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viral vaccine

Xiangzhi Meng, Thomas Kaever, Bo Yan, Paula Traktman, Dirk M Zajonc, Bjoern Peters, Shane Crotty, Yan Xiang
Vaccinia virus (VACV) A14 is a major envelope protein and a dominant antibody target in the smallpox vaccine. However, the role of anti-A14 antibodies in immunity against orthopoxviruses is unclear. Here, we characterized 22 A14 monoclonal antibodies (mAb) from two mice immunized with VACV. Epitope mapping showed that 21 mAbs targeted the C-terminal hydrophilic region, while one mAb recognized the middle region predicted to be across the viral envelope from the C-terminus. However, none of the mAbs bound to virions in studies with electron microscopy...
March 17, 2018: Virology
Jacob D Estes, Scott W Wong, Jason M Brenchley
Humans have a close phylogenetic relationship with nonhuman primates (NHPs) and share many physiological parallels, such as highly similar immune systems, with them. Importantly, NHPs can be infected with many human or related simian viruses. In many cases, viruses replicate in the same cell types as in humans, and infections are often associated with the same pathologies. In addition, many reagents that are used to study the human immune response cross-react with NHP molecules. As such, NHPs are often used as models to study viral vaccine efficacy and antiviral therapeutic safety and efficacy and to understand aspects of viral pathogenesis...
March 19, 2018: Nature Reviews. Immunology
Natalia M Pukhovskaya, Olga V Morozova, Nelya P Vysochina, Nadejda B Belozerova, Svetlana V Bakhmetyeva, Nina I Zdanovskaya, Stephen J Seligman, Leonid I Ivanov
Isolates of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) from arthropod vectors (ticks and mosquitoes) in the Amur, the Jewish Autonomous and the Sakhalin regions as well as on the Khabarovsk territory of the Far East of Russia were studied. Different proportions of four main tick species of the family Ixodidae: Ixodes persulcatus P. Schulze, 1930; Haemaphysalis concinna Koch, 1844; Haemaphysalis japonica douglasi Nuttall et Warburton, 1915 and Dermacentor silvarum Olenev, 1932 were found in forests and near settlements...
February 8, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
F Hoeksema, J Karpilow, A Luitjens, F Lagerwerf, M Havenga, M Groothuizen, G Gillissen, A A C Lemckert, B Jiang, R A Tripp, C Yallop
The global adoption of vaccines to combat disease is hampered by the high cost of vaccine manufacturing. The work described herein follows two previous publications (van der Sanden et al., 2016; Wu et al., 2017) that report a strategy to enhance poliovirus and rotavirus vaccine production through genetic modification of the Vero cell lines used in large-scale vaccine manufacturing. CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing tools were used to knockout Vero target genes previously shown to play a role in polio- and rotavirus production...
March 16, 2018: Vaccine
M E Rodríguez-Ruiz, J L Perez-Gracia, I Rodríguez, C Alfaro, C Oñate, G Pérez, I Gil-Bazo, A Benito, S Inogés, A López-Diaz de Cerio, M Ponz-Sarvise, L Resano, P Berraondo, B Barbés, S Martin-Algarra, A Gúrpide, M F Sanmamed, C de Andrea, A M Salazar, I Melero
BACKGROUND: Combination immunotherapy has the potential to achieve additive or synergistic effects. Combined local injections of dsRNA analogues (mimicking viral RNA) and repeated vaccinations with tumor-lysate loaded dendritic cells shows efficacy against colon cancer mouse models. In the context of immunotherapy, radiotherapy can exert beneficial abscopal effects. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this two-cohort pilot phase I study, 15 advanced cancer patients received two 4-week cycles of four intradermal daily doses of monocyte-derived dendritic cells preloaded with autologous tumor lysate and matured for 24h with poly-ICLC (Hiltonol), TNF-α and IFN-α...
March 14, 2018: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
Selvakumar Ambika, Krishnakumar Padmalakshmi, Viswanathan Venkatraman, Olma V Noronha
BACKGROUND: Optic neuritis in children is an uncommon disorder which usually occurs after a viral illness or vaccination and, less frequently, occurs as a manifestation of a demyelinating disorder. Pediatric optic neuritis usually is bilateral and presents with optic disc edema, recovers rapidly with steroid therapy, and generally has low conversion rate to multiple sclerosis or neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder. We report the clinical features and treatment outcomes of pediatric optic neuritis in Indian population, for which little data are available...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
Alajos Pár, Gabriella Pár
More than 25 years after the discovery of hepatitis C virus, the development of the direct acting antivirals can lead to the regional or long-term global elimination of the virus with over 90% efficacy. This is the success of basic and clinical translational research. Yet, some unsolved challanges remain, such as the great number of unidentified patients who are not aware of their condition, the limited access to the therapy due to the high prices of the drugs, and the treatment of resistance-associated variants...
