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(ROCK OR Rho) AND mitochondri*

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317242/chemical-screening-identifies-rock-as-a-target-for-recovering-mitochondrial-function-in-hutchinson-gilford-progeria-syndrome
#1
Hyun Tae Kang, Joon Tae Park, Kobong Choi, Hyo Jei Claudia Choi, Chul Won Jung, Gyu Ree Kim, Young-Sam Lee, Sang Chul Park
Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) constitutes a genetic disease wherein an aging phenotype manifests in childhood. Recent studies indicate that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles in HGPS phenotype progression. Thus, pharmacological reduction in ROS levels has been proposed as a potentially effective treatment for patient with this disorder. In this study, we performed high-throughput screening to find compounds that could reduce ROS levels in HGPS fibroblasts and identified rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) inhibitor (Y-27632) as an effective agent...
March 19, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300646/developmental-changes-in-trak-mediated-mitochondrial-transport-in-neurons
#2
Omar Loss, F Anne Stephenson
Previous studies established that the kinesin adaptor proteins, TRAK1 and TRAK2, play an important role in mitochondrial transport in neurons. They link mitochondria to kinesin motor proteins via a TRAK acceptor protein in the mitochondrial outer membrane, the Rho GTPase, Miro. TRAKs also associate with enzyme, O-linked N-acetylglucosamine transferase (OGT), to form a quaternary, mitochondrial trafficking complex. A recent report suggested that TRAK1 preferentially controls mitochondrial transport in axons of hippocampal neurons whereas TRAK2 controls mitochondrial transport in dendrites...
March 11, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277985/indoxyl-sulfate-potentiates-endothelial-dysfunction-via-reciprocal-role-for-reactive-oxygen-species-and-rhoa-rock-signaling-in-5-6-nephrectomized-rats
#3
Shuang Chu, Xiaodong Mao, Hengjiang Guo, Li Wang, Zezheng Li, Yang Zhang, Yunman Wang, Hao Wang, Xuemei Zhang, Wen Peng
Accumulative indoxyl sulfate (IS) retained in chronic kidney disease (CKD) can potentiate vascular endothelial dysfunction, and herein, we aim at elucidating the underlying mechanisms from the perspective of possible association between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and RhoA/ROCK pathway. IS-treated nephrectomized rats are administered with antioxidants including NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin, SOD analog tempol, and mitochondrion-targeted SOD mimetic mito-TEMPO to scavenge ROS, or ROCK inhibitor fasudil to obstruct RhoA/ROCK pathway...
March 13, 2017: Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270747/metabolic-dysfunction-underlying-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-potential-treatment-approaches
#4
REVIEW
Ning Cheng, Jong M Rho, Susan A Masino
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by deficits in sociability and communication, and increased repetitive and/or restrictive behaviors. While the etio-pathogenesis of ASD is unknown, clinical manifestations are diverse and many possible genetic and environmental factors have been implicated. As such, it has been a great challenge to identify key neurobiological mechanisms and to develop effective treatments. Current therapies focus on co-morbid conditions (such as epileptic seizures and sleep disturbances) and there is no cure for the core symptoms...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243663/transcriptomic-analyses-of-the-anti-adipogenic-effects-of-oleuropein-in-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#5
Antonio Casado-Díaz, Jaouad Anter, Sören Müller, Peter Winter, José Manuel Quesada-Gómez, Gabriel Dorado
Extra virgin olive oil has positive effects on health. Oleuropein is a polyphenolic compound present in olive-tree leaves, fruits (olives) and olive oil. It is responsible for the relevant organoleptic and biological properties of olive oil, including antiadipogenic properties. Thus, the effects of oleuropein on the adipogenesis of human bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells were studied by transcriptomics and differential gene-expression analyses. Oleuropein could upregulate expression of 60% of adipogenesis-repressed genes...
