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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350864/codon-level-co-occurrences-of-germline-variants-and-somatic-mutations-in-cancer-are-rare-but-often-lead-to-incorrect-variant-annotation-and-underestimated-impact-prediction
#1
Amanda Koire, Young Won Kim, Jarey Wang, Panagiotis Katsonis, Haijing Jin, Olivier Lichtarge
Cancer cells explore a broad mutational landscape, bringing the possibility that tumor-specific somatic mutations could fall in the same codons as germline SNVs and leverage their presence to produce substitutions with a larger impact on protein function. While multiple, temporally consecutive mutations to the same codon have in the past been detected in the germline, this phenomenon has not yet been explored in the context of germline-somatic variant co-occurrences during cancer development. We examined germline context at somatic mutation sites for 1395 patients across four cancer cohorts (breast, skin, colon, and head and neck) and found 392 codon-level co-occurrences between germline and somatic variants, including over a dozen in well-known cancer genes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346936/differential-establishment-of-bifidobacteria-in-the-breastfed-infant-gut
#2
Zachery T Lewis, David A Mills
The composition of an infant's gut microbiome can impact their immediate and long-term health. Bifdobacteria play a major role in structuring the gut microbiome of breastfed infants due to their ability to consume oligosaccharides found in human milk. However, recent studies have revealed that bifidobacteria are often absent in the gut microbiome of breastfed infants in some locations. This lack of colonization may be due either to differences in the environmental conditions in the gastrointestinal tract of uncolonized infants which prohibit the growth of bifidobacteria or a dearth of sources from which infants may acquire these specialized bacterial species...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341962/tumour-suppressor-ep300-a-modulator-of-paclitaxel-resistance-and-stemness-is-downregulated-in-metaplastic-breast-cancer
#3
Muhammad Asaduzzaman, Stephanie Constantinou, Haoxiang Min, John Gallon, Meng-Lay Lin, Poonam Singh, Selina Raguz, Simak Ali, Sami Shousha, R Charles Coombes, Eric W-F Lam, Yunhui Hu, Ernesto Yagüe
PURPOSE: We have previously described a novel pathway controlling drug resistance, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and stemness in breast cancer cells. Upstream in the pathway, three miRs (miR-106b, miR-93 and miR-25) target EP300, a transcriptional activator of E-cadherin. Upregulation of these miRs leads to the downregulation of EP300 and E-cadherin with initiation of an EMT. However, miRs regulate the expression of many genes, and the contribution to EMT by miR targets other than EP300 cannot be ruled out...
March 24, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341420/brain-metastasization-of-breast-cancer
#4
REVIEW
Tânia Custódio-Santos, Mafalda Videira, Maria Alexandra Brito
Central nervous system metastases have been reported in 15-25% of breast cancer patients, and the incidence is increasing. Moreover, the survival of these patients is generally poor, with reports of a 1-year survival rate of 20%. Therefore, a better knowledge about the determinants of brain metastasization is essential for the improvement of the clinical outcomes. Here, we summarize the current data about the metastatic cascade, ranging from the output of cancer cells from the primary tumour to their colonization in the brain, which involves the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, invasion of mammary tissue, intravasation into circulation, and homing into and extravasation towards the brain...
March 21, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335470/design-of-new-benzo-h-chromene-derivatives-antitumor-activities-and-structure-activity-relationships-of-the-2-3-positions-and-fused-rings-at-the-2-3-positions
#5
Rawda M Okasha, Fawzia F Alblewi, Tarek H Afifi, Arshi Naqvi, Ahmed M Fouda, Al-Anood M Al-Dies, Ahmed M El-Agrody
A series of novel 4H-benzo[h]chromenes 4, 6-11, 13, 14; 7H-benzo[h]chromeno[2,3-d]pyrimidines 15-18, 20, and 14H-benzo[h]chromeno[3,2-e][1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidine derivatives 19a-e, 24 was prepared. The structures of the synthesized compounds were characterized on the basis of their spectral data. Some of the target compounds were examined for their antiproliferative activity against three cell lines; breast carcinoma (MCF-7), human colon carcinoma (HCT-116) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG-2). The cytotoxic behavior has been tested using MTT assay and the inhibitory activity was referenced to three standard anticancer drugs: vinblastine, colchicine and doxorubicin...
