF) family...
October 13, 2017: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021339/phosphorylation-regulates-connexin43-zo-1-binding-and-release-an-important-step-in-gap-junction-turnover
#2
Anastasia F Thévenin, Rachel A Margraf, Charles G Fisher, Rachael M Kells-Andrews, Matthias M Falk
To investigate whether connexin phosphorylation regulates ZO-1's known role in gap junction (GJ) function, we generated and analyzed a series of phosphomimetic and phosphorylation-dead mutants by exchanging known conserved regulatory serine (S) residues 255, 279/282, 365, 368, and 373 located in the C-terminal domain of connexin43 (Cx43) into glutamic acid (E) or alanine (A) residues. All connexin mutants were translated into stable, full-length proteins and assembled into GJs when expressed in HeLa or MDCK cells...
October 11, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019935/cardiotoxic-effects-of-short-term-doxorubicin-administration-involvement-of-connexin-43-in-calcium-impairment
#3
Michela Pecoraro, Antonio Rodríguez-Sinovas, Stefania Marzocco, Michele Ciccarelli, Guido Iaccarino, Aldo Pinto, Ada Popolo
The use of Doxorubicin (DOXO), a potent antineoplastic agent, is limited by the development of cardiotoxicity. DOXO-induced cardiotoxicity is multifactorial, although alterations in calcium homeostasis, seem to be involved. Since even the Connexin43 (Cx43) plays a pivotal role in these two phenomena, in this study we have analyzed the effects of DOXO on Cx43 expression and localization. Damage caused by anthracyclines on cardiomyocytes is immediate after each injection, in the present study we used a short-term model of DOXO-induced cardiomyopathy...
October 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016731/electrical-coupling-between-ventricular-myocytes-and-myofibroblasts-in-the-infarcted-mouse-heart
#4
Michael Rubart, Wen Tao, Xiao-Long Lu, Simon J Conway, Sean P Reuter, Shien-Fong Lin, Mark H Soonpaa
Aims: Recent studies have demonstrated electrotonic coupling between scar tissue and the surrounding myocardium in cryoinjured hearts. However, the electrical dynamics occurring at the myocyte-nonmyocyte interface in the fibrotic heart remain undefined. Here, we sought to develop an assay to interrogate the nonmyocyte cell type contributing to heterocellular coupling and to characterize, on a cellular scale, its voltage response in the infarct border zone of living hearts. Methods and results: We used two-photon laser scanning microscopy in conjunction with a voltage-sensitive dye to record transmembrane voltage changes simultaneously from cardiomyocytes and adjoined nonmyocytes in Langendorff-perfused mouse hearts with healing myocardial infarction...
September 1, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969971/biomimetic-electrical-stimulation-induces-rat-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-to-differentiate-into-cardiomyocyte-like-cells-via-tgf-beta-1-in-vitro
#5
REVIEW
Xueling He, Liang Li, Min Tang, Ye Zeng, Huiming Li, Xiaoqin Yu
Electrical conductance is one of the factors of the microenvironment of cardiomyocytes, and electrical stimulation (ES) has been shown to modulate the differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) toward a cardiomyogenic fate. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) stimulates the cardiomyogenic marker expression in BMSCs. Herein, we promoted the differentiation of BMSCs into cardiomyocyte-like cells using ES to confirm if TGF-β1 mediates this event in vitro. ES increased protein levels of TGF-β1 in BMSCs, and this effect was better than that observed with 5-azacytidine (5-Aza)...