March 2018: Orvosi Hetilap
Jacob D Estes, Roger LeGrand, Constantinos Petrovas
Immunological inductive tissues, such as secondary lymphoid organs, are composed of distinct anatomical microenvironments for the generation of immune responses to pathogens and immunogens. These microenvironments are characterized by the compartmentalization of highly specialized immune and stromal cell populations, as well as the presence of a complex network of soluble factors and chemokines that direct the intra-tissue trafficking of naïve and effector cell populations. Imaging platforms have provided critical contextual information regarding the molecular and cellular interactions that orchestrate the spatial microanatomy of relevant cells and the development of immune responses against pathogens...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Olivia Falconer, Marie-Louise Newell, Christine E Jones
The success of prevention of mother to child transmission programs over the last two decades has led to an increasing number of infants who are exposed to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but who are not themselves infected (HIV-exposed, uninfected infants). Although the morbidity and mortality among HIV-exposed, uninfected infants is considerably lower than that among HIV-infected infants, they may remain at increased risk of infections in the first 2 years of life compared with their HIV-unexposed peers, especially in the absence of breastfeeding...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
José V J Silva, Thaísa R R Lopes, Edmilson F de Oliveira-Filho, Renato A S Oliveira, Ricardo Durães-Carvalho, Laura H V G Gil
Emerging and re-emerging viral infections transmitted by insect vectors (arthopode-borne viruses, arbovirus) are a serious threat to global public health. Among them, yellow fever (YFV), dengue (DENV), chikungunya (CHIKV) and Zika (ZIKV) viruses are particularly important in tropical and subtropical regions. Although vector control is one of the most used prophylactic measures against arboviruses, it often faces obstacles, such as vector diversity, uncontrolled urbanization and increasing resistance to insecticides...
March 15, 2018: Acta Tropica
Kristin Pfeffermann, Mareike Dörr, Florian Zirkel, Veronika von Messling
Despite the availability of safe and effective vaccines against measles and several animal morbilliviruses, they continue to cause regular outbreaks and epidemics in susceptible populations. Morbilliviruses are highly contagious and share a similar pathogenesis in their respective hosts. This review provides an overview of morbillivirus history and the general replication cycle and recapitulates Morbillivirus pathogenesis focusing on common and unique aspects seen in different hosts. It also summarizes the state of knowledge regarding virus-host interactions on the cellular level with an emphasis on viral interference with innate immune response activation, and highlights remaining knowledge gaps...
2018: Advances in Virus Research
Mejbah Uddin Bhuiyan, Thomas L Snelling, Rachel West, Jurissa Lang, Tasmina Rahman, Meredith L Borland, Ruth Thornton, Lea-Ann Kirkham, Chisha Sikazwe, Andrew C Martin, Peter C Richmond, David W Smith, Adam Jaffe, Christopher C Blyth
INTRODUCTION: Pneumonia is the leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality globally. Introduction of the conjugate Haemophilus influenzae B and multivalent pneumococcal vaccines in developed countries including Australia has significantly reduced the overall burden of bacterial pneumonia. With the availability of molecular diagnostics, viruses are frequently detected in children with pneumonia either as primary pathogens or predispose to secondary bacterial infection. Many respiratory pathogens that are known to cause pneumonia are also identified in asymptomatic children, so the true contribution of these pathogens to childhood community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains unclear...
March 16, 2018: BMJ Open
N Haber
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of severe lower respiratory tract infections in infants and young children. Reinfections are common throughout adult life with more severe presentations occurring in immunocompromised individuals, subjects with underlying high-risk cardiopulmonary diseases, and in the elderly. There is now a significant body of literature indicating that the impact of RSV in elderly adults is similar to that of non-pandemic influenza, both in the community and in nursing homes...
March 13, 2018: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
Tiantian Liu, Zhichao Zhou, Xingui Tian, Wenkuan Liu, Duo Xu, Ye Fan, Jiayi Liao, Shujun Gu, Xiao Li, Rong Zhou
Human adenoviruses types 3 (HAdV-3), 7 (HAdV-7) and 55 (HAdV-55) are major pathogens of acute respiratory infections (ARI) in children and adults. More than one type of HAdV can infect patients simultaneously, and the infections are sometimes fatal. However, there is currently no vaccine approved for general use in children and adults. Thus, development of a multivalent HAdV vaccine to combat HAdV infection becomes imperative. In this study, we constructed a new recombinant trivalent human adenovirus vaccine (rAdMHE3-h55), which expresses the hexon protein of HAdV-55 in the E3 region of rAdMHE3, a previously prepared bivalent vaccine candidate against HAdV-3 and HAdV-7...