March 18, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334950/downstream-targets-of-gwas-detected-genes-for-breast-lung-and-prostate-and-colon-cancer-converge-to-g1-s-transition-pathway
#6
Olga Y Gorlova, Eugene I Demidenko, Christopher I Amos, Ivan P Gorlov
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) identified over 500 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) influencing cancer risk. It is logical to expect the cancer-associated genes to cluster in pathways directly involved in carcinogenesis, e.g. cell cycle. Nevertheless, analyses of the GWAS-detected cancer risk genes usually show no or weak enrichment by known cancer genes.We hypothesized that GWAS-detected cancer risk-associated genes function as upstream regulators of the genes directly involved in carcinogenesis...
March 1, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334654/synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-of-a-new-series-of-benzimidazole-derivatives-as-antimicrobial-antiquorum-sensing-and-antitumor-agents
#7
N S El-Gohary, M I Shaaban
New benzimidazole derivatives were synthesized and assessed for antimicrobial efficacy toward Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus 293. Results indicated that compounds 3c and 3n have promising activity toward S. aureus, whereas 3i exhibited remarkable efficacy toward B. cereus. Moreover, compound 3c was proved to be the most active antifungal analog toward C. albicans. On the other hand, 3n displayed the highest activity against A. fumigatus 293...
March 14, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334277/in-bone-metastasis-mir-34a-5p-absence-inversely-correlates-with-met-expression-while-met-oncogene-is-unaffected-by-mir-34a-5p-in-non-metastatic-and-metastatic-breast-carcinomas
#8
Paola Maroni, Rossella Puglisi, Gianfranco Mattia, Alessandra Carè, Emanuela Matteucci, Paola Bendinelli, Maria Alfonsina Desiderio
The highlight of the molecular basis and therapeutic targets of the bone-metastatic process requires the identification of biomarkers of metastasis colonization. Here, we studied miR-34a-5p expression, and Met-receptor expression and localization in bone metastases from ductal breast carcinomas, and in ductal carcinomas without history of metastasis (20 cases). miR-34a-5p was elevated in non-metastatic breast carcinoma, intermediate in the adjacent tissue and practically absent in bone metastases, opposite to pair-matched carcinoma...
March 16, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332760/cytotoxic-essential-oils-from-eryngium-campestre-and-eryngium-amethystinum-apiaceae-growing-in-central-italy
#9
Kevin Cianfaglione, Evy E Blomme, Luana Quassinti, Massimo Bramucci, Giulio Lupidi, Stefano Dall'Acqua, Filippo Maggi
Eryngium campestre and E. amethystinum are thorny herbs belonging to the Apiaceae family and spontaneously growing in stony pastures and dry meadows, preferentially on calcareous substrates. In the Mediterranean countries, these plants have been used as a food or traditional remedies to treat various ailments. In the present work, we have analysed the chemical composition of the essential oils distilled from the aerial parts by GC-FID and GC-MS, and evaluated their cytotoxic effects on a panel of human cancer cells, namely A375 (human malignant melanoma), MDA-MB 231 cells (human breast adenocarcinoma) and HCT116 cells (human colon carcinoma), by the MTT assay...
