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rho kinase and protein aggregation

Gabriele Giacomo Schiattarella, Albino Carrizzo, Federica Ilardi, Antonio Damato, Mariateresa Ambrosio, Michele Madonna, Valentina Trimarco, Marina Marino, Elena De Angelis, Silvio Settembrini, Cinzia Perrino, Bruno Trimarco, Giovanni Esposito, Carmine Vecchione
BACKGROUND: Vascular complications and abnormal platelet function contribute to morbidity and mortality in diabetes mellitus. We hypothesized that the Rho-related GTPase protein, Rac1, can influence both endothelial and platelet function and might represent a potential novel therapeutic target in diabetes mellitus. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used both in vitro and ex vivo approaches to test the effects of pharmacological inhibition of Rac1 during hyperglycemic condition...
April 6, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
Jan Christoph Koch, Lars Tatenhorst, Anna-Elisa Roser, Kim-Ann Saal, Lars Tönges, Paul Lingor
Neurodegenerative disorders like Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis are affecting a rapidly increasing population worldwide. While common pathomechanisms such as protein aggregation, axonal degeneration, dysfunction of protein clearing and an altered immune response have been characterized, no disease-modifying therapies have been developed so far. Interestingly, a significant involvement of the Rho kinase (ROCK) signaling pathway has been described in all of these mechanisms making it a promising target for new therapeutic approaches...
April 2, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Zhen Zhong, Laura Grasso, Caroline Sibilla, Tim J Stevens, Nicholas Barry, Anne Bertolotti
Protein aggregation is a hallmark of diverse neurodegenerative diseases. Multiple lines of evidence have revealed that protein aggregates can penetrate inside cells and spread like prions. How such aggregates enter cells remains elusive. Through a focused siRNA screen targeting genes involved in membrane trafficking, we discovered that mutant SOD1 aggregates, like viruses, exploit cofilin-1 to remodel cortical actin and enter cells. Upstream of cofilin-1, signalling from the RHO GTPase and the ROCK1 and LIMK1 kinases controls cofilin-1 activity to remodel actin and modulate aggregate entry...
March 15, 2018: EMBO Journal
HyeRim Shin, Dayoung Kim, David M Helfman
Metastasis dissemination is the result of various processes including cell migration and cell aggregation. These processes involve alterations in the expression and organization of cytoskeletal and adhesion proteins in tumor cells. Alterations in actin filaments and their binding partners are known to be key players in metastasis. Downregulation of specific tropomyosin (Tpm) isoforms is a common characteristic of transformed cells. In this study, we examined the role of Tpm2.1 in non-transformed MCF10A breast epithelial cells in cell migration and cell aggregation, because this isoform is downregulated in primary and metastatic breast cancer as well as various breast cancer cell lines...
November 10, 2017: Oncotarget
Y-J Li, H-X Zhu, D Zhang, H-C Li, P Ma, L-Y Huang
Platelets are megakaryocyte-derived nuclear-free fragments that participate in cardiovascular diseases including acute myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, hypertension, and atherosclerosis. At the endothelium damage site, platelets interact with sub-endothelial matrix proteins such as glycoprotein VI/Fc receptor γ-chain (GPVI/FcRγ), G protein-coupled receptor/phospholipase Cγ(β) (GPCR/PLCγ(β)), Rho/RhoK and integrin. The activation of these signaling pathways triggers intracellular calcium increase and causes platelet adhesion, aggregation, granule release and finally thrombus formation...
July 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
HyeRim Shin, Dayoung Kim, David M Helfman
Metastasis dissemination is the result of various processes including cell migration and cell aggregation. These processes involve alterations in the expression and organization of cytoskeletal and adhesion proteins in tumor cells. Alterations in actin filaments and their binding partners are known to be key players in metastasis. Downregulation of specific tropomyosin (Tpm) isoforms is a common characteristic of transformed cells. