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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899893/raynaud-s-phenomenon-a-brief-review-of-the-underlying-mechanisms
#1
REVIEW
Manal M Fardoun, Joseph Nassif, Khodr Issa, Elias Baydoun, Ali H Eid
Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) is characterized by exaggerated cold-induced vasoconstriction. This augmented vasoconstriction occurs by virtue of a reflex response to cooling via the sympathetic nervous system as well as by local activation of α2C adrenoceptors (α2C-AR). In a cold-initiated, mitochondrion-mediated mechanism involving reactive oxygen species and the Rho/ROCK pathway, cytoskeletal rearrangement in vascular smooth muscle cells orchestrates the translocation of α2C-AR to the cell membrane, where this receptor readily interacts with its ligand...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851782/alpha-b-crystallin-protects-rat-articular-chondrocytes-against-casein-kinase-ii-inhibition-induced-apoptosis
#2
Sung Won Lee, Jee Hyun Rho, Sang Yeob Lee, Seung Hee Yoo, Hye Young Kim, Won Tae Chung, Young Hyun Yoo
Although alpha (α)B-crystallin is expressed in articular chondrocytes, little is known about its role in these cells. Protein kinase casein kinase 2 (CK2) inhibition induces articular chondrocyte death. The present study examines whether αB-crystallin exerts anti-apoptotic activity in articular chondrocytes. Primary rat articular chondrocytes were isolated from knee joint slices. Cells were treated with CK2 inhibitors with or without αB-crystallin siRNA. To examine whether the silencing of αB-crystallin sensitizes rat articular chondrocytes to CK2 inhibition-induced apoptosis, we assessed apoptosis by performing viability assays, mitochondrial membrane potential measurements, flow cytometry, nuclear morphology observations, and western blot analysis...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827394/mitochondrial-ca-2-uptake-controls-actin-cytoskeleton-dynamics-during-cell-migration
#3
Julien Prudent, Nikolay Popgeorgiev, Rudy Gadet, Mathieu Deygas, Ruth Rimokh, Germain Gillet
Intracellular Ca(2+) signaling regulates cell migration by acting on cytoskeleton architecture, cell directionality and focal adhesions dynamics. In migrating cells, cytosolic Ca(2+) pool and Ca(2+) pulses are described as key components of these effects. Whereas the role of the mitochondrial calcium homeostasis and the Mitochondria Cacium Uniporter (MCU) in cell migration were recently highlighted in vivo using the zebrafish model, their implication in actin cystokeleton dynamics and cell migration in mammals is not totally characterized...
November 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764131/generating-rho-0-cells-using-mesenchymal-stem-cell-lines
#4
Mercedes Fernández-Moreno, Tamara Hermida-Gómez, M Esther Gallardo, Andrea Dalmao-Fernández, Ignacio Rego-Pérez, Rafael Garesse, Francisco J Blanco
INTRODUCTION: The generation of Rho-0 cells requires the use of an immortalization process, or tumor cell selection, followed by culture in the presence of ethidium bromide (EtBr), incurring the drawbacks its use entails. The purpose of this work was to generate Rho-0 cells using human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) with reagents having the ability to remove mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) more safely than by using EtBr. METHODOLOGY: Two immortalized hMSC lines (3a6 and KP) were used; 143B...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716788/vimar-is-a-novel-regulator-of-mitochondrial-fission-through-miro
#5
Lianggong Ding, Ye Lei, Yanping Han, Yuhong Li, Xunming Ji, Lei Liu
As fundamental processes in mitochondrial dynamics, mitochondrial fusion, fission and transport are regulated by several core components, including Miro. As an atypical Rho-like small GTPase with high molecular mass, the exchange of GDP/GTP in Miro may require assistance from a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF). However, the GEF for Miro has not been identified. While studying mitochondrial morphology in Drosophila, we incidentally observed that the loss of vimar, a gene encoding an atypical GEF, enhanced mitochondrial fission under normal physiological conditions...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698874/anti-cancer-effect-of-ursolic-acid-activates-apoptosis-through-rock-pten-mediated-mitochondrial-translocation-of-cofilin-1-in-prostate-cancer
#6
Wen-Tao Gai, Da-Peng Yu, Xin-Sheng Wang, Pei-Tao Wang
Ursolic acid is a type of pentacyclic triterpene compound with multiple pharmacological activities including cancer resistance, protection from liver injury, antisepsis, anti-inflammation and antiviral activity. The present study aimed to investigate the anticancer effect of ursolic acid. Ursolic acid activates cell apoptosis and its pro-apoptotic mechanism remains to be fully elucidated. Cell Counting kit-8 assays, flow cytometric analysis and analysis of caspase-3 and caspase-9 activity were used to estimate the anticancer effect of ursolic acid on DU145 prostate cancer cells...
