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Ni Zhu, Bing Yi, Zhifu Guo, Guanxin Zhang, Shengdong Huang, Yongwen Qin, Xianxian Zhao, Jianxin Sun
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Pim-1 is a serine/threonine kinase that is highly expressed in the heart, and exerts potent cardiac protective effects through enhancing survival, proliferation, and regeneration of cardiomyocytes. Its myocardial specific substrates, however, remain unknown. In the present study, we aim to investigate whether Pim-1 modulates myofilament activity through phosphorylation of cardiac troponin I (cTnI), a key component in regulating myofilament function in the heart. METHODS: Coimmunoprecipitation and immunofluorescent assays were employed to investigate the interaction of Pim-1 with cTnI in cardiomyocytes...
March 10, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Plansky Hoang, Jason Wang, Bruce R Conklin, Kevin E Healy, Zhen Ma
The creation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) has provided an unprecedented opportunity to study tissue morphogenesis and organ development through 'organogenesis-in-a-dish'. Current approaches to cardiac organoid engineering rely on either direct cardiac differentiation from embryoid bodies (EBs) or generation of aligned cardiac tissues from predifferentiated cardiomyocytes from monolayer hiPSCs. To experimentally model early cardiac organogenesis in vitro, our protocol combines biomaterials-based cell patterning with stem cell organoid engineering...
April 2018: Nature Protocols
Robert D Johnson, Patrizia Camelliti
The heart is a complex organ composed of multiple cell types, including cardiomyocytes and different non-myocyte populations, all working closely together to determine the hearts properties and maintain normal cardiac function. Connexins are abundantly expressed proteins that form plasma membrane hemichannels and gap junctions between cells. Gap junctions are intracellular channels that allow for communication between cells, and in the heart they play a crucial role in cardiac conduction by coupling adjacent cardiomyocytes...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Irene Salamon, Gloria Saccani Jotti, Gianluigi Condorelli
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we summarize new knowledge on long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) linked to cardiovascular disease, in particular to heart failure. RECENT FINDINGS: LncRNAs are dysregulated in specific developmental and pathological conditions and regulate critical responses to stress. LncRNAs are being recognized as molecules regulating myocardial remodeling during disease, participating for instance in the regulation of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and function and fibroblast proliferation...
March 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Cardiology
Xiao-Fen Ruan, Yong-Jun Li, Cheng-Wei Ju, Yan Shen, Wei Lei, Can Chen, Yang Li, Hong Yu, Yu-Tao Liu, Il-Man Kim, Xiao-Long Wang, Neal L Weintraub, Yao-Liang Tang
Suxiao Jiuxin Pill (SJP) is a traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of acute coronary syndrome in China, which contains two principal components, tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) and borneol (BOR). Thus far, however, the molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of SJP on the cardiac microenvironment are unknown. Cardiac mesenchymal stem cells (C-MSCs) communicate with cardiomyocytes (CMs) through the release of microvesicles (exosomes) to restore cardiac homeostasis and elicit repair, in part through epigenetic regulatory mechanisms...
March 15, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Hao Zhou, Pingjun Zhu, Jin Wang, Hong Zhu, Jun Ren, Yundai Chen
Disturbed mitochondrial homeostasis contributes to the pathogenesis of cardiac ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury, although the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Here, we demonstrated that casein kinase 2α (CK2α) was upregulated following acute cardiac IR injury. Increased CK2α was shown to be instrumental to mitochondrial damage, cardiomyocyte death, infarction area expansion and cardiac dysfunction, whereas cardiac-specific CK2α knockout (CK2αCKO ) mice were protected against IR injury and mitochondrial damage...
March 14, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
Li Wang, Yang Li, Na Ning, Jin Wang, Zi Yan, Suli Zhang, Xiangying Jiao, Xiaohui Wang, Huirong Liu
It has been recognized that myocardial apoptosis is one major factor in the development of heart dysfunction and autophagy has been shown to influence the apoptosis. In previous studies, we reported that anti-β1 -adrenergic receptor autoantibodies (β1 -AABs) decreased myocardial autophagy, but the role of decreased autophagy in cardiomyocyte apoptosis remains unclear. In the present study, we used a β1 -AAB-immunized rat model to investigate the role of decreased autophagy in cardiomyocyte apoptosis. We reported that the level of autophagic flux increased early and then decreased in an actively β1 -AAB-immunized rat model...
March 14, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Belén Prados, Paula Gómez-Apiñániz, Tania Papoutsi, Guillermo Luxán, Stephane Zaffran, José María Pérez-Pomares, José Luis de la Pompa
During mammalian heart development, restricted myocardial Bmp2 expression is a key patterning signal for atrioventricular canal specification and the epithelial-mesenchyme transition that gives rise to the valves. Using a mouse transgenic line conditionally expressing Bmp2, we show that widespread Bmp2 expression in the myocardium leads to valve and chamber dysmorphogenesis and embryonic death by E15.5. Transgenic embryos show thickened valves, ventricular septal defect, enlarged trabeculae and dilated ventricles, with an endocardium able to undergo EMT both in vivo and in vitro...
March 14, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Zhen-Guo Ma, Xin Zhang, Yu-Pei Yuan, Ya-Ge Jin, Ning Li, Chun-Yan Kong, Peng Song, Qi-Zhu Tang
T cell infiltration and the subsequently increased intracardial chronic inflammation play crucial roles in the development of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. A77 1726, the active metabolite of leflunomide, has been reported to have powerful anti-inflammatory and T cells-inhibiting properties. However, the effect of A77 1726 on cardiac hypertrophy remains completely unknown. Herein, we found that A77 1726 treatment attenuated pressure overload or angiotensin II-induced cardiac hypertrophy in vivo, as well as agonist-induced hypertrophic response of cardiomyocytes in vitro...
March 14, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
Arnold Groehler, Stefan Kren, Qinglu Li, Maggie Robledo-Villafane, Joshua Schmidt, Mary Garry, Natalia Tretyakova
Myocardial infarction (MI) is a life-threatening condition that can occur when blood flow to the heart is interrupted due to a blockage in one or more of the coronary vessels. Current treatments of MI rapidly restore blood flow to the affected myocardium using thrombolytic agents or angioplasty. Adverse effects including inflammation, tissue necrosis, and ventricular dysfunction are, however, not uncommon following reperfusion therapy. These conditions are thought to be caused by a sudden influx of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to the affected myocardium...
March 11, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Shunying Hu, Pingjun Zhu, Hao Zhou, Ying Zhang, Yundai Chen
BACKGROUND: Melatonin is a neuroendocrine hormone synthesized primarily by the pineal gland that is indicated to effectively prevent myocardial reperfusion injury. It is unclear whether melatonin protects cardiac function from reperfusion injury by modulating intracellular calcium homeostasis. OBJECTIVE: Demonstrate that melatonin protect against myocardial reperfusion injury through modulating IP3R and SERCA2a to maintain calcium homeostasis via activation of ERK1 in cardiomyocytes...
January 2018: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
Cheng Zeng, Wen Jiang, Ruifang Zheng, Chenghui He, Jianguang Li, Jianguo Xing
Our previous research demonstrated that tilianin protects the myocardium in a myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury (MIRI) rat model and has prominent pharmacological potential as a cardiovascular drug. Our study aimed to investigate the molecular signaling implicated in the improvement of myocardial survival induced by tilianin, a flavonoid antioxidant. Tilianin (2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg/d) or saline was orally administered to rats for 14 days. On the 15th day, ischemia was induced by ligating the left anterior descending artery for 45 min, followed by 4 h of reperfusion...
2018: PloS One
Ze-Wei Tao, Mohamed Mohamed, Jeffrey G Jacot, Ravi K Birla
Bioengineering cardiac tissue constructs with adult cardiomyocytes may help treat adult heart defects and injury. In this study, we fabricated cardiac tissue constructs by seeding adult rat cardiomyocytes on a fibrin gel matrix and analyzed the electromechanical properties of the formed cardiac tissue constructs. Adult rat cardiomyocytes were isolated with a collagenase type II buffer using an optimized Langendorff perfusion system. Cardiac tissue constructs were fabricated using either indirect plating with cardiomyocytes that were cultured for 1 week and dedifferentiated or with freshly isolated cardiomyocytes...
March 13, 2018: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
Linde Woudstra, Lynda J M Juffermans, Albert C van Rossum, Hans W M Niessen, Paul A J Krijnen
Infectious myocarditis is the result of an immune response to a microbial infection of the heart. The blood vessels of the heart, both the intramyocardial microvasculature and the large epicardial coronary arteries, play an important role in the pathogenesis of infectious myocarditis. First of all, in addition to cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells of the cardiac (micro)vasculature are direct targets for infection. Moreover, through the expression of adhesion molecules and antigen presenting Major Histocompatibility Complex molecules, the blood vessels assist in shaping the cellular immune response in infectious myocarditis...
