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(ROCK OR Rho) AND mitochondri*

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531100/functional-mitochondria-are-important-for-the-effect-of-resveratrol
#1
Anne L Widlund, Kaushal Baral, Louise T Dalgaard, Ole Vang
Resveratrol (Resv) is a polyphenol reported to modulate mitochondrial activity. The aim was to use HeLa and 143B cells to characterize the action of Resv on mitochondrial activity, cell size and proliferation using wild type (WT) and Rho 0 cells deficient in mitochondrial DNA. In both HeLa WT and Rho 0 cells, the oxygen consumption rate (OCR) was increased at 20 µM Resv after 24 h, whereas only a non-significant increase of OCR was observed in 143B WT cells. Resv decreased cell number concentration-dependently in both WT and Rho 0 cell types...
May 20, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521307/downregulation-of-x-linked-inhibitor-of-apoptosis-protein-by-7-benzylidenenaltrexone-maleate-sensitizes-pancreatic-cancer-cells-to-trail-induced-apoptosis
#2
So Young Kim, Sojung Park, SeonA Yoo, Jin Kyung Rho, Eun Sung Jun, Suhwan Chang, Kyung Kon Kim, Song Cheol Kim, Inki Kim
Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a potential biological anticancer agent. However, a wide range of human primary cancers, including pancreatic cancer, display resistance to apoptosis induction by TRAIL. Therefore, this resistance needs to be overcome to allow TRAIL to be successfully used in cancer therapy. In this study, we performed a compound screen to isolate TRAIL sensitizers and found that one of the identified compounds, 7-benzylidenenaltrexone maleate (BNTX), sensitized pancreatic cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptotic cell death...
May 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515690/brain-renin-angiotensin-system-and-microglial-polarization-implications-for-aging-and-neurodegeneration
#3
REVIEW
Jose L Labandeira-Garcia, Ana I Rodríguez-Perez, Pablo Garrido-Gil, Jannette Rodriguez-Pallares, Jose L Lanciego, Maria J Guerra
Microglia can transform into proinflammatory/classically activated (M1) or anti-inflammatory/alternatively activated (M2) phenotypes following environmental signals related to physiological conditions or brain lesions. An adequate transition from the M1 (proinflammatory) to M2 (immunoregulatory) phenotype is necessary to counteract brain damage. Several factors involved in microglial polarization have already been identified. However, the effects of the brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS) on microglial polarization are less known...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483708/gamasoidosis-by-the-special-lineage-l1-of-dermanyssus-gallinae-acarina-dermanyssidae-a-case-of-heavy-infestation-in-a-public-place-in-italy
#4
Marco Pezzi, Marilena Leis, Milvia Chicca, Lise Roy
Among Gamasina (Acari: Mesostigmata) mites, some dermanyssoid species are known to cause gamasoidosis, a human dermatitis characterized by papulosquamous eruptions and urticarian lesions. We describe a case of mite infestation which occurred in public conference halls in Ferrara (Italy), affecting four people who attended the place and showed signs of gamasoidosis. The mites were collected and characterized using scanning electron microscopy, light microscopy and mitochondrial DNA sequencing (Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I partial CDS)...
May 5, 2017: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442922/inhibition-of-pcsk9-protects-against-radiation-induced-damage-of-prostate-cancer-cells
#5
Si-Shun Gan, Jian-Qing Ye, Lei Wang, Fa-Jun Qu, Chuan-Min Chu, Yi-Jun Tian, Wei Yang, Xin-Gang Cui
BACKGROUND: Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a protein expressed primarily in the liver, formerly known to maintain plasma lipid homeostasis by regulating low-density lipoprotein receptor levels, and its exact role in the radioresistance of prostate cancer (PCa) remains unclear. We aim to investigate the function of PCSK9 in the radioresistance of PCa cells. METHODS: PCSK9 small interfering RNA (siRNA) was introduced into the PCa cells by transient transfection...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413643/cytotoxic-and-antimigratory-effects-of-cratoxy-formosum-extract-against-hepg2-liver-cancer-cells
#6
Benjaporn Buranrat, Nootchanat Mairuae, Watchara Kanchanarach
The aim of the present study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying Cratoxylum formosum (CF) Dyer-induced cancer cell death and antimigratory effects in HepG2 liver cancer cells. The cytotoxic, antiproliferative and antimigratory effects of CF leaf extract on human liver cancer HepG2 cell lines were evaluated using sulforhodamine B, colony formation, and wound healing assays. In addition, apoptosis induction mechanisms were investigated via reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, caspase 3 activities, and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) disruption...