March 23, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331341/investigating-the-expression-effect-and-tumorigenic-pathway-of-padi2-in-tumors
#10
Wei Guo, Yabing Zheng, Bing Xu, Fang Ma, Chang Li, Xiaoqian Zhang, Yao Wang, Xiaotian Chang
BACKGROUND: Peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD) catalyzes the conversion of arginine residues to citrulline residues, termed citrullination. Recent studies have suggested that PAD isoform 2 (PADI2) plays an important role in tumors, although its tumorigenic effect and mechanism are largely unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used to investigate the expression level of PADI2 in various tumor tissues and patient blood samples, respectively...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330247/production-of-glucosinolates-phenolic-compounds-and-associated-gene-expression-profiles-of-hairy-root-cultures-in-turnip-brassica-rapa-ssp-rapa
#11
Ill-Min Chung, Kaliyaperumal Rekha, Govindasamy Rajakumar, Muthu Thiruvengadam
Turnip (Brassica rapa ssp. rapa) is an important vegetable crop producing glucosinolates (GSLs) and phenolic compounds. The GSLs, phenolic compound contents and transcript levels in hairy root cultures, as well as their antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer activity were studied in turnip. Transgenic hairy root lines were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcription-PCR. GSLs levels (glucoallysin, glucobrassicanapin, gluconasturtiin, glucobrassicin, 4-methoxyglucobrassicin, neoglucobrassicin and 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin) and their gene expression levels (BrMYB28, BrMYB29, BrMYB34, BrMYB51, BrMYB122, CYP79 and CYP83) significantly increased in hairy roots compared with that in non-transformed roots...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329636/correlation-between-cancer-incidences-and-google-searches-in-the-united-states
#12
Mackenzie R Wehner, Kevin T Nead, Eleni Linos
IntroductionDespite being highly prevalent, keratinocyte carcinomas (basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas lack nationwide registries. Internet search data has emerged as a new method to evaluate previously difficult to quantify public health outcomes and may be useful in keratinocyte carcinoma research.ObjectiveWe aimed to evaluate whether Google search density correlated with known incidences of common cancers in the United States.MethodsWe used the Center for Disease Control's National Program of Cancer Registries ageTadjusted cancer incidences (2008T2012 ...
September 15, 2016: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327179/pterostilbene-prevents-akt-erk-axis-mediated-polymerization-of-surface-fibronectin-on-suspended-lung-cancer-cells-independently-of-apoptosis-and-suppresses-metastasis
#13
Ying-Jan Wang, Jing-Fang Lin, Li-Hsin Cheng, Wen-Tsan Chang, Ying-Hsien Kao, Ming-Min Chang, Bour-Jr Wang, Hung-Chi Cheng
BACKGROUND: Polymeric fibronectin (polyFN) assembled on suspended breast cancer cells is required for metastasis. Conceivably, drugs that target such polyFN may fight against cancer metastasis. While stilbene analogs trigger pro-apoptotic effect on attached cancer cells, whether they prevent polyFN assembly and metastasis of suspended cancer cells via an apoptosis-independent manner remains unexplored. METHODS: We depleted suspended Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells of polyFN by silencing the endogenous FN expression or pterostilbene (PS) to examine whether metastasis of lung cancer cells could thus be suppressed...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326306/cd44-a-multifunctional-cell-surface-adhesion-receptor-is-a-regulator-of-progression-and-metastasis-of-cancer-cells
#14
REVIEW
Linda T Senbanjo, Meenakshi A Chellaiah
CD44 is a cell surface adhesion receptor that is highly expressed in many cancers and regulates metastasis via recruitment of CD44 to the cell surface. Its interaction with appropriate extracellular matrix ligands promotes the migration and invasion processes involved in metastases. It was originally identified as a receptor for hyaluronan or hyaluronic acid and later to several other ligands including, osteopontin (OPN), collagens, and matrix metalloproteinases. CD44 has also been identified as a marker for stem cells of several types...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323527/design-synthesis-and-anticancer-evaluation-of-novel-pyrazole-pyrazolo-3-4-d-pyrimidine-and-their-glycoside-derivatives
#15
Ibrahim F Nassar, Ahmed F El Farargy, Fathy M Abdelrazek, Nasser S M Ismail
The chalcone derivatives 3a,b were cyclized upon reaction with thiourea to give the pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine derivatives 5a,b. Condensation of 5a,b and their hydrazide derivatives 8a,b with cyclic and acyclic glucose gave the condensed S- and N-glycosides 7a,b and 9a,b, respectively. Reaction of 3b with ethyl cyanoacetate followed by reaction with cyclic glucose afforded a mixture of the O- and/or N-glycoside isomers 12 and 13, respectively. The pyrazolo[3,4-c]pyrazole derivative 14 was also obtained from the reaction of 3b with hydrazine hydrate...