February 28, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235481/molecular-determinants-of-the-olfactory-receptor-olfr544-activation-by-azelaic-acid
#6
Trung Thanh Thach, Yu-Jung Hong, Sangho Lee, Sung-Joon Lee
The mouse olfactory receptor Olfr544 is expressed in several non-olfactory tissues and has been suggested as a functional receptor regulating different signaling pathways. However, the molecular interaction between Olfr544 and its natural ligand, azelaic acid (AzA), remains poorly characterized, primarily due to difficulties in the heterologous expression of the receptor protein on the cell membrane and lack of entire protein structure. In this report, we describe the molecular determinants of Olfr544 activation by AzA...
April 1, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230232/carisbamate-blockade-of-t-type-voltage-gated-calcium-channels
#7
Do Young Kim, Fang-Xiong Zhang, Stan T Nakanishi, Timothy Mettler, Ik-Hyun Cho, Younghee Ahn, Florian Hiess, Lina Chen, Patrick G Sullivan, S R Wayne Chen, Gerald W Zamponi, Jong M Rho
OBJECTIVES: Carisbamate (CRS) is a novel monocarbamate compound that possesses antiseizure and neuroprotective properties. However, the mechanisms underlying these actions remain unclear. Here, we tested both direct and indirect effects of CRS on several cellular systems that regulate intracellular calcium concentration [Ca(2+) ]i . METHODS: We used a combination of cellular electrophysiologic techniques, as well as cell viability, Store Overload-Induced Calcium Release (SOICR), and mitochondrial functional assays to determine whether CRS might affect [Ca(2+) ]i levels through actions on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), mitochondria, and/or T-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels...
February 23, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217180/hypoxic-pulmonary-vasoconstriction-in-humans-tale-or-myth
#8
REVIEW
A Hussain, M S Suleiman, S J George, M Loubani, A Morice
Hypoxic Pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) describes the physiological adaptive process of lungs to preserves systemic oxygenation. It has clinical implications in the development of pulmonary hypertension which impacts on outcomes of patients undergoing cardiothoracic surgery. This review examines both acute and chronic hypoxic vasoconstriction focusing on the distinct clinical implications and highlights the role of calcium and mitochondria in acute versus the role of reactive oxygen species and Rho GTPases in chronic HPV...
2017: Open Cardiovascular Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191700/supplement-of-autologous-ooplasm-into-porcine-somatic-cell-nuclear-transfer-embryos-does-not-alter-embryo-development
#9
W-J Lee, J-H Lee, R-H Jeon, S-J Jang, S-C Lee, J-S Park, S-L Lee, W-A King, G-J Rho
Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is considered as the technique in which a somatic cell is introduced into an enucleated oocyte to make a cloned animal. However, it is unavoidable to lose a small amount of the ooplasm during enucleation step during SCNT procedure. The present study was aimed to uncover whether the supplement of autologous ooplasm could ameliorate the oocyte competence so as to improve low efficiency of embryo development in porcine SCNT. Autologous ooplasm-transferred (AOT) embryos were generated by the supplementation with autologous ooplasm into SCNT embryos...
February 13, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149678/three-new-karst-dwelling-cnemaspis-strauch-1887-squamata-gekkoniade-from-peninsular-thailand-and-the-phylogenetic-placement-of-c-%C3%A2-punctatonuchalis-and-c-%C3%A2-vandeventeri
#10
Perry Lee Wood, L Lee Grismer, Anchalee Aowphol, César A Aguilar, Micheal Cota, Marta S Grismer, Matthew L Murdoch, Jack W Sites
Three new species of Rock Geckos Cnemaspis lineogularis sp. nov., C. phangngaensis sp. nov., and C. thachanaensis sp. nov. of the chanthaburiensis and siamensis groups are described from the Thai portion of the Thai-Malay Peninsula. These new species are distinguished from all other species in their two respective groups based on a unique combination of morphological characteristics, which is further supported by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 gene (ND2). Cnemaspis lineogularis sp...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114306/new-evidences-of-mitochondrial-dna-heteroplasmy-by-putative-paternal-leakage-between-the-rock-partridge-alectoris-graeca-and-the-chukar-partridge-alectoris-chukar
#11