September 29, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960405/expression-of-connexin43-cx43-in-the-human-hair-follicle-emphasis-on-the-cx43-protein-levels-in-the-bulge-and-through-the-keratinization-process
#6
A Fernandez-Flores, A Varela-Vazquez, M D Mayan, E Fonseca
INTRODUCTION: Gap junctions form communication compartments between cells. These channels assemble from connexin (Cx) subunits. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the immunoexpression of Cx43 in adult human hair follicles. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cases were retrospectively obtained from our archives. RESULTS: We identified immunoexpression of Cx43 in the matrix, the papilla, the outer root sheath, the bulge, the medulla, the cortex, the shaft, and the secretory part of the sebaceous gland...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951358/-effect-of-di-2-ethylhcxyl-phthalate-exposure-on-blood-testis-barrier-integrity-in-rats
#7
Lian-Ju Shen, Xiang-Liang Tang, Chun-Lan Long, Xi-Ning Cao, Yi Wei, Yang-Cai Wang, Mang Sun, Yue Zhou, Yang Liu, Bo Liu, Fang-Yuan Huang, Guang-Hui Wei
OBJECTIVE: To investigate mechanism of di-(2-ethylhcxyl)phthalate (DEHP) exposure in causing blood-testis barrier (BTB) impairment in rats. METHODS: Two-months-old male SD rats were randomly divided into corn oil control group and DEHP (750 mg/kg) exposure group for daily intragastic treatment for 30 consecutive days. After the treatments the rats were examined for histomorphological changes of the testicle using HE staining and the expressions of the junction proteins N-cadherin β-catenin, occludin and connexin43 of the BTB using Western blot...
September 20, 2017: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945005/differential-expression-of-myometrial-ap-1-proteins-during-gestation-and-labour
#8
Lubna Nadeem, Tali Farine, Anna Dorogin, Elzbieta Matysiak-Zablocki, Oksana Shynlova, Stephen Lye
Preterm labour (PTL) is a leading cause of perinatal mortality and postnatal morbidity. Contractions of the uterine muscle (myometrium) that determine the onset of labour depend on the expression of contraction-associated proteins (CAPs, i.e. connexin43) regulated by dimeric AP-1 transcription factors. Here, we examined subcellular (by immunoblotting) and tissue expression (by immunohistochemistry) of myometrial AP-1 proteins (cJUN, JUNB, JUND, cFOS, FOSB, FRA1, FRA2) throughout gestation and TL in different species (mouse, rat and human)...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929261/transplantation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-modulated-cx43-and-cx45-expression-in-rats-with-myocardial-infarction
#9
Jin-Yi Li, Hong-Hong Ke, Yan He, Li-Na Wen, Wei-Yan Xu, Zhi-Fu Wu, Yan-Mei Zhao, Guo-Qiang Zhong
At present, little is known about the influence of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation on connexin43 (Cx43) and connexin45 (Cx45) remodeling in the ischemic heart. In this study, we investigated the effect of MSC transplantation on Cx43 and Cx45 remodeling in the ischemic heart. Wistar rats were subjected to left anterior descending artery ligation to induce myocardial infarction (MI) and then randomly allocated to receive an intramyocardial injection of PBS (MI group) or 5-azacytidine-induced MSCs (MSCs group)...
September 19, 2017: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927129/deficiency-of-gap-junction-composed-of-connexin43-contributes-to-oxaliplatin-resistance-in-colon-cancer-cells
#10
Min Su, Qi Zhang
Although comprehensive strategies in the treatment of colorectal cancer have been developed for a number of years, the five-year survival rate of metastatic colon cancer remains less than 10%. Oxaliplatin, a commonly used chemotherapeutic agent for metastatic colon cancer, improves the response rate of patients and prolongs patients' progression-free survival. However, the generation of resistance limits the clinical application of oxaliplatin, and the mechanisms of this remain unclear. The present study mainly investigated the effect of the gap junction (GJ) composed of connexin43 (Cx43) on oxaliplatin cytotoxicity in colon cancer cells...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903063/cooperative-regulation-of-gja1-expression-by-members-of-the-ap-1-family-cjun-and-cfos-in-tm3-leydig-and-tm4-sertoli-cells
#11
Firas Ghouili, Luc J Martin
Within the testis, connexin43 encoded by Gja1 plays an important role in cell-to-cell communication between Leydig cells as well as between Sertoli cells and spermatogonia. In the adult male, Leydig cells are the principal producers of testosterone sustaining spermatogenesis, while Sertoli cells nourish, protect and support the differentiating germ cells. It has been shown previously that members of the AP-1 family regulate Gja1 expression in myometrial cells, suggesting that such regulatory mechanism may also be relevant within the testis...
November 30, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883041/normoxic-cells-remotely-regulate-the-acid-base-balance-of-cells-at-the-hypoxic-core-of-connexin-coupled-tumor-growths
#12
Tobias H Dovmark, Alzbeta Hulikova, Steven A Niederer, Richard D Vaughan-Jones, Pawel Swietach
ATP fuels the removal of metabolic end-products, including H(+) ions that profoundly modulate biological activities. Energetic resources in hypoxic tumor regions are constrained by low-yielding glycolysis, and any means of reducing the cost of acid extrusion, without compromising pH homeostasis, would therefore be advantageous for cancer cells. Some cancers express connexin channels that allow solute exchange between cells, and we propose that, via this route, normoxic cells supply hypoxic neighbors with acid-neutralizing HCO3(-) ions...
September 7, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852468/phosphorylation-of-astrocytic-connexin43-by-erk1-2-impairs-blood-brain-barrier-in-acute-cerebral-ischemia
#13
Wei Chen, Jiugeng Feng, Wusong Tong
BACKGROUND: Connexins are a family of transmembrane proteins that form gap junctions, which are important for diffusion of cytosolic factors such as ions and second messenger signaling molecules. Our previous study has shown that Connexin40 (Cx40), one dominant connexin expressed in brain, was involved in brain injury. In this study, Cx43, another dominant connexin in brain, was investigated. Using bilateral common carotid artery occlusion-induced ischemia rat model, we tested the expression and phosphorylation level of Cx43 as well as heteromeric Cx40/Cx43 complex formation in brain after ischemia induction...
2017: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838986/ammonia-modifies-enteric-neuromuscular-transmission-through-glial-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-signaling
#14
David E Fried, Ralph E Watson, Simon C Robson, Brian D Gulbransen
OBJECTIVE: Impaired gut motility may contribute, at least in part, to the development of systemic hyperammonemia and systemic neurological disorders in inherited metabolic disorders, or in severe liver and renal disease. It is not known whether enteric neurotransmission regulates intestinal luminal and hence systemic ammonia levels by induced changes in motility. DESIGN: Here, we propose and test the hypothesis that ammonia acts through specific enteric circuits to influence gut motility...
August 24, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821660/contribution-of-astroglial-cx43-hemichannels-to-the-modulation-of-glutamatergic-currents-by-d-serine-in-the-mouse-prefrontal-cortex
#15
Claire Meunier, Nan Wang, Chenju Yi, Glenn Dallerac, Pascal Ezan, Annette Koulakoff, Luc Leybaert, Christian Giaume
Astrocytes interact dynamically with neurons by modifying synaptic activity and plasticity. This interplay occurs through a process named gliotransmission, meaning that neuroactive molecules are released by astrocytes. Acting as a gliotransmitter, D-serine, a co-agonist of the NMDA receptor at the glycine-binding site, can be released by astrocytes in a calcium [Ca(2+)]i-dependent manner. A typical feature of astrocytes is their high expression level of connexin43 (Cx43), a protein forming gap junction channels and hemichannels associated with dynamic neuroglial interactions...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811572/inhibition-of-connexin-hemichannels-alleviates-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-in-mice
#16
Joost Willebrords, Bruno Cogliati, Isabel Veloso Alves Pereira, Tereza Cristina da Silva, Sara Crespo Yanguas, Michaël Maes, Veronica Mollica Govoni, Andressa Lima, Daniele Aparecida Felisbino, Elke Decrock, Marina Sayuri Nogueira, Inar Alves de Castro, Isabelle Leclercq, Luc Leybaert, Robim Marcelino Rodrigues, Mathieu Vinken