March 14, 2018: Heart Failure Reviews
Zhihan Zhao, Huan Lan, Ibrahim El-Battrawy, Xin Li, Fanis Buljubasic, Katherine Sattler, Gökhan Yücel, Siegfried Lang, Malte Tiburcy, Wolfram-Hubertus Zimmermann, Lukas Cyganek, Jochen Utikal, Thomas Wieland, Martin Borggrefe, Xiao-Bo Zhou, Ibrahim Akin
Background: Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) are providing new possibilities for the biological study, cell therapies, and drug discovery. However, the ion channel expression and functions as well as regulations in hiPSC-CMs still need to be fully characterized. Methods: Cardiomyocytes were derived from hiPS cells that were generated from two healthy donors. qPCR and patch clamp techniques were used for the study. Results: In addition to the reported ion channels, INa , ICa-L , ICa-T , If , INCX , IK1 , Ito , IKr , IKs IKATP , IK-pH , ISK1-3 , and ISK4 , we detected both the expression and currents of ACh-activated (KACh) and Na+ -activated (KNa) K+ , volume-regulated and calcium-activated (Cl-Ca) Cl- , and TRPV channels...
2018: Stem Cells International
Shuyi Wang, Cong Wang, Subat Turdi, Kacy L Richmond, Yingmei Zhang, Jun Ren
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Uncorrected obesity contributes to cardiac remodeling and contractile dysfunction although the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) is a mitochondrial enzyme with some promises in a number of cardiovascular diseases. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of ALDH2 on cardiac remodeling and contractile property in high fat diet-induced obesity. METHODS: Wild-type (WT) and ALDH2 transgenic mice were fed low (10% calorie from fat) or high (45% calorie from fat) fat diet for 5 months prior to the assessment of cardiac geometry and function using echocardiography, IonOptix system, Lectin, and Masson Trichrome staining...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Jungang Zhang, Yaxing Li, Qingzhen Zhao
BACKGROUND miR-23b overexpression can promote cardiomyocyte apoptosis and reduce cell growth under hypoxic conditions, suggesting that miR-23b acts as a biomarker for ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of miR-23b on STEMI patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS We enrolled 80 eligible patients with STEMI and 60 control subjects. Blood samples were obtained at 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, 48 h, 3 days, and 7 days after the onset of symptoms. Another blood sample was collected before and after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)...
March 14, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Meiling Yan, Kankai Chen, Li He, Shuai Li, Dong Huang, Jingbo Li
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Hyperuricemia is associated with an increased risk for multiple cardiovascular diseases, but the underlying mechanisms remain largely elusive. Calpain-1 is a protease that is implicated in several pathological conditions that affect the heart. The aim of this current study was to test the effects of uric acid (UA) on cardiomyocyte survival and cardiac function and to investigate the role of calpain-1 in the UA-induced effects in the heart and their underlying mechanisms...
March 7, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Pengzhou Hang, Jing Zhao, Zhenli Su, Hanqi Sun, Tingting Chen, Lihui Zhao, Zhimin Du
Backgroud/Aims: Growing evidence suggests that both cardiomyocyte apoptosis and excessive autophagy exacerbates cardiac dysfunction during myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (IR). As a precursor of acetylcholine, choline has been found to protect the heart by repressing ischemic cardiomyocyte apoptosis. However, the relationship between choline and cardiomyocyte autophagy is unclear. The present study aimed to investigate whether autophagy was involved in the cardioprotection of choline during IR. METHODS: Rats were subjected to 30 min reversible ischemia by ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery followed by reperfusion for 2 h...
March 7, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Hong-Wei Wang, Jing Liu, Jing Zhao, Lin Lin, Wen-Peng Zhao, Pan-Pan Tan, Wei-Shun Tian, Bian-Hua Zhou
Our previous study indicated that excessive fluoride (F) induces ATP5J and ATP5H proactive expression by interfering cardiomyocyte mitochondrial dysfunction in mice. This study aimed to investigate underlying mechanisms of F¯ induced damage to cardiomyocytes. A total of 100 mg/L F¯ was added to distilled water to treat Kunming mice for 70 days. Pathological and morphological changes in myocardial tissues were observed under transmission electron microscope and light microscope. Content of ATP and ATP enzyme distributed in cardiomyocytes were determined by fluorescence and ATP enzyme staining...
March 7, 2018: Chemosphere
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