Andrea Gandolfi, Barbara Crestanello, Anna Fagotti, Francesca Simoncelli, Stefania Chiesa, Matteo Girardi, Eleonora Giovagnoli, Carla Marangoni, Ines Di Rosa, Livia Lucentini
The rock partridge, Alectoris graeca, is a polytypic species declining in Italy mostly due to anthropogenic causes, including the massive releases of the closely related allochthonous chukar partridge Alectoris chukar which produced the formation of hybrids. Molecular approaches are fundamental for the identification of evolutionary units in the perspective of conservation and management, and to correctly select individuals to be used in restocking campaigns. We analyzed a Cytochrome oxidase I (COI) fragment of contemporary and historical A...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086790/rna-sequencing-for-global-gene-expression-associated-with-muscle-growth-in-a-single-male-modern-broiler-line-compared-to-a-foundational-barred-plymouth-rock-chicken-line
#12
Byung-Whi Kong, Nicholas Hudson, Dongwon Seo, Seok Lee, Bhuwan Khatri, Kentu Lassiter, Devin Cook, Alissa Piekarski, Sami Dridi, Nicholas Anthony, Walter Bottje
BACKGROUND: Modern broiler chickens exhibit very rapid growth and high feed efficiency compared to unselected chicken breeds. The improved production efficiency in modern broiler chickens was achieved by the intensive genetic selection for meat production. This study was designed to investigate the genetic alterations accumulated in modern broiler breeder lines during selective breeding conducted over several decades. METHODS: To identify genes important in determining muscle growth and feed efficiency in broilers, RNA sequencing (RNAseq) was conducted with breast muscle in modern pedigree male (PeM) broilers (n = 6 per group), and with an unselected foundation broiler line (Barred Plymouth Rock; BPR)...
January 13, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078613/l-f001-a-multifunction-rock-inhibitor-prevents-6-ohda-induced-cell-death-through-activating-akt-gsk-3beta-and-nrf2-ho-1-signaling-pathway-in-pc12-cells-and-attenuates-mptp-induced-dopamine-neuron-toxicity-in-mice
#13
Liting Luo, Jingkao Chen, Dan Su, Meihui Chen, Bingling Luo, Rongbiao Pi, Lan Wang, Wei Shen, Rikang Wang
Amounting evidences demonstrated that Rho/Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) might be a novel target for the therapy of Parkinson's disease (PD). Recently, we synthesized L-F001 and revealed it was a potent ROCK inhibitor with multifunctional effects. Here we investigated the effects of L-F001 in PD models. We found that L-F001 potently attenuated 6-OHDA-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells and significantly decreased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), prevented the 6-OHDA-induced decline of mitochondrial membrane potential and intracellular GSH levels...
February 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004868/physiological-redox-signalling-and-regulation-of-ion-channels-implications-for-pulmonary-hypertension
#14
Jeremy P T Ward
Pulmonary hypertension is associated with oxidant stress and increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by NADPH oxidases (NOX), mitochondria and other sources. There is considerable evidence that these contribute to the aetiology via promotion of pulmonary vascular remodelling, endothelial dysfunction and enhanced vasoreactivity. However, it is now recognised that ROS act as important signalling mediators and second messengers under normal physiological conditions. Many ion channels and protein kinases critical to pulmonary vascular function are directly or indirectly affected by redox/ROS, including K(+) , Ca(2+) and nonselective cation channels and Rho kinase...
December 22, 2016: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930804/increased-mitochondrial-ros-generation-mediates-the-loss-of-pvat-anticontractile-effect-in-hfd-treated-obese-mice
#15
Rafael Menezes da Costa, Rafael S Fais, Carlos R P Dechandt, Paulo Louzada-Junior, Luciane C Alberici, Núbia S Lobato, Rita C Tostes
Obesity is associated with structural and functional changes in the perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT), favoring the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS), vasoconstrictor and proinflammatory factors. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) induces vascular dysfunction and is produced by the PVAT. We tested the hypothesis that obesity-associated PVAT dysfunction is mediated by augmented mitochondrial ROS (mROS) generation due to increased TNF-α production in this tissue. Aortae from high fat diet (HFD)-fed obese mice displayed increased contractions to phenylephrine (PE) and loss of PVAT anticontractile effect...
