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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150562/the-role-of-mhc-e-in-t-cell-immunity-is-conserved-among-humans-rhesus-macaques-and-cynomolgus-macaques
#1
Helen L Wu, Roger W Wiseman, Colette M Hughes, Gabriela M Webb, Shaheed A Abdulhaqq, Benjamin N Bimber, Katherine B Hammond, Jason S Reed, Lina Gao, Benjamin J Burwitz, Justin M Greene, Fidel Ferrer, Alfred W Legasse, Michael K Axthelm, Byung S Park, Simon Brackenridge, Nicholas J Maness, Andrew J McMichael, Louis J Picker, David H O'Connor, Scott G Hansen, Jonah B Sacha
MHC-E is a highly conserved nonclassical MHC class Ib molecule that predominantly binds and presents MHC class Ia leader sequence-derived peptides for NK cell regulation. However, MHC-E also binds pathogen-derived peptide Ags for presentation to CD8(+) T cells. Given this role in adaptive immunity and its highly monomorphic nature in the human population, HLA-E is an attractive target for novel vaccine and immunotherapeutic modalities. Development of HLA-E-targeted therapies will require a physiologically relevant animal model that recapitulates HLA-E-restricted T cell biology...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150209/exploring-the-relationship-between-polio-type-2-serum-neutralizing-antibodies-and-intestinal-immunity-using-data-from-two-randomized-controlled-trials-of-new-bopv-ipv-immunization-schedules
#2
Ananda S Bandyopadhyay, Edwin J Asturias, Miguel O'Ryan, M Steven Oberste, William Weldon, Ralf Clemens, Ricardo Rüttimann, John F Modlin, Chris Gast
BACKGROUND: Inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) is now the only source of routine type 2 protection. The relationship, if any, between vaccine-induced type 2 humoral and intestinal immunity is poorly understood. METHODS: Two clinical trials in five Latin American countries of mixed or sequential bOPV-IPV schedules in 1640 infants provided data on serum neutralizing antibodies (NAb) and intestinal immunity, assessed as viral shedding following oral mOPV2 challenge. Analyses with generalized additive and quantile regression models examined the relationships between prechallenge NAb titers and proportion, duration and titers (magnitude) of viral shedding...
November 14, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149896/liposomal-vaccine-formulations-as-prophylactic-agents-design-considerations-for-modern-vaccines
#3
REVIEW
Luis O De Serrano, David J Burkhart
Vaccinology is one of the most important cornerstones in modern medicine, providing better quality of life. The human immune system is composed of innate and adaptive immune processes that interplay when infection occurs. Innate immunity relies on pathogen-associated molecular patterns which are recognized by pathogen recognition receptors localized in antigen presenting cells. After antigen processing and presentation, CD4(+) T cell polarization occurs, further leading to B cell and CD8(+) activation and humoral and cell-mediated adaptive immune responses...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149197/sieve-analysis-of-breakthrough-hiv-1-sequences-in-hvtn-505-identifies-vaccine-pressure-targeting-the-cd4-binding-site-of-env-gp120
#4
Allan C deCamp, Morgane Rolland, Paul T Edlefsen, Eric Sanders-Buell, Breana Hall, Craig A Magaret, Andrew J Fiore-Gartland, Michal Juraska, Lindsay N Carpp, Shelly T Karuna, Meera Bose, Steven LePore, Shana Miller, Annemarie O'Sullivan, Kultida Poltavee, Hongjun Bai, Kalpana Dommaraju, Hong Zhao, Kim Wong, Lennie Chen, Hasan Ahmed, Derrick Goodman, Matthew Z Tay, Raphael Gottardo, Richard A Koup, Robert Bailer, John R Mascola, Barney S Graham, Mario Roederer, Robert J O'Connell, Nelson L Michael, Merlin L Robb, Elizabeth Adams, Patricia D'Souza, James Kublin, Lawrence Corey, Daniel E Geraghty, Nicole Frahm, Georgia D Tomaras, M Juliana McElrath, Lisa Frenkel, Sheila Styrchak, Sodsai Tovanabutra, Magdalena E Sobieszczyk, Scott M Hammer, Jerome H Kim, James I Mullins, Peter B Gilbert
Although the HVTN 505 DNA/recombinant adenovirus type 5 vector HIV-1 vaccine trial showed no overall efficacy, analysis of breakthrough HIV-1 sequences in participants can help determine whether vaccine-induced immune responses impacted viruses that caused infection. We analyzed 480 HIV-1 genomes sampled from 27 vaccine and 20 placebo recipients and found that intra-host HIV-1 diversity was significantly lower in vaccine recipients (P ≤ 0.04, Q-values ≤ 0.09) in Gag, Pol, Vif and envelope glycoprotein gp120 (Env-gp120)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148920/the-unexpected-impact-of-vaccines-on-secondary-bacterial-infections-following-influenza
#5
Amber M Smith, Victor C Huber
Influenza virus infections remain a significant health burden worldwide, despite available vaccines. Factors that contribute to this include a lack of broad coverage by current vaccines and continual emergence of novel virus strains. Further complicating matters, when influenza viruses infect a host, severe infections can develop when bacterial pathogens invade. Secondary bacterial infections (SBIs) contribute to a significant proportion of influenza-related mortality, with Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Haemophilus influenzae as major coinfecting pathogens...
