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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317503/er-stress-mobilization-of-death-associated-protein-kinase-1-dependent-xenophagy-counteracts-mitochondria-stress-induced-epithelial-barrier-dysfunction
#1
Fernando Lopes, Åsa V Keita, Alpana Saxena, Jose Luis Reyes, Nicole Mancini, Ala Al Rajabi, Arthur Wang, Cristiane Baggio, Michael Dicay, Rob van Dalen, Younghee Ahn, Matheus Carneiro, Nathan Peters, Jong M Rho, Wallace MacNaughton, Stephan E Girardin, Humberto Jijon, Dana J Philpott, Johan D Söderholm, Derek M McKay
The gut microbiome contributes to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), in which bacteria can be present within the epithelium. Epithelial barrier function is decreased in IBD, and dysfunctional epithelial mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress have been individually associated with IBD. We therefore hypothesized that the combination of ER and mitochondrial stresses significantly disrupt epithelial barrier function. Here, we treated human colonic biopsies, epithelial colonoids, and epithelial cells with an uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation, dinitrophenol (DNP), with or without the ER stressor tunicamycin, and assessed epithelial barrier function by monitoring internalization and translocation of commensal bacteria...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311115/miro-proteins-coordinate-microtubule-and-actin-dependent-mitochondrial-transport-and-distribution
#2
Guillermo López-Doménech, Christian Covill-Cooke, Davor Ivankovic, Els F Halff, David F Sheehan, Rosalind Norkett, Nicol Birsa, Josef T Kittler
In the current model of mitochondrial trafficking, Miro1 and Miro2 Rho-GTPases regulate mitochondrial transport along microtubules by linking mitochondria to kinesin and dynein motors. By generating Miro1/2 double-knockout mouse embryos and single- and double-knockout embryonic fibroblasts, we demonstrate the essential and non-redundant roles of Miro proteins for embryonic development and subcellular mitochondrial distribution. Unexpectedly, the TRAK1 and TRAK2 motor protein adaptors can still localise to the outer mitochondrial membrane to drive anterograde mitochondrial motility in Miro1/2 double-knockout cells...
January 8, 2018: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248625/updated-molecular-phylogeny-of-the-squid-family-ommastrephidae-insights-into-the-evolution-of-spawning-strategies
#3
M Cecilia Pardo-Gandarillas, Felipe I Torres, Dirk Fuchs, Christian M Ibáñez
Two types of spawning strategy have been described for ommastrephid squids: coastal and oceanic. It has been suggested that ancestral ommastrephids inhabited coastal waters and expanded their distribution into the open ocean during global changes in ocean circulation in the Oligocene. This hypothesis could explain the different reproductive strategies in oceanic squids, but has never been tested in a phylogenetic context. In the present study, we assess the coastal-to-open-ocean hypothesis through inferring the evolution of reproductive traits (spawning type) of ommastrephid squids using the phylogenetic comparative method to estimate ancestral states and divergence times...
December 14, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222186/new-splicing-variants-of-mitochondrial-rho-gtpase-1-miro1-transport-peroxisomes
#4
Kanji Okumoto, Tatsuaki Ono, Ryusuke Toyama, Ayako Shimomura, Aiko Nagata, Yukio Fujiki
Microtubule-dependent long-distance movement of peroxisomes occurs in mammalian cells. However, its molecular mechanisms remain undefined. In this study, we identified three distinct splicing variants of human mitochondrial Rho GTPase-1 (Miro1), each containing amino acid sequence insertions 1 (named Miro1-var2), 2 (Miro1-var3), and both 1 and 2 (Miro1-var4), respectively, at upstream of the transmembrane domain. Miro1-var4 and Miro1-var2 are localized to peroxisomes in a manner dependent on the insertion 1 that is recognized by the cytosolic receptor Pex19p...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207597/inhibition-of-miro1-disturbs-mitophagy-and-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-function-interfering-insulin-release-via-irs-akt-foxo1-in-diabetes
#5
Lingling Chen, Chunyan Liu, Jianfeng Gao, Zhiwen Xie, Lawrence W C Chan, Damien J Keating, Yibin Yang, Jiazhong Sun, Fuling Zhou, Yongchang Wei, Xiuli Men, Sijun Yang
Mitochondrial function is essential to meet metabolic demand of pancreatic beta cells respond to high nutrient stress. Mitophagy is an essential component to normal pancreatic β-cell function and has been associated with β-cell failure in Type 2 diabetes (T2D). Our previous studies have indicated that mitochondrial Rho (Miro) GTPase-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction under high nutrient stress leads to NOD-like receptor 3 (NLRP3)-dependent proinflammatory responses and subsequent insulin resistance. However, the in vivo mechanism by which Miro1 underlies mitophagy has not been identified...