December 8, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922635/increased-plasma-levels-of-circulating-cell-free-mitochondrial-dna-in-suicide-attempters-associations-with-hpa-axis-hyperactivity
#16
D Lindqvist, J Fernström, C Grudet, L Ljunggren, L Träskman-Bendz, L Ohlsson, Å Westrin
Preclinical data suggest that chronic stress may cause cellular damage and mitochondrial dysfunction, potentially leading to the release of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) into the bloodstream. Major depressive disorder has been associated with an increased amount of mtDNA in leukocytes from saliva samples and blood; however, no previous studies have measured plasma levels of free-circulating mtDNA in a clinical psychiatric sample. In this study, free circulating mtDNA was quantified in plasma samples from 37 suicide attempters, who had undergone a dexamethasone suppression test (DST), and 37 healthy controls...
December 6, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922198/dnmt1-modulation-in-chronic-hepatitis-b-patients-and-hypothetic-influence-on-mitochondrial-dna-methylation-status-during-long-term-nucleo-t-side-analogues-therapy
#17
Giordano Madeddu, Silvia Ortu, Giovanni Garrucciu, Ivana Maida, Michela Melis, Alberto Augusto Muredda, Maria Stella Mura, Sergio Babudieri
Inhibition of viral replication is the most important goal in patients with Hepatitis B virus chronic infection (CHB). Currently, five oral nucleo(t)side analogues (NAs), including Lamivudine, Adefovir, Telbivudine, Entecavir and Tenofovir, have been approved for treatment. The widespread use of NAs has also been linked with a progressive growth of unlikely anomaly attributable to mitochondrial dysfunctions, not previously recognized. Here we explore the hypothesis that NAs may cause persistent epigenetic changes during prolonged NAs therapy in CHB patients...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899893/raynaud-s-phenomenon-a-brief-review-of-the-underlying-mechanisms
#18
REVIEW
Manal M Fardoun, Joseph Nassif, Khodr Issa, Elias Baydoun, Ali H Eid
Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) is characterized by exaggerated cold-induced vasoconstriction. This augmented vasoconstriction occurs by virtue of a reflex response to cooling via the sympathetic nervous system as well as by local activation of α2C adrenoceptors (α2C-AR). In a cold-initiated, mitochondrion-mediated mechanism involving reactive oxygen species and the Rho/ROCK pathway, cytoskeletal rearrangement in vascular smooth muscle cells orchestrates the translocation of α2C-AR to the cell membrane, where this receptor readily interacts with its ligand...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851782/alpha-b-crystallin-protects-rat-articular-chondrocytes-against-casein-kinase-ii-inhibition-induced-apoptosis
#19
Sung Won Lee, Jee Hyun Rho, Sang Yeob Lee, Seung Hee Yoo, Hye Young Kim, Won Tae Chung, Young Hyun Yoo
Although alpha (α)B-crystallin is expressed in articular chondrocytes, little is known about its role in these cells. Protein kinase casein kinase 2 (CK2) inhibition induces articular chondrocyte death. The present study examines whether αB-crystallin exerts anti-apoptotic activity in articular chondrocytes. Primary rat articular chondrocytes were isolated from knee joint slices. Cells were treated with CK2 inhibitors with or without αB-crystallin siRNA. To examine whether the silencing of αB-crystallin sensitizes rat articular chondrocytes to CK2 inhibition-induced apoptosis, we assessed apoptosis by performing viability assays, mitochondrial membrane potential measurements, flow cytometry, nuclear morphology observations, and western blot analysis...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827394/mitochondrial-ca-2-uptake-controls-actin-cytoskeleton-dynamics-during-cell-migration
#20
Julien Prudent, Nikolay Popgeorgiev, Rudy Gadet, Mathieu Deygas, Ruth Rimokh, Germain Gillet
Intracellular Ca(2+) signaling regulates cell migration by acting on cytoskeleton architecture, cell directionality and focal adhesions dynamics. In migrating cells, cytosolic Ca(2+) pool and Ca(2+) pulses are described as key components of these effects. Whereas the role of the mitochondrial calcium homeostasis and the Mitochondria Cacium Uniporter (MCU) in cell migration were recently highlighted in vivo using the zebrafish model, their implication in actin cystokeleton dynamics and cell migration in mammals is not totally characterized...
November 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
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