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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110125/chemical-defined-and-albumin-free-generation-of-human-atrial-and-ventricular-myocytes-from-human-pluripotent-stem-cells
#1
Fei Pei, Junjie Jiang, Shuyun Bai, Henghua Cao, Luyang Tian, Ya Zhao, Chuanxiu Yang, Haiheng Dong, Yue Ma
Most existing culture media for cardiac differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) contain significant amounts of albumin. For clinical transplantation applications of hPSC-derived cardiomyocytes (hPSC-CMs), culturing cells in an albumin containing environment raises the concern of pathogen contamination and immunogenicity to the recipient patients. In addition, batch-to-batch variation of albumin may cause the inconsistent of hPSC cardiac differentiation. Here, we demonstrated that antioxidants l-ascorbic acid, trolox, N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) and sodium pyruvate could functionally substitute albumin in the culture medium, and formulated an albumin-free, chemical-defined medium (S12 medium)...
January 12, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110122/17%C3%AE-estradiol-enhances-sulforaphane-cardioprotection-against-oxidative-stress
#2
Cristina Angeloni, Gabriella Teti, Maria Cristina Barbalace, Marco Malaguti, Mirella Falconi, Silvana Hrelia
The lower incidence of ischemic heart disease in female with respect to male gender suggests the possibility that female sex hormones could have specific effects in cardiovascular protection. 17β-Estradiol is the predominant premenopausal circulating form of estrogen and has a protective role on the cardiovascular system. Recent evidences suggest that gender can influence the response to cardiovascular medications; therefore, we hypothesized that sex hormones could also modulate the cardioprotective effects of nutraceutical compounds, such as the isothiocyanate sulforaphane, present in Brassica vegetables...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109806/momordica-charantia-polysaccharides-ameliorate-oxidative-stress-hyperlipidemia-inflammation-and-apoptosis-during-myocardial-infarction-by-inhibiting-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway
#3
Mohammad Raish
The polysaccharide extract of Momordica charantia has various biological activities; however, its effect on endothelial dysfunction in myocardial infarction remains unclear. To elucidate this, myocardial infarction was induced in rats using isoproterenol (ISP). Pretreatment with M. charantia polysaccharides (MCP; 150 or 300mg/kg) for 25days significantly inhibited increases in heart weight, the heart-weight-to-body-weight ratio, and infarction size, and ameliorated the increased serum levels of aspartate transaminase, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, total cholesterol, triglycerides, very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol...
January 18, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109343/involvement-of-wnt-pathway-in-ethanol-induced-inhibition-of-mouse-embryonic-stem-cell-differentiation
#4
Qian Wang, Jing-Wen Song, Yang Liu, Xian-Xian Zhao
Ethanol has been reported to have toxicity on embryonic stem cells (ESCs). The present study aims to address the teratogenic effects of ethanol on the growth and cardiac differentiation of ESCs. Mouse embryonic stem D3 cells were employed. 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays were used to determine cytotoxicity. Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting were used to analyze the expressions of cardiac differentiation-related and Wnt signaling factors...
February 2017: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108636/serelaxin-treatment-promotes-adaptive-hypertrophy-but-does-not-prevent-heart-failure-in-experimental-peripartum-cardiomyopathy
#5
Justus Nonhoff, Melanie Ricke-Hoch, Mirco Mueller, Britta Stapel, Tobias Pfeffer, Martina Kasten, Michaela Scherr, Constantin von Kaisenberg, Johann Bauersachs, Arash Haghikia, Denise Hilfiker-Kleiner
AIMS: Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is a systolic left ventricular dysfunction developing in the peripartum phase in previously healthy women. Relaxin-2 is a pregnancy hormone with potential beneficial effects in heart failure patients. We evaluated Relaxin-2 as a potential diagnostic marker and/or a therapeutic agent in PPCM. METHODS AND RESULTS: In healthy peripartum women, serum Relaxin-2 levels (measured by ELISA in the second half of pregnancy) were elevated showing a decreasing trend in the first postpartum week and returned to non-pregnant levels thereafter...
January 20, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108421/tlr4-knockout-attenuated-high-fat-diet-induced-cardiac-dysfunction-via-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-jnk-dependent-activation-of-autophagy
#6
Nan Hu, Yingmei Zhang
Obesity is commonly associated with a low grade systematic inflammation, which may contribute to the onset and development of myocardial remodeling and contractile dysfunction. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) plays an important role in innate immunity and inflammation although its role in high fat diet-induced obesity cardiac dysfunction remains elusive. This study was designed to examine the effect of TLR4 ablation on high fat diet intake-induced cardiac anomalies, if any, and underlying mechanism(s) involved...
January 17, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108195/the-virtual-cell-based-assay-current-status-and-future-perspectives
#7
Rabea Graepel, Lara Lamon, David Asturiol, Elisabet Berggren, Elisabeth Joossens, Alicia Paini, Pilar Prieto, Maurice Whelan, Andrew Worth
In order to replace the use of animals in toxicity testing, there is a need to predict in vivo toxic doses from concentrations that cause toxicological effects in relevant in vitro systems. The Virtual Cell Based Assay (VCBA) estimates time-dependent concentration of a test chemical in the cell and cell culture for a given in vitro system. The concentrations in the different compartments of the cell and test system are derived from ordinary differential equations, physicochemical parameters of the test chemical and properties of the cell line...