October 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687210/lack-of-mitochondrial-dna-impairs-chemical-hypoxia-induced-autophagy-in-liver-tumor-cells-through-ros-ampk-ulk1-signaling-dysregulation-independently-of-hif-1%C3%AE
#7
Jose J G Marin, Elisa Lozano, Maria J Perez
Alterations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and autophagy activation are common events in tumors. Here we have investigated the effect of mitochondrial genome depletion on chemical hypoxia-induced autophagy in liver tumor cells. Human SK-Hep-1 wild-type and mtDNA-depleted (Rho) cells were exposed to the hypoxia mimetic agents CoCl2 and deferoxamine (DFO). Up-regulation of HIF-1α, but not HIF-2α was observed. The expression of several HIF-1α target genes was also found. In human SK-Hep-1 and mouse Hepa 1-6 liver tumor cells, but not in the counterpart Rho derived lines, chemical hypoxia increased the abundance of autophagosomes and autolysosomes...
September 26, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27645688/hypoxic-pulmonary-vasoconstriction-from-molecular-mechanisms-to-medicine
#8
Kimberly J Dunham-Snary, Danchen Wu, Edward A Sykes, Amar Thakrar, Leah Rg Parlow, Jeffrey D Mewburn, Joel L Parlow, Stephen L Archer
Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) is a homeostatic mechanism that is intrinsic to the pulmonary vasculature. Intrapulmonary arteries constrict in response to alveolar hypoxia, diverting blood to better-oxygenated lung segments, thereby optimizing ventilation-perfusion matching and systemic oxygen delivery. In response to alveolar hypoxia, a mitochondrial sensor dynamically changes reactive oxygen species and redox couples in PASMC. This inhibits potassium channels, depolarizes PASMC, activates voltage-gated calcium channels, and increases cytosolic calcium, causing vasoconstriction...
September 16, 2016: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27641650/ipsc-mscs-with-high-intrinsic-miro1-and-sensitivity-to-tnf-%C3%AE-yield-efficacious-mitochondrial-transfer-to-rescue-anthracycline-induced-cardiomyopathy
#9
Yuelin Zhang, Zhendong Yu, Dan Jiang, Xiaoting Liang, Songyan Liao, Zhao Zhang, Wensheng Yue, Xiang Li, Sin-Ming Chiu, Yuet-Hung Chai, Yingmin Liang, Yenyen Chow, Shuo Han, Aimin Xu, Hung-Fat Tse, Qizhou Lian
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can donate mitochondria and rescue anthracycline-induced cardiomyocyte (CM) damage, although the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. We determined that the superior efficiency of mitochondrial transfer by human induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived MSCs (iPSC-MSCs) compared with bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) is due to high expression of intrinsic Rho GTPase 1 (MIRO1). Further, due to a higher level of TNFαIP2 expression, iPSC-MSCs are more responsive to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)-induced tunneling nanotube (TNT) formation for mitochondrial transfer to CMs, which is regulated via the TNF-α/NF-κB/TNFαIP2 signaling pathway...
October 11, 2016: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27615852/first-record-of-plethus-hagen-trichoptera-hydroptilidae-from-japan-%C3%A2-with-description-of-a-species
#10
Tomiko Ito, Rie Saito
The tropical and subtropical caddisfly genus Plethus Hagen (Hydroptilidae) is recorded from Japan for the first time. The species, Plethus ukalegon Malicky and Chantaramongkol 2007, originally described from Taiwan, is redescribed based on material from Iriomote-jima and Ishigaki-jima, southern Ryukyu Islands, the southernmost region of Japan. Female and immature stages are newly described and compared with Indonesian congeners. The early instar larva was associated with the adult through mitochondrial DNA sequence comparisons, and is described in the genus Plethus for the first time...