March 21, 2017: Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323490/triterpenoid-acids-as-important-antiproliferative-constituents-of-european-elderberry-fruits
#16
Michał Gleńsk, Elżbieta Czapińska, Marta Woźniak, Ireneusz Ceremuga, Maciej Włodarczyk, Grzegorz Terlecki, Piotr Ziółkowski, Ewa Seweryn
In Europe, both the fruits and flowers of Sambucus nigra L. have been used against cold, as well as laxative, diaphoretic, and diuretic remedies. There are also a number of commercially available food products that contain elderberry juice, puréed or dried elderberries. Recent comprehensive literature data on pharmacology and chemistry of Sambuci fructus have encouraged us to screen extracts with different polarities from this plant material against cancer cell lines. The cytotoxic activity of the ethyl acetate and aqueous acetone extracts from elderberries as well as detected triterpenoids on human colon adenocarcinoma cell line (LoVo) and human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) was investigated by sulforhodamine B assay...
March 21, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322405/gastrointestinal-absorption-antiproliferative-and-anti-inflammatory-effect-of-the-major-carotenoids-of-gardenia-jasminoides-ellis-on-cancer-cells
#17
Hélder Oliveira, Xiaoshuang Cai, Qian Zhang, Victor de Freitas, Nuno Mateus, Jingren He, Iva Fernandes
The gastrointestinal absorption of the main carotenoids present in Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, crocetin, crocin-1 and crocin-2, was assayed through transport studies on MKN-28 and Caco-2 cell lines. Overall, crocetin was the compound that presented the highest gastrointestinal transport efficiency. Additionally, and since after absorption crocins are metabolized into crocetin, the antiproliferative capacity of crocetin was assayed in MKN-28 (stomach), MCF-7 (breast) and Caco-2 (colon) cancer cell lines. The results point to an antiproliferative effect of crocetin on the three cell lines tested...
March 21, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322141/lessons-learned-from-gemcitabine-impact-of-therapeutic-carrier-systems-and-gemcitabine-s-drug-conjugates-on-cancer-therapy
#18
REVIEW
Sathish Dyawanapelly, Animesh Kumar, Manish K Chourasia
Currently, drug delivery systems have a high impact in cancer therapy and are receiving more attention than conventional cancer treatment modalities. Compared with current cancer therapies, gemcitabine (2', 2'-difluoro-2'-deoxycytidine) has been proven to be an effective chemotherapeutic agent against pancreatic, colon, bladder, breast, ovarian, non-small-cell lung, and head and neck cancers in combination with other anticancer agents. To improve the safety and efficacy of cytotoxic drugs, several drug delivery systems have been explored...
2017: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316571/anti-cancerous-potential-of-polysaccharide-fractions-extracted-from-peony-seed-dreg-on-various-human-cancer-cell-lines-via-cell-cycle-arrest-and-apoptosis
#19
Fang Zhang, Jun-Jun Shi, Kiran Thakur, Fei Hu, Jian-Guo Zhang, Zhao-Jun Wei
In this study, four homo/heterogenous polysaccharides (HBSS, CHSS, DASS, and CASS) extracted from peony seed dreg with respective molecular weights of 3467, 4677, 229, and 56 kDa were evaluated for anti-cancerous attributes in prostate cancer cells (Pc-3), colon cancer cells (HCT-116), human breast cancer cells (MCF-7), cervical cancer (Hela cells) and human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK 293) cells as control. Among them, CASS and DASS extracted by alkali, consisted of 34.43% Gal, 26.39% Ara, 21.80% Glc and 35...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316229/mucinous-carcinoma-with-extensive-signet-ring-cell-differentiation-a-case-report
#20
Hye Min Kim, Eun Kyung Kim, Ja Seung Koo
Breast cancers that present with mucin include mucinous carcinoma and carcinoma with signet ring cell differentiation. The former shows extracellular mucin and the latter shows abundant intracellular mucin. Here, we report a case of breast cancer showing both extracellular mucin and extensive signet ring cell differentiation due to abundant intracellular mucin. Unlike mucinous carcinoma, this case had the features of high-grade nuclear pleomorphism, high mitotic index, estrogen receptor negativity, progesterone receptor negativity, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 positivity, and ductal type with positivity for E-cadherin...
March 2017: Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine
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