October 31, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178334/suppression-of-oxidative-phosphorylation-confers-resistance-against-bevacizumab-in-experimental-glioma
#6
Jule A Eriksson, Christina Wanka, Michael C Burger, Hans Urban, Ines Hartel, Janusz von Renesse, Patrick N Harter, Michel Mittelbronn, Joachim P Steinbach, Johannes Rieger
Although bevacizumab initially shows high response rates in gliomas and other tumors, therapy resistance usually develops later. Because antiangiogenic agents are supposed to induce hypoxia, we asked whether rendering glioma cells independent of oxidative phosphorylation modulates their sensitivity against hypoxia and bevacizumab. LNT-229 glioma cells without functional mitochondria (rho0 ) and control (rho+ ) cells were generated. LNT-229 rho0 -cells displayed reduced expression of oxidative phosphorylation-related genes and diminished oxygen consumption...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161943/analysis-of-sequence-divergence-in-redfin-cypriniformes-cyprinidae-tribolodon-based-on-mtdna-and-ndna-markers-with-inferences-in-systematics-and-genetics-of-speciation
#7
Anna O Zolotova, Yuri Ph Kartavtsev
To clarify relationship of species of the genus Tribolodon in the Russian part of their distribution ranges, two mitochondrial markers (Co-1 and Cyt-b), a nuclear marker (Rho), and a gene marker of rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1,2) were used. Depending on the marker, different numbers of species groups were detected by the ABGD method, but in combination with the analysis of phylograms, these data generally support the known species clusters and regional intraspecies groups. A complex analysis of sequences from three redfin species within the area of the study, based on four marker genes and using the methods of molecular phylogenetics, ordination of genetic distances, recombinant analysis, and population genetic approaches, has revealed clusters of three commonly recognized species, regional intraspecific groups or individuals of local populations, and few hybrid individuals...
November 21, 2017: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148034/role-of-p62-sqstm1-beyond-autophagy-a-lesson-learned-from-drug-induced-toxicity-in-vitro
#8
Fernando Alegre, Ángela B Moragrega, Miriam Polo, Alberto Marti-Rodrigo, Juan V Esplugues, Ana Blas-Garcia, Nadezda Apostolova
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: SQSTM1/p62 is a multifunctional, stress-induced, scaffold protein involved in multiple cellular processes including autophagic clearance, regulation of inflammatory responses and redox homeostasis. Alterations in its function have been associated with a long list of human pathologies such as neurodegenerative, metabolic and bone diseases (down-regulation), and cancerogenesis (up-regulation). However, its role in the off-target effects of clinically used drugs is still not understood...
November 17, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119250/microscopy-based-high-throughput-assays-enable-multi-parametric-analysis-to-assess-adverse-effects-of-nanomaterials-in-various-cell-lines
#9
Iris Hansjosten, Juliane Rapp, Luisa Reiner, Ruben Vatter, Susanne Fritsch-Decker, Ravindra Peravali, Taina Palosaari, Elisabeth Joossens, Kirsten Gerloff, Peter Macko, Maurice Whelan, Douglas Gilliland, Isaac Ojea-Jimenez, Marco P Monopoli, Louise Rocks, David Garry, Kenneth Dawson, Peter J F Röttgermann, Alexandra Murschhauser, Joachim O Rädler, Selina V Y Tang, Pete Gooden, Marie-France A Belinga-Desaunay, Abdullah O Khan, Sophie Briffa, Emily Guggenheim, Anastasios Papadiamantis, Iseult Lynch, Eugenia Valsami-Jones, Silvia Diabaté, Carsten Weiss
Manufactured nanomaterials (MNMs) selected from a library of over 120 different MNMs with varied compositions, sizes, and surface coatings were tested by four different laboratories for toxicity by high-throughput/-content (HT/C) techniques. The selected particles comprise 14 MNMs composed of CeO2, Ag, TiO2, ZnO and SiO2 with different coatings and surface characteristics at varying concentrations. The MNMs were tested in different mammalian cell lines at concentrations between 0.5 and 250 µg/mL to link physical-chemical properties to multiple adverse effects...