2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27602305/microendemicity-in-the-northern-hajar-mountains-of-oman-and-the-united-arab-emirates-with-the-description-of-two-new-species-of-geckos-of-the-genus-asaccus-squamata-phyllodactylidae
#11
Salvador Carranza, Marc Simó-Riudalbas, Sithum Jayasinghe, Thomas Wilms, Johannes Els
BACKGROUND: The Hajar Mountains of Oman and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) is the highest mountain range in Eastern Arabia. As a result of their old geological origin, geographical isolation, complex topography and local climate, these mountains provide an important refuge for endemic and relict species of plants and animals with strong Indo-Iranian affinities. Among vertebrates, the rock climbing nocturnal geckos of the genus Asaccus represent the genus with the highest number of endemic species in the Hajar Mountains...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27588912/pretreatment-with-rho-kinase-inhibitor-ameliorates-lethal-endotoxemia-induced-liver-injury-by-improving-mitochondrial-function
#12
Renyu Ding, Jiali Han, Dongmei Zhao, Ziwei Hu, Xiaochun Ma
Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibition has been reported to improve various inflammatory diseases including endotoxemia. Mitochondrial dysfunction might be the key to the pathophysiology of sepsis-induced organ failure. Therefore, this study aimed to explore whether ROCK inhibition protects against the liver injury by regulating mitochondrial function in endotoxemia model mice. The mice were randomly divided into four groups (N=6-8 per group): control, LPS, LPS+Y-27632 (LPS+Y), and LPS+Mito-TEMPO (LPS+M). For induction of endotoxin-induced acute liver injury, the mice were intraperitoneally administered lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 20mg/kg)...
August 30, 2016: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27572148/mitochondrial-fission-of-smooth-muscle-cells-is-involved-in-artery-constriction
#13
Ming-Yu Liu, Jing Jin, Shan-Liang Li, Jie Yan, Chang-Lin Zhen, Jin-Lai Gao, Yong-Hui Zhang, Yan-Qiu Zhang, Xin Shen, Liang-Shuan Zhang, Yuan-Yuan Wei, Yu Zhao, Chen-Guang Wang, Yun-Long Bai, De-Li Dong
Mitochondria are dynamic organelles and continuously undergo fission and fusion processes. Mitochondrial fission is involved in multiple physiological or pathological processes, but the role of mitochondrial fission of smooth muscle cells in artery constriction is unknown. The role of mitochondrial fission of smooth muscle cells in arterial function was investigated by measuring the tension of rat mesenteric arteries and thoracic aorta and by evaluating mitochondrial fission, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, and cytosolic [Ca(2+)]i in rat vascular smooth muscle cells...
November 2016: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27563890/antiviral-activity-of-a-novel-compound-cw-33-against-japanese-encephalitis-virus-through-inhibiting-intracellular-calcium-overload
#14
Su-Hua Huang, Jin-Cherng Lien, Chao-Jung Chen, Yu-Ching Liu, Ching-Ying Wang, Chia-Fong Ping, Yu-Fong Lin, An-Cheng Huang, Cheng-Wen Lin
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus, has five genotypes (I, II, III, IV, and V). JEV genotype I circulates widely in some Asian countries. However, current JEV vaccines based on genotype III strains show low neutralizing capacities against genotype I variants. In addition, JE has no specific treatment, except a few supportive treatments. Compound CW-33, an intermediate synthesized derivative of furoquinolines, was investigated for its antiviral activities against JEV in this study...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27534880/hypoxia-induced-contraction-of-chicken-embryo-mesenteric-arteries-mechanisms-and-developmental-changes
#15
Leonie Brinks, Rob Mj Moonen, Javier Moral-Sanz, Bianca Barreira, Lilian Kessels, Francisco Perez-Vizcaino, Angel Cogolludo, Eduardo Villamor
The fetal cardiovascular responses to acute hypoxia includes a redistribution of the cardiac output towards the heart and the brain at the expense of other organs, such as the intestine. We hypothesized that hypoxia exerts a direct effect on the mesenteric artery (MA) that may contribute to this response. Using wire myography, we investigated the response to hypoxia (Po2 ~2.5 kPa for 20 min) of isolated MAs from 15- to 21-d chicken embryos (E15, E19 E21), and 1- to 45-d-old chickens (P1, P3, P14, P45). Agonist-induced pretone or an intact endothelium were not required to obtain a consistent and reproducible response to hypoxia, which showed a pattern of initial rapid phasic contraction followed by a sustained tonic contraction...