January 17, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107358/modeling-an-excitable-biosynthetic-tissue-with-inherent-variability-for-paired-computational-experimental-studies
#8
Tanmay A Gokhale, Jong M Kim, Robert D Kirkton, Nenad Bursac, Craig S Henriquez
To understand how excitable tissues give rise to arrhythmias, it is crucially necessary to understand the electrical dynamics of cells in the context of their environment. Multicellular monolayer cultures have proven useful for investigating arrhythmias and other conduction anomalies, and because of their relatively simple structure, these constructs lend themselves to paired computational studies that often help elucidate mechanisms of the observed behavior. However, tissue cultures of cardiomyocyte monolayers currently require the use of neonatal cells with ionic properties that change rapidly during development and have thus been poorly characterized and modeled to date...
January 20, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106847/combination-of-morroniside-and-diosgenin-prevents-high-glucose-induced-cardiomyocytes-apoptosis
#9
Wen-Xia Pi, Xiao-Peng Feng, Li-Hong Ye, Bao-Chang Cai
Cornus officinalis and Dioscorea opposita are two traditional Chinese medicines widely used in China for treating diabetes mellitus and its complications, such as diabetic cardiomyopathy. Morroniside (Mor) of Cornus officinalis and diosgenin (Dio) of Dioscorea opposita formed an innovative formula named M + D. The aims of the present study were to investigate myocardial protective effect of M + D on diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) through the inhibition of expression levels of caspase-3 protein, and identify the advantage of M + D compared with Mor, Dio, and the positive drug metformin (Met)...
January 19, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106108/isl2b-regulates-anterior-second-heart-field-development-in-zebrafish
#10
Hagen R Witzel, Sirisha Cheedipudi, Rui Gao, Didier Y R Stainier, Gergana D Dobreva
After initial formation, the heart tube grows by addition of second heart field progenitor cells to its poles. The transcription factor Isl1 is expressed in the entire second heart field in mouse, and Isl1-deficient mouse embryos show defects in arterial and venous pole development. The expression of Isl1 is conserved in zebrafish cardiac progenitors; however, Isl1 is required for cardiomyocyte differentiation only at the venous pole. Here we show that Isl1 homologues are expressed in specific patterns in the developing zebrafish heart and play distinct roles during cardiac morphogenesis...
January 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105583/trpc3-participates-in-angiotensin-ii-type-1-receptor-dependent-stress-induced-slow-increase-in-intracellular-ca-2-concentration-in-mouse-cardiomyocytes
#11
Yohei Yamaguchi, Gentaro Iribe, Toshiyuki Kaneko, Ken Takahashi, Takuro Numaga-Tomita, Motohiro Nishida, Lutz Birnbaumer, Keiji Naruse
When a cardiac muscle is held in a stretched position, its [Ca(2+)] transient increases slowly over several minutes in a process known as stress-induced slow increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) (SSC). Transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) 3 forms a non-selective cation channel regulated by the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R). In this study, we investigated the role of TRPC3 in the SSC. Isolated mouse ventricular myocytes were electrically stimulated and subjected to sustained stretch...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105124/cardioprotective-effects-of-traditional-chinese-medicine-guanmaitong-on-acute-myocardial-infarction
#12
Xing-Hua Wang, Guang-Ping Li, Wan-Song Yang, Zhan-Quan Jiao, Hong-Mei Liu, Yan-Ping Ni
Guanmaitong (GMT) is a traditional Chinese herbal compound that has been used for the treatment of coronary heart disease (CHD) and other cardiovascular diseases. However, the efficacy of GMT in treating cardiovascular diseases remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective mechanisms and identify the targeted proteins and signaling networks associated with the physiological activity of GMT in a rat model of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated into five groups: Control group (sham-operated), the model group, and small, medium, and large dosage GMT groups...
December 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105120/effects-of-curcumin-on-the-apoptosis-of-cardiomyocytes-and-the-expression-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-ppar-%C3%AE-and-bcl-2-in-rats-with-myocardial-infarction-injury
#13
Feng-Hua Lv, Hong-Lei Yin, Yi-Qun He, Hui-Min Wu, Juan Kong, Xiao-Yan Chai, Su-Rong Zhang
Curcumin is a natural polyphenol with powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study evaluated the protective effect of curcumin on myocardial injury in rats as well as the mechanisms underlying these effects, and examined the expression of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) and B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) following myocardial infarction. A rat model of myocardial infarction was successfully established. Hematoxylin and eosin staining showed cellular atrophy and hyperchromatic cytoplasm in the myocardial infarction area...
December 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104773/exosomes-generated-from-ipsc-derivatives-new-direction-for-stem-cell-therapy-in-human-heart-diseases
#14
REVIEW
Ji-Hye Jung, Xuebin Fu, Phillip C Yang
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in modern society. The adult heart innately lacks the capacity to repair and regenerate the damaged myocardium from ischemic injury. Limited understanding of cardiac tissue repair process hampers the development of effective therapeutic solutions to treat CVD such as ischemic cardiomyopathy. In recent years, rapid emergence of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) and iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes presents a valuable opportunity to replenish the functional cells to the heart...