November 8, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118621/a-new-species-of-trachymyrmex-hymenoptera-formicidae-fungus-growing-ant-from-the-sierra-madre-oriental-of-northeastern-mexico
#10
Sergio R Sánchez-Peña, Manuela Citlali Chacón-Cardosa, Ricardo Canales-Del-Castillo, Lauren Ward, Diana Resendez-Pérez
Here we describe a new species of Trachymyrmex, T. pakawasp. n., from the Gran Sierra Plegada range of the Sierra Madre Oriental, in the states of Coahuila and Nuevo Leon, northeastern Mexico. Trachymyrmex pakawa is a large-sized species compared to other North American Trachymyrmex. Its geographic distribution includes the piedmont of the Gran Sierra Plegada at La Estanzuela, Monterrey, as well as peripheral mountains segregated from the Sierra Madre Oriental (Cerro de las Mitras, Sierra de Zapalinamé, Cañon de San Lorenzo, Cerro de las Letras)...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104541/identification-and-differential-abundance-of-mitochondrial-genome-encoding-small-rnas-mitosrna-in-breast-muscles-of-modern-broilers-and-unselected-chicken-breed
#11
Walter G Bottje, Bhuwan Khatri, Stephanie A Shouse, Dongwon Seo, Barbara Mallmann, Sara K Orlowski, Jeonghoon Pan, Seongbae Kong, Casey M Owens, Nicholas B Anthony, Jae K Kim, Byungwhi C Kong
Background: Although small non-coding RNAs are mostly encoded by the nuclear genome, thousands of small non-coding RNAs encoded by the mitochondrial genome, termed as mitosRNAs were recently reported in human, mouse and trout. In this study, we first identified chicken mitosRNAs in breast muscle using small RNA sequencing method and the differential abundance was analyzed between modern pedigree male (PeM) broilers (characterized by rapid growth and large muscle mass) and the foundational Barred Plymouth Rock (BPR) chickens (characterized by slow growth and small muscle mass)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104227/inter-species-host-gene-expression-differences-in-response-to-human-and-avian-influenza-a-virus-strains
#12
Biruhalem Taye, Dawn Yeo, Raphael Tze Chuen Lee, Boon Huan Tan, Richard J Sugrue, Sebastian Maurer-Stroh
Low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses are a source of sporadic human infections and could also contribute to future pandemic outbreaks but little is known about inter-species differences in the host responses to these viruses. Here, we studied host gene expression signatures of cell lines from three species (human, chicken, and canine) in response to six different viruses (H1N1/WSN, H5N2/F59, H5N2/F118, H5N2/F189, H5N3 and H9N2). Comprehensive microarray probe set re-annotation and ortholog mapping of the host genes was necessary to allow comparison over extended functionally annotated gene sets and orthologous pathways...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092635/hydrogen-sulfide-ameliorates-zinc-induced-cell-death-in-neuroblastoma-sh-sy5y-cells
#13
Megumi Shimoji, Hirokazu Hara, Tetsuro Kamiya, Kensuke Okuda, Tetsuo Adachi
Previous reports have demonstrated that excess zinc (Zn(2+)) released from nerve terminals following cerebral ischemia causes brain injury. Therefore, disturbance of Zn(2+) homeostasis in the brain is thought to be closely linked to neurotoxicity. Recently, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a gaseous mediator, has been reported to ameliorate ischemic brain injury. However, its mechanism is not fully understood. In this study, we examined whether sodium hydrogen sulfide (NaHS), an H2S donor, protects against Zn(2+) cytotoxicity using human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells...
November 1, 2017: Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074131/grouper-mavs-functions-as-a-crucial-antiviral-molecule-against-nervous-necrosis-virus-infection
#14
Youhua Huang, Jingcheng Zhang, Zhengliang Ouyang, Jiaxin Liu, Ya Zhang, Yin Hu, Xiaohong Huang, Qiwei Qin
Mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS), also known as IPS-1, VISA, and Cardif, has been well studied for its crucial roles in the mammalian interferon immune response. To better understand the actions of MAVS in fish immune response, a MAVS homolog from orange spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) (EcMAVS) was cloned and characterized in this study. EcMAVS encoded a 563-amino acid peptide which showed 64% and 20% identity to rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) and human (Homo sapiens), respectively...
October 23, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054429/surface-chemistry-induces-mitochondria-mediated-apoptosis-of-breast-cancer-cells-via-pten-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathway
#15
Jing Zhang, Li Li, Yueting Peng, Yu Chen, Xiaoying Lv, Shun Li, Xiang Qin, Hong Yang, Chunhui Wu, Yiyao Liu
Tumor cell can be significantly influenced by various chemical groups of the extracellular matrix proteins. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in the interaction between cancer cells and functional groups in the extracellular matrix remain unknown. Using chemically modified surfaces with biological functional groups (CH3, NH2, OH), it was found that hydrophobic surfaces modified with CH3 and NH2 suppressed cell proliferation and induced the number of apoptotic cells. Mitochondrial dysfunction, cytochrome c release, Bax upregulation, cleaved caspase-3 and PARP, and Bcl-2 downregulation indicated that hydrophobic surfaces with CH3 and NH2 triggered the activation of intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway...