November 17, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148297/detection-of-pseudorabies-virus-by-duplex-droplet-digital-pcr-assay
#6
Meishen Ren, Hua Lin, Shijie Chen, Miao Yang, Wei An, Yin Wang, Changhua Xue, Yinjie Sun, Yubao Yan, Juan Hu
Aujeszky's disease, caused by pseudorabies virus (PRV), has damaged the economy of the Chinese swine industry. A large number of PRV gene-deleted vaccines have been constructed based on deletion of the glycoprotein E ( gE) gene combined with other virulence-related gene deletions, such as thymidine kinase ( TK), whereas PRV wild-type strains contain an intact gE gene. We developed a sensitive duplex droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) assay to rapidly detect PRV wild-type isolates and gE gene-deleted viral vaccines...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146945/maraba-virus-vectored-cancer-vaccines-represent-a-safe-and-novel-therapeutic-option-for-cats
#7
Jeff Hummel, Dorothee Bienzle, Annette Morrison, Michelle Cieplak, Kyle Stephenson, Josepha DeLay, J Paul Woods, Brian D Lichty, Byram W Bridle
Direct killing of malignant cells combined with induction of tumour-specific immune responses makes oncolytic vaccines attractive for cancer therapy. We previously developed a heterologous cancer immunization strategy that utilized a replication-defective adenovirus-vectored primary vaccine encoding a tumour antigen followed by boosting with a replication-competent Maraba virus expressing the same antigen. To assess the safety of oncolytic Maraba virus-based booster vaccines and inform the design of clinical trials, we conducted translational studies in cats, which have immune systems that are similar to people and spontaneously develop cancers of comparable types and etiologies...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146026/vaccination-of-ferrets-for-rabies-and-distemper
#8
REVIEW
Laura L Wade
Companion ferrets need to be vaccinated against 2 viral diseases that cause neurologic illness: canine distemper and rabies. Although not common in ferrets, both viruses are fatal in ferrets and rabies virus is also fatal in humans. In this article, we provide a basic review of the 2 diseases, highlighting key neurologic concerns. We also review and update current vaccine concerns from a practitioner's perspective, including available vaccines, vaccine schedule recommendations, vaccine reactions, and risk assessment...
January 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145733/harnessing-novel-imaging-approaches-to-guide-hiv-prevention-and-cure-discoveries-a-national-institutes-of-health-and-global-hiv-vaccine-enterprise-2017-meeting-report
#9
Brigitte Elisabeth Sanders-Beer, Yegor Voronin, David McDonald, Anjali Singh
Advances in imaging technologies have greatly increased our understanding of cellular and molecular interactions in humans and their corresponding animal models of infectious diseases. In the HIV/SIV field, imaging has provided key insights into mucosal viral transmission, local and systemic virus spread, host-virus dynamics, and chronic inflammation/immune activation and the resultant immunopathology. Recent developments in imaging applications are yielding physical, spatial, and temporal measurements to enhance insight into biological functions and disease processes, while retaining important cellular, microenvironmental, organ and intact organism contextual details...