April 2017: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411160/life-on-the-rocks-multilocus-phylogeography-of-rock-hyrax-procavia-capensis-from-southern-africa
#7
K Amanda Maswanganye, Michael J Cunningham, Nigel C Bennett, Christian T Chimimba, Paulette Bloomer
Understanding the role of geography and climatic cycles in determining patterns of biodiversity is important in comparative and evolutionary biology and conservation. We studied the phylogeographic pattern and historical demography of a rock-dwelling small mammal species from southern Africa, the rock hyrax Procavia capensis. Using a multilocus coalescent approach, we assessed the influence of strong habitat dependence and fluctuating regional climates on genetic diversity. We sequenced a mitochondrial gene (cytochrome b) and two nuclear introns (AP5, PRKC1) supplemented with microsatellite genotyping, in order to assess evolutionary processes over multiple temporal scales...
April 11, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409271/unique-presentation-of-cutis-laxa-with-leigh-like-syndrome-due-to-echs1-deficiency
#8
S Balasubramaniam, L G Riley, D Bratkovic, D Ketteridge, N Manton, M J Cowley, V Gayevskiy, T Roscioli, M Mohamed, T Gardeitchik, E Morava, J Christodoulou
Clinical finding of cutis laxa, characterized by wrinkled, redundant, sagging, nonelastic skin, is of growing significance due to its occurrence in several different inborn errors of metabolism (IEM). Metabolic cutis laxa results from Menkes syndrome, caused by a defect in the ATPase copper transporting alpha (ATP7A) gene; congenital disorders of glycosylation due to mutations in subunit 7 of the component of oligomeric Golgi (COG7)-congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) complex; combined disorder of N- and O-linked glycosylation, due to mutations in ATPase H+ transporting V0 subunit a2 (ATP6VOA2) gene; pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 1 deficiency; pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase deficiency; macrocephaly, alopecia, cutis laxa, and scoliosis (MACS) syndrome, due to Ras and Rab interactor 2 (RIN2) mutations; transaldolase deficiency caused by mutations in the transaldolase 1 (TALDO1) gene; Gerodermia osteodysplastica due to mutations in the golgin, RAB6-interacting (GORAB or SCYL1BP1) gene; and mitogen-activated pathway (MAP) kinase defects, caused by mutations in several genes [protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor-type 11 (PTPN11), RAF, NF, HRas proto-oncogene, GTPase (HRAS), B-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase (BRAF), MEK1/2, KRAS proto-oncogene, GTPase (KRAS), SOS Ras/Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor 2 (SOS2), leucine rich repeat scaffold protein (SHOC2), NRAS proto-oncogene, GTPase (NRAS), and Raf-1 proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase (RAF1)], which regulate the Ras-MAPK cascade...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397070/ketone-bodies-as-anti-seizure-agents
#9
Timothy A Simeone, Kristina A Simeone, Jong M Rho
There is growing evidence that ketone bodies (KB)-derived from fatty acid oxidation and produced during fasting or consumption of high-fat diets-can exert broad neuroprotective effects. With respect to epilepsy, KB (such as β-hydroxybutyrate or BHB, acetoacetate and acetone) have been shown to block acutely induced and spontaneous recurrent seizures in various animal models. Although the mechanisms underlying the anti-seizure effects of KB have not been fully elucidated, recent experimental studies have invoked ketone-mediated effects on both inhibitory (e...