While gap junctions mediate intercellular communication and support liver homeostasis, connexin hemichannels are preferentially opened by pathological stimuli, including inflammation and oxidative stress. The latter are essential features of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. In this study, it was investigated whether connexin32 and connexin43 hemichannels play a role in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Mice were fed a choline-deficient high-fat diet or normal diet for 8 weeks. Thereafter, TAT-Gap24 or TAT-Gap19, specific inhibitors of hemichannels composed of connexin32 and connexin43, respectively, were administered for 2 weeks...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795432/subcellular-reorganization-and-altered-phosphorylation-of-the-astrocytic-gap-junction-protein-connexin43-in-human-and-experimental-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#17
Tushar Deshpande, Tingsong Li, Michel K Herde, Albert Becker, Hartmut Vatter, Martin K Schwarz, Christian Henneberger, Christian Steinhäuser, Peter Bedner
Dysfunctional astrocytes are increasingly recognized as key players in the development and progression of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). One of the dramatic changes astrocytes undergo in MTLE with hippocampal sclerosis (HS) is loss of gap junction coupling. To further elucidate molecular mechanism(s) underlying this alteration, we assessed expression, cellular localization and phosphorylation status of astrocytic gap junction proteins in human and experimental MTLE-HS. In addition to conventional confocal analysis of immunohistochemical staining we employed expansion microscopy, which allowed visualization of blood-brain-barrier (BBB) associated cellular elements at a sub-µm scale...
November 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794110/involvement-of-connexin43-phosphorylation-and-gap-junctional-communication-in-vasopressin-induced-rock-dependent-vasoconstriction-after-hemorrhagic-shock
#18
Guangming Yang, Xiaoyong Peng, Yue Wu, Tao Li, Liangming Liu
We examined the roles played by gap junctions (GJs) and the GJ channel protein connexin43 (Cx43) in arginine vasopressin (AVP)-induced vasoconstriction after hemorrhagic shock, and their relationship to Rho kinase (ROCK) and protein kinase C (PKC). The results showed AVP induced an endothelium-independent contraction in rat superior mesenteric arteries (SMAs). Blocking the GJs significantly decreased the contractile response of SMAs and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) to AVP after shock and hypoxia. The selective Cx43-mimetic peptide inhibited the vascular contractile effect of AVP after shock and hypoxia...
August 9, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752625/reduction-of-ischemic-brain-edema-by-combined-use-of-paeoniflorin-and-astragaloside-iv-via-down-regulating-connexin-43
#19
Heling Chu, Chuyi Huang, Zidan Gao, Jing Dong, Yuping Tang, Qiang Dong
Paeoniflorin (PF) and astragaloside IV (AS-IV) have protective effects on cerebral ischemia. We aimed to test the effects of combined use of PF and AS-IV on ischemic brain edema and investigate whether the effects were dependent on connexin43 (Cx43). We detected the expression of Cx43 induced by PF and AS-IV after cerebral ischemia. We also examined the effects of combined use of PF and AS-IV on ischemic edema and further investigated the related pathways. We demonstrated PF and AS-IV decreased Cx43 and aquaporin4 (AQP4) associating with reduction of brain edema by dry-wet weight and brain-specific gravity methods after cerebral ischemia...
September 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733455/e3-ubiquitin-ligase-nedd4-induces-endocytosis-and-lysosomal-sorting-of-connexin43-to-promote-loss-of-gap-junctions
#20
Max Z Totland, Christian H Bergsland, Tone A Fykerud, Lars M Knudsen, Nikoline L Rasmussen, Peter W Eide, Zeremariam Yohannes, Vigdis Sørensen, Andreas Brech, Ragnhild A Lothe, Edward Leithe
Intercellular communication via gap junctions has an important role in controlling cell growth and in maintaining tissue homeostasis. Connexin43 is the most abundantly expressed gap junction channel protein in humans and acts as a tumor suppressor in multiple tissue types. Connexin43 is often dysregulated at the post-translational level during cancer development, resulting in loss of gap junctions. However, the molecular basis underlying the aberrant regulation of connexin43 in cancer cells has remained elusive...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
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