October 17, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039493/actein-induces-apoptosis-in-leukemia-cells-through-suppressing-rhoa-rock1-signaling-pathway
#16
Wen-Di Zhou, Xiang Wang, Xing-Zhen Sun, Jian Hu, Rong-Rong Zhang, Ze Hong
Actein is a tetracyclic triterpenoid compound, extracted from the rhizome of Cimicifuga foetida, exhibiting anticancer activities as previously reported. However, the effects of actein on human leukemia have not been explored before. In this study, the role of actein in regulating apoptosis induction in human leukemia cells was investigated. Actein administration significantly enhanced apoptosis, especially in human leukemia cell line of U937 and the primary human leukemia cells. The promotion was accompanied by caspase-9, caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage, and cytochrome c (Cyto-c) release...
October 10, 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988798/differential-carbonylation-of-proteins-in-end-stage-human-fatty-and-nonfatty-nash
#17
Colin T Shearn, Laura M Saba, James R Roede, David J Orlicky, Alisabeth H Shearn, Dennis R Petersen
OBJECTIVE: In the liver, a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is oxidative stress leading to the accumulation of highly reactive electrophilic α/β unsaturated aldehydes. The objective of this study was to determine if significant differences were evident when evaluating carbonylation in human end-stage fatty nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (fNASH) compared to end-stage nonfatty NASH (nfNASH). METHODS: Using hepatic tissue obtained from healthy humans and patients diagnosed with end stage nfNASH or fNASH, overall carbonylation was assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and LC-MS/MS followed by bioinformatics...
October 6, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982073/cardiac-specific-inactivation-of-lpp3-in-mice-leads-to-myocardial-dysfunction-and-heart-failure
#18
Mini Chandra, Diana Escalante-Alcalde, Md Shenuarin Bhuiyan, Anthony Wayne Orr, Christopher Kevil, Andrew J Morris, Hyung Nam, Paari Dominic, Kevin J McCarthy, Sumitra Miriyala, Manikandan Panchatcharam
Lipid Phosphate phosphatase 3 (LPP3), encoded by the Plpp3 gene, is an enzyme that dephosphorylates the bioactive lipid mediator lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). To study the role of LPP3 in the myocardium, we generated a cardiac specific Plpp3 deficient mouse strain. Although these mice were viable at birth in contrast to global Plpp3 knockout mice, they showed increased mortality ~ 8 months. LPP3 deficient mice had enlarged hearts with reduced left ventricular performance as seen by echocardiography. Cardiac specific Plpp3 deficient mice had longer ventricular effective refractory periods compared to their Plpp3 littermates...
September 28, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977846/downregulation-of-x-linked-inhibitor-of-apoptosis-protein-by-7-benzylidenenaltrexone-maleate-sensitizes-pancreatic-cancer-cells-to-trail-induced-apoptosis
#19
So Young Kim, Sojung Park, SeonA Yoo, Jin Kyung Rho, Eun Sung Jun, Suhwan Chang, Kyung Kon Kim, Song Cheol Kim, Inki Kim
Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a potential biological anticancer agent. However, a wide range of human primary cancers, including pancreatic cancer, display resistance to apoptosis induction by TRAIL. Therefore, this resistance needs to be overcome to allow TRAIL to be successfully used in cancer therapy. In this study, we performed a compound screen to isolate TRAIL sensitizers and found that one of the identified compounds, 7-benzylidenenaltrexone maleate (BNTX), sensitized pancreatic cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptotic cell death...
September 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974722/succinate-promotes-stem-cell-migration-through-the-gpr91-dependent-regulation-of-drp1-mediated-mitochondrial-fission
#20
So Hee Ko, Gee Euhn Choi, Ji Young Oh, Hyun Jik Lee, Jun Sung Kim, Chang Woo Chae, Diana Choi, Ho Jae Han
The role of metabolites produced from stem cell metabolism has been emerged as signaling molecules to regulate stem cell behaviors such as migration. The mitochondrial morphology is closely associated with the metabolic balance and stem cell function. However, the physiological role of succinate on human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) migration by regulating the mitochondrial morphology remains unclear. Here, we investigate the effect of succinate on hMSC migration via regulation of mitochondrial dynamics and its related signaling pathway...
October 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
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