April 10, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395021/tipifarnib-prevents-development-of-hypoxia-induced-pulmonary-hypertension
#10
Lucie Duluc, Blerina Ahmetaj-Shala, Jane Mitchell, Vahitha B Abdul-Salam, Abdul S Mahomed, Lulwah Aldabbous, Eduardo Oliver, Lucio Iannone, Olivier D Dubois, Elisabeth M Storck, Edward W Tate, Lan Zhao, Martin R Wilkins, Beata Wojciak-Stothard
Aims: RhoB plays a key role in the pathogenesis of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. Farnesylated RhoB promotes growth responses in cancer cells and we investigated whether inhibition of protein farnesylation will have a protective effect. Methods and results: The analysis of lung tissues from rodent models and pulmonary hypertensive patients showed increased levels of protein farnesylation. Oral farnesyltransferase inhibitor tipifarnib prevented development of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in mice...
March 1, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358928/regulation-of-white-and-brown-adipocyte-differentiation-by-rhogap-dlc1
#11
Choon Kiat Sim, Sun-Yee Kim, Reinhard Brunmeir, Qiongyi Zhang, Hongyu Li, Dharmini Dharmasegaran, Carol Leong, Ying Yan Lim, Weiping Han, Feng Xu
Adipose tissues constitute an important component of metabolism, the dysfunction of which can cause obesity and type II diabetes. Here we show that differentiation of white and brown adipocytes requires Deleted in Liver Cancer 1 (DLC1), a Rho GTPase Activating Protein (RhoGAP) previously studied for its function in liver cancer. We identified Dlc1 as a super-enhancer associated gene in both white and brown adipocytes through analyzing the genome-wide binding profiles of PPARγ, the master regulator of adipogenesis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357356/formaldehyde-fixation-is-detrimental-to-actin-cables-in-glucose-depleted-s-cerevisiae-cells
#12
Pavla Vasicova, Mark Rinnerthaler, Danusa Haskova, Lenka Novakova, Ivana Malcova, Michael Breitenbach, Jiri Hasek
Actin filaments form cortical patches and emanating cables in fermenting cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This pattern has been shown to be depolarized in glucose-depleted cells after formaldehyde fixation and staining with rhodamine-tagged phalloidin. Loss of actin cables in mother cells was remarkable. Here we extend our knowledge on actin in live glucose-depleted cells co-expressing the marker of actin patches (Abp1-RFP) with the marker of actin cables (Abp140-GFP). Glucose depletion resulted in appearance of actin patches also in mother cells...
April 12, 2016: Microbial Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317242/chemical-screening-identifies-rock-as-a-target-for-recovering-mitochondrial-function-in-hutchinson-gilford-progeria-syndrome
#13
Hyun Tae Kang, Joon Tae Park, Kobong Choi, Hyo Jei Claudia Choi, Chul Won Jung, Gyu Ree Kim, Young-Sam Lee, Sang Chul Park
Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) constitutes a genetic disease wherein an aging phenotype manifests in childhood. Recent studies indicate that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles in HGPS phenotype progression. Thus, pharmacological reduction in ROS levels has been proposed as a potentially effective treatment for patient with this disorder. In this study, we performed high-throughput screening to find compounds that could reduce ROS levels in HGPS fibroblasts and identified rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) inhibitor (Y-27632) as an effective agent...
June 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300646/developmental-changes-in-trak-mediated-mitochondrial-transport-in-neurons
#14
Omar Loss, F Anne Stephenson
Previous studies established that the kinesin adaptor proteins, TRAK1 and TRAK2, play an important role in mitochondrial transport in neurons. They link mitochondria to kinesin motor proteins via a TRAK acceptor protein in the mitochondrial outer membrane, the Rho GTPase, Miro. TRAKs also associate with enzyme, O-linked N-acetylglucosamine transferase (OGT), to form a quaternary, mitochondrial trafficking complex. A recent report suggested that TRAK1 preferentially controls mitochondrial transport in axons of hippocampal neurons whereas TRAK2 controls mitochondrial transport in dendrites...