August 17, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27524245/lens-transcriptome-profile-during-cataract-development-in-mip-null-mice
#16
Thomas M Bennett, Yuefang Zhou, Alan Shiels
Major intrinsic protein or aquaporin-0 (MIP/AQP0) functions as a water channel and a cell-junction molecule in the vertebrate eye lens. Loss of MIP function in the lens leads to degraded optical quality and cataract formation by pathogenic mechanisms that are unclear. Here we have used microarray-hybridization analysis to detect lens transcriptome changes during cataract formation in mice that are functionally null for MIP (Mip-/-). In newborn Mip-/- lenses (P1) 11 genes were up-regulated and 18 were down-regulated (>2-fold, p=<0...
September 16, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27515249/uncoupling-of-the-hippo-and-rho-pathways-allows-megakaryocytes-to-escape-the-tetraploid-checkpoint
#17
Anita Roy, Larissa Lordier, Catherine Pioche-Durieu, Sylvie Souquere, Lydia Roy, Philippe Rameau, Valérie Lapierre, Eric Le Cam, Isabelle Plo, Najet Debili, Hana Raslova, William Vainchenker
Megakaryocytes are naturally polyploid cells that increase their ploidy by endomitosis. However, very little is known regarding the mechanism by which they escape the tetraploid checkpoint to become polyploid. Recently, it has been shown that the tetraploid checkpoint was regulated by the Hippo-p53 pathway in response to a downregulation of Rho activity. We therefore analyzed the role of Hippo-p53 pathway in the regulation of human megakaryocyte polyploidy. Our results revealed that Hippo-p53 signaling pathway proteins are present and are functional in megakaryocytes...
December 2016: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27502471/parl-the-mitochondrial-rhomboid-protease
#18
Marco Spinazzi, Bart De Strooper
The rhomboid family comprises evolutionary conserved intramembrane proteases involved in a wide spectrum of biologically relevant activities. A mitochondrion-localized rhomboid, called PARL in mammals, and conserved in yeast and Drosophila as RBD1/PCP1 and rho-7, respectively, plays an indispensable role in cell homeostasis as illustrated by the severe phenotypes caused by its genetic ablation in the various investigated species. Although several substrates of PARL have been proposed to explain these phenotypes, there remains a lot of controversy in this important area of research...
August 5, 2016: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27499009/mitochondrial-dna-depletion-causes-decreased-ros-production-and-resistance-to-apoptosis
#19
Hulin Chen, Junling Wang, Zhongrong Liu, Huilan Yang, Yingjie Zhu, Minling Zhao, Yan Liu, Miaomiao Yan
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion occurs frequently in many diseases including cancer. The present study was designed in order to examine the hypothesis that mtDNA‑depleted cells are resistant to apoptosis and to explore the possible mechanisms responsible for this effect. Parental human osteosarcoma 143B cells and mtDNA‑deficient (Rho˚ or ρ˚) 206 cells (derived from 143B cells) were exposed to different doses of solar-simulated ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The effects of solar irradiation on cell morphology were observed under both light and fluorescence microscopes...
October 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27486686/quantitative-proteomic-analysis-reveals-similarities-between-huntington-s-disease-hd-and-huntington-s-disease-like-2-hdl2-human-brains
#20
Tamara Ratovitski, Raghothama Chaerkady, Kai Kammers, Jacqueline C Stewart, Anialak Zavala, Olga Pletnikova, Juan C Troncoso, Dobrila D Rudnicki, Russell L Margolis, Robert N Cole, Christopher A Ross
The pathogenesis of HD and HDL2, similar progressive neurodegenerative disorders caused by expansion mutations, remains incompletely understood. No systematic quantitative proteomics studies, assessing global changes in HD or HDL2 human brain, were reported. To address this deficit, we used a stable isotope labeling-based approach to quantify the changes in protein abundances in the cortex of 12 HD and 12 control cases and, separately, of 6 HDL2 and 6 control cases. The quality of the tissues was assessed to minimize variability due to post mortem autolysis...
September 2, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
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