January 20, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104772/the-elusive-progenitor-cell-in-cardiac-regeneration-slip-slidin-away
#15
REVIEW
Chen-Leng Cai, Jeffery D Molkentin
The adult human heart is unable to regenerate after various forms of injury, suggesting that this organ lacks a biologically meaningful endogenous stem cell pool. However, injecting the infarcted area of the adult mammalian heart with exogenously prepared progenitor cells of various types has been reported to create new myocardium by the direct conversion of these progenitor cells into cardiomyocytes. These reports remain controversial because follow-up studies from independent laboratories failed to observe such an effect...
January 20, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104561/assessment-of-in-vitro-cardiotoxicity-of-extract-fractions-and-diterpene-alkaloids-from-aconitum-leucostomum-worosch-a-short-communication
#16
Jihong Nie, Fang Wang, Tengfei Ji, Jun Zhao, Feicui Zhao
Aconitum leucostomum Worosch is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and has a broad spectrum of health effects, but with a narrow therapeutic window. It is important to identify both the therapeutic ingredients and the toxic components to better utilize this TCM. The present study investigated the cardiotoxicity of the selected compounds in Aconitum leucostomum Worosch. The effects of extract of A. leucostomum Worosch and the isolated compounds on cardiocardiomyocytes were evaluated in vitro. Five known compounds in this TCM, including three C18-diterpene alkaloids, lappaconitine (2), N-deacetyllappaconitine (3), and ranaconitine (5), and two C19-diterpene alkaloids, delvestidine (1) and anthranoyllycoctonine (4), were isolated from A...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104397/pink1-alleviates-myocardial-hypoxia-reoxygenation-injury-by-ameliorating-mitochondrial-dysfunction
#17
Yang Li, Liangxian Qiu, Xiping Liu, Zhiwen Hou, Bo Yu
PTEN inducible kinase-1 (PINK1) mutant induces mitochondrial dysfunction of cells, resulting in an inherited form of Parkinson's disease. However its exact role in the cardiomyocytes is unclear. The present study examined the function of PINK1 in hypoxia-reoxygenation (H/R) induced H9c2 cell damage and its potential mechanism. The H/R model in H9c2 cells was established by 6 h of hypoxia and 12 h of reoxygenation. The CCK8 and LDH assay indicated that the cell viability was obviously reduced after H/R. The expression of PINK1 was decreased in H/R-induced H9c2 cells compared with control group...
January 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103423/adipose-derived-perivascular-mesenchymal-stromal-stem-cells-promote-functional-vascular-tissue-engineering-for-cardiac-regenerative-purposes
#18
Justin Morrissette-McAlmon, Adriana Blazeski, Sarah Somers, Geran Kostecki, Leslie Tung, Warren L Grayson
Cardiac tissue engineering approaches have the potential to regenerate functional myocardium with intrinsic vascular networks. In this study, we compared the relative effects of human adipose-derived stem/stromal cells (hASCs) and human dermal fibroblasts (hDFs) in co-cultures with neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes (NRVCMs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). We found that at the same ratios of NRVCM:hASC and NRVCM:hDF, the hASC co-cultures displayed shorter action potentials and maintained capture at faster pacing rates...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102848/statins-in-anthracycline-induced-cardiotoxicity-rac-and-rho-and-the-heartbreakers
#19
REVIEW
Christian Henninger, Gerhard Fritz
Cancer patients receiving anthracycline-based chemotherapy are at risk to develop life-threatening chronic cardiotoxicity with the pathophysiological mechanism of action not fully understood. Besides the most common hypothesis that anthracycline-induced congestive heart failure (CHF) is mainly caused by generation of reactive oxygen species, recent data point to a critical role of topoisomerase II beta (TOP2B), which is a primary target of anthracycline poisoning, in the pathophysiology of CHF. As the use of the only clinically approved cardioprotectant dexrazoxane has been limited by the FDA in 2011, there is an urgent need for alternative cardioprotective measures...
January 19, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102360/modification-of-distinct-ion-channels-differentially-modulates-ca-2-dynamics-in-primary-cultured-rat-ventricular-cardiomyocytes
#20
Xichun Li, Liping Shen, Fang Zhao, Xiaohan Zou, Yuwei He, Fan Zhang, Chunlei Zhang, Boyang Yu, Zhengyu Cao
Primary cultured cardiomyocytes show spontaneous Ca(2+) oscillations (SCOs) which not only govern contractile events, but undergo derangements that promote arrhythmogenesis through Ca(2+) -dependent mechanism. We systematically examined influence on SCOs of an array of ion channel modifiers by recording intracellular Ca(2+) dynamics in rat ventricular cardiomyocytes using Ca(2+) specific fluorescence dye, Fluo-8/AM. Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) activation elongates SCO duration and reduces SCO frequency while inhibition of VGSCs decreases SCO frequency without affecting amplitude and duration...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
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