April 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277985/indoxyl-sulfate-potentiates-endothelial-dysfunction-via-reciprocal-role-for-reactive-oxygen-species-and-rhoa-rock-signaling-in-5-6-nephrectomized-rats
#15
Shuang Chu, Xiaodong Mao, Hengjiang Guo, Li Wang, Zezheng Li, Yang Zhang, Yunman Wang, Hao Wang, Xuemei Zhang, Wen Peng
Accumulative indoxyl sulfate (IS) retained in chronic kidney disease (CKD) can potentiate vascular endothelial dysfunction, and herein, we aim at elucidating the underlying mechanisms from the perspective of possible association between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and RhoA/ROCK pathway. IS-treated nephrectomized rats are administered with antioxidants including NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin, SOD analog tempol, and mitochondrion-targeted SOD mimetic mito-TEMPO to scavenge ROS, or ROCK inhibitor fasudil to obstruct RhoA/ROCK pathway...
March 13, 2017: Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270747/metabolic-dysfunction-underlying-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-potential-treatment-approaches
#16
REVIEW
Ning Cheng, Jong M Rho, Susan A Masino
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by deficits in sociability and communication, and increased repetitive and/or restrictive behaviors. While the etio-pathogenesis of ASD is unknown, clinical manifestations are diverse and many possible genetic and environmental factors have been implicated. As such, it has been a great challenge to identify key neurobiological mechanisms and to develop effective treatments. Current therapies focus on co-morbid conditions (such as epileptic seizures and sleep disturbances) and there is no cure for the core symptoms...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243663/transcriptomic-analyses-of-the-anti-adipogenic-effects-of-oleuropein-in-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#17
Antonio Casado-Díaz, Jaouad Anter, Sören Müller, Peter Winter, José Manuel Quesada-Gómez, Gabriel Dorado
Extra virgin olive oil has positive effects on health. Oleuropein is a polyphenolic compound present in olive-tree leaves, fruits (olives) and olive oil. It is responsible for the relevant organoleptic and biological properties of olive oil, including antiadipogenic properties. Thus, the effects of oleuropein on the adipogenesis of human bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells were studied by transcriptomics and differential gene-expression analyses. Oleuropein could upregulate expression of 60% of adipogenesis-repressed genes...
February 28, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235481/molecular-determinants-of-the-olfactory-receptor-olfr544-activation-by-azelaic-acid
#18
Trung Thanh Thach, Yu-Jung Hong, Sangho Lee, Sung-Joon Lee
The mouse olfactory receptor Olfr544 is expressed in several non-olfactory tissues and has been suggested as a functional receptor regulating different signaling pathways. However, the molecular interaction between Olfr544 and its natural ligand, azelaic acid (AzA), remains poorly characterized, primarily due to difficulties in the heterologous expression of the receptor protein on the cell membrane and lack of entire protein structure. In this report, we describe the molecular determinants of Olfr544 activation by AzA...
April 1, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230232/carisbamate-blockade-of-t-type-voltage-gated-calcium-channels
#19
Do Young Kim, Fang-Xiong Zhang, Stan T Nakanishi, Timothy Mettler, Ik-Hyun Cho, Younghee Ahn, Florian Hiess, Lina Chen, Patrick G Sullivan, S R Wayne Chen, Gerald W Zamponi, Jong M Rho
OBJECTIVES: Carisbamate (CRS) is a novel monocarbamate compound that possesses antiseizure and neuroprotective properties. However, the mechanisms underlying these actions remain unclear. Here, we tested both direct and indirect effects of CRS on several cellular systems that regulate intracellular calcium concentration [Ca(2+) ]i . METHODS: We used a combination of cellular electrophysiologic techniques, as well as cell viability, Store Overload-Induced Calcium Release (SOICR), and mitochondrial functional assays to determine whether CRS might affect [Ca(2+) ]i levels through actions on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), mitochondria, and/or T-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels...
April 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217180/hypoxic-pulmonary-vasoconstriction-in-humans-tale-or-myth
#20
REVIEW
A Hussain, M S Suleiman, S J George, M Loubani, A Morice
Hypoxic Pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) describes the physiological adaptive process of lungs to preserves systemic oxygenation. It has clinical implications in the development of pulmonary hypertension which impacts on outcomes of patients undergoing cardiothoracic surgery. This review examines both acute and chronic hypoxic vasoconstriction focusing on the distinct clinical implications and highlights the role of calcium and mitochondria in acute versus the role of reactive oxygen species and Rho GTPases in chronic HPV...
2017: Open Cardiovascular Medicine Journal
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