March 13, 2018: Vaccine
Veronika Dill, Bernd Hoffmann, Aline Zimmer, Martin Beer, Michael Eschbaumer
BACKGROUND: Suspension culture of BHK cells allows large-scale virus propagation and cost-efficient vaccine production, while the shift to animal-component-free cell culture media without serum is beneficial for the quality and downstream processing of the product. Foot-and-mouth disease virus is still endemic in many parts of the world and high-quality vaccines are essential for the eradication of this highly contagious and economically devastating disease. METHODS: Changes to the viral genome sequence during passaging in an adherent and a suspension cell culture system were compared and the impact of amino acid substitutions on receptor tropism, antigenicity and particle stability was examined...
March 16, 2018: Virology Journal
Edward E Walsh, Lu Wang, Ann R Falsey, Xing Qiu, Anthony Corbett, Jeanne Holden-Wiltse, Thomas J Mariani, David J Topham, Mary T Caserta
Background: Maternally derived serum antibody and viral load are thought to influence disease severity in primary Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) infection. As part of the AsPIRES study of RSV pathogenesis we correlated various serum antibody concentrations and viral load with disease severity. Methods: Serum neutralizing titers and IgG to RSV F, Ga and Gb proteins, the CX3C region of G, and nasal viral load were measured in 139 full-term previously healthy infants with primary RSV infection and correlated with illness severity...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Juliana Gil Melgaço, Noemi Rovaris Gardinali, Vinicius da Motta de Mello, Mariana Leal, Lia Laura Lewis-Ximenez, Marcelo Alves Pinto
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a common etiology of acute viral hepatitis worldwide. Recombinant HEV vaccines have been developed, but only one is commercially available and licensed in China since 2011. Epidemiological studies have identified genotype 3 as the major cause of chronic infection in immunocompromised individuals. Ribavirin has been shown to be effective as a monotherapy to induce HEV clearance in chronic patients who have undergone solid organ transplant (SOT) under immunosuppressive therapy. Efforts and improvements in prevention and control have been made to reduce the instances of acute and chronic hepatitis E in endemic and nonendemic countries...
2018: BioMed Research International
Matthew J Atherton, Kyle B Stephenson, Jake K Nikota, Qian N Hu, Andrew Nguyen, Yonghong Wan, Brian D Lichty
Human papilloma virus (HPV)-associated cancer is a significant global health burden and despite the presence of viral transforming antigens within neoplastic cells, therapeutic vaccinations are ineffective for advanced disease. HPV positive TC1 cells are susceptible to viral oncolysis by MG1-E6E7, a custom designed oncolytic Maraba virus. Epitope mapping of mice vaccinated with MG1-E6E7 enabled the rational design of synthetic long peptide (SLP) vaccines against HPV16 and HPV18 antigens. SLPs were able to induce specific CD8+ immune responses and the magnitude of these responses significantly increased when boosted by MG1-E6E7...
March 12, 2018: Vaccine
Nisar Ahmed, Adeel Riaz, Zahra Zubair, Muhammad Saqib, Sehrish Ijaz, Muhammad Shah Nawaz-Ul-Rehman, Ahmed Al-Qahtani, Muhammad Mubin
BACKGROUND: The infection in dogs due to canine parvovirus (CPV), is a highly contagious one with high mortality rate. The present study was undertaken for a detailed genetic analysis of partial VP2 gene i.e., 630 bp isolated from rectal swab samples of infected domestic and stray dogs from all areas of district Faisalabad. Monitoring of viruses is important, as continuous prevalence of viral infection might be associated with emergence of new virulent strains. METHODS: In the present study, 40 rectal swab samples were collected from diarrheic dogs from different areas of district Faisalabad, Pakistan, in 2014-15 and screened for the presence of CPV by immunochromatography...
March 15, 2018: Virology Journal
Anushka C Galasiti Kankanamalage, Yunjeong Kim, Vishnu C Damalanka, Athri D Rathnayake, Anthony R Fehr, Nurjahan Mehzabeen, Kevin P Battaile, Scott Lovell, Gerald H Lushington, Stanley Perlman, Kyeong-Ok Chang, William C Groutas
There are currently no approved vaccines or small molecule therapeutics available for the prophylaxis or treatment of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infections. MERS-CoV 3CL protease is essential for viral replication; consequently, it is an attractive target that provides a potentially effective means of developing small molecule therapeutics for combatting MERS-CoV. We describe herein the structure-guided design and evaluation of a novel class of inhibitors of MERS-CoV 3CL protease that embody a piperidine moiety as a design element that is well-suited to exploiting favorable subsite binding interactions to attain optimal pharmacological activity and PK properties...
March 6, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
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