November 16, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145463/the-chicken-or-the-egg-exploring-bi-directional-associations-between-newcastle-disease-vaccination-and-village-chicken-flock-size-in-rural-tanzania
#10
Julia de Bruyn, Peter C Thomson, Brigitte Bagnol, Wende Maulaga, Elpidius Rukambile, Robyn G Alders
Newcastle disease (ND) is a viral disease of poultry with global importance, responsible for the loss of a potential source of household nutrition and economic livelihood in many low-income food-deficit countries. Periodic outbreaks of this endemic disease result in high mortality amongst free-ranging chicken flocks and may serve as a disincentive for rural households to invest time or resources in poultry-keeping. Sustainable ND control can be achieved through vaccination using a thermotolerant vaccine administered via eyedrop by trained "community vaccinators"...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144546/presence-of-infection-and-analysis-of-hpv-subtypes-in-girls-younger-than-9-years-old-attended-at-a-referral-service-in-esp%C3%A3-rito-santo-brazil
#11
Mariana Penha De Nadai Sartori, Lidiane Pignaton Agostini, Thaís Tristão Tovar, Raquel Silva Dos Reis, Raquel Spinassé Dettogni, Eldamária de Vargas Wolfgramm Dos Santos, Antônio Chambô Filho, Iúri Drumond Louro
PURPOSE: Human papillomavirus is found in adults and adolescents and is associated with genital warts and cervical cancer. However, it has been detected in girls younger than 10 years old. Currently, there are no prevention methods for this age group, since it is not considered a risk group. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of infection and HPV subtype in girls under 9 years old attended at a referral service in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. METHODS: Forty-three girls younger than 9 years old had gynecological brush samples collected from vulval and perineal/anal regions...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143488/isolation-and-characterization-of-novel-goose-parvovirus-related-virus-reveal-the-evolution-of-waterfowl-parvovirus
#12
P Li, S Lin, R Zhang, J Chen, D Sun, J Lan, S Song, Z Xie, S Jiang
Short beak and dwarfism syndrome (SBDS) has been constantly breaking out in China since 2015. It is caused by a novel goose parvovirus-related virus (NGPV) and can severely restrict the growth of ducks. In this study, seven NGPV stains were isolated from different regions in China between 2015 and 2016. To better understand the correlation between NGPV and goose parvovirus (GPV), we conducted complete genome sequencing and a comprehensive analysis of the NGPV genome. The phylogenetic and alignment analysis showed that NGPV is a branch of GPV, sharing 92...
November 16, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142132/identification-of-a-small-molecule-that-compromises-the-structural-integrity-of-viroplasms-and-rotavirus-double-layered-particles
#13
Catherine Eichwald, Giuditta De Lorenzo, Elisabeth M Schraner, Guido Papa, Michela Bollati, Paolo Swuec, Matteo de Rosa, Mario Milani, Eloise Mastrangelo, Mathias Ackermann, Oscar R Burrone, Francesca Arnoldi
Despite the availability of two attenuated vaccines, rotavirus (RV) gastroenteritis remains an important cause of mortality among children in developing countries causing about 215,000 infant deaths annually. Currently, there are no specific antiviral therapies available. RV is a non-enveloped virus with a segmented double-stranded RNA genome. Viral genome replication and assembly of transcriptionally active double-layered particles (DLPs) take place in cytoplasmic viral structures called viroplasms. In this study, we describe strong impairment of the early stages of RV replication induced by a small molecule known as RNA polymerase III inhibitor, ML-60218 (ML)...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142128/interaction-between-a-unique-minor-protein-and-a-major-capsid-protein-of-bluetongue-virus-controls-virus-infectivity
#14
Eiko Matsuo, Kiyoshi Yamazaki, Hiroki Tsuruta, Polly Roy
Among the Reoviridae family of double-stranded RNA viruses, only members of the Orbivirus genus possess a unique structural protein, termed VP6, within their particles. Bluetongue virus (BTV), an important livestock pathogen, is the prototype Orbivirus The BTV VP6 is an ATP-dependent RNA helicase and it is indispensable for virus replication. In this report, we investigated how VP6 might be recruited to the virus capsid and whether the BTV structural protein VP3, which forms the internal layer of the virus capsid core, is involved in VP6 recruitment...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142124/truncating-the-gp41-cytoplasmic-tail-of-siv-decreases-sensitivity-to-neutralizing-antibodies-without-increasing-envelope-content-of-virions
#15
Ellen White, Fan Wu, Elena Chertova, Julian Bess, James D Roser, Jeffrey D Lifson, Vanessa M Hirsch
An incomplete understanding of native HIV and SIV envelope glycoprotein (Env) impedes the development of structural models of Env and vaccine design. This shortcoming is due in part to the low number of Env trimers on virus particles. For SIV, this low expression can be counteracted by truncating the cytoplasmic tail (CT) of Env. CT truncation has been shown to increase Env incorporation into the virion and is commonly used in vaccine and imaging studies, but its effects on viral antigenicity have not been fully elucidated...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140409/ebolavirus-interferon-antagonists-protein-interaction-perspectives-to-combat-pathogenesis
#16
Anupam Banerjee, Abantika Pal, Debnath Pal, Pralay Mitra
Zaire ebolavirus, one of the most pathogenic species of Ebolavirus, is a significant threat to the human community being both highly infectious and lethal. The viral proteins (VPs), specifically VP24 and VP35, antagonize the interferon (IFN) proteins accountable for human immune response. Several efforts have been made to design vaccines and therapeutics drugs. However, the success is not encouraging because of limited knowledge about the binding site information of the VPs. Such limitations stem largely from the highly infectious nature of the virus that requires specialized personnel and biosafety laboratories...
November 13, 2017: Briefings in Functional Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139476/detection-of-hiv-1-specific-gastrointestinal-tissue-resident-cd8-t-cells-in-chronic-infection
#17
Brenna E Kiniry, Shengbin Li, Anupama Ganesh, Peter W Hunt, Ma Somsouk, Pamela J Skinner, Steven G Deeks, Barbara L Shacklett
Tissue-resident memory (TRM) CD8(+) T-cells are non-recirculating, long-lived cells housed in tissues that can confer protection against mucosal pathogens. Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) is a mucosal pathogen and the gastrointestinal tract is an important site of viral pathogenesis and transmission. Thus, CD8(+) TRM cells may be an important effector subset for controlling HIV-1 in mucosal tissues. This study sought to determine the abundance, phenotype, and functionality of CD8(+) TRM cells in the context of chronic HIV-1 infection...
November 15, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138299/induction-of-antiviral-immune-response-through-recognition-of-the-repeating-subunit-pattern-of-viral-capsids-is-toll-like-receptor-2-dependent
#18
Kelly M Shepardson, Benjamin Schwarz, Kyle Larson, Rachelle V Morton, John Avera, Kimberly McCoy, Alayna Caffrey, Ann Harmsen, Trevor Douglas, Agnieszka Rynda-Apple
Although viruses and viral capsids induce rapid immune responses, little is known about viral pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that are exhibited on their surface. Here, we demonstrate that the repeating protein subunit pattern common to most virus capsids is a molecular pattern that induces a Toll-like-receptor-2 (TLR2)-dependent antiviral immune response. This early antiviral immune response regulates the clearance of subsequent bacterial superinfections, which are a primary cause of morbidities associated with influenza virus infections...
November 14, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137642/effects-of-mrna-secondary-structure-on-the-expression-of-hev-orf2-proteins-in-escherichia-coli
#19
Nouredine Behloul, Wenjuan Wei, Sarra Baha, Zhenzhen Liu, Jiyue Wen, Jihong Meng
BACKGROUND: Viral protein expression in Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a powerful tool for structural/functional studies as well as for vaccine and diagnostics development. However, numerous factors such as codon bias, mRNA secondary structure and nucleotides distribution, have been indentified to hamper this heterologous expression. RESULTS: In this study, we combined computational and biochemical methods to analyze the influence of these factors on the expression of different segments of hepatitis E virus (HEV) ORF 2 protein and hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg)...
November 14, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137606/outbreak-of-caliciviruses-in-the-singapore-military-2015
#20
Freddy Jun Xian Neo, Jimmy Jin Phang Loh, Peijun Ting, Wei Xin Yeo, Christine Qiu Han Gao, Vernon Jian Ming Lee, Boon Huan Tan, Ching Ging Ng
BACKGROUND: From 31 August to 9 September 2015, a total of 150 military personnel at a military institution in Singapore were infected with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) with an attack rate of approximately 3%. This study aimed to determine the epidemiology of the outbreak, investigate its origins, and discuss measures to prevent future occurrences. METHODS: After the AGE outbreak was declared on 31 August 2015, symptom surveys, hygiene inspections, and the testing of water, food, and stool samples were initiated...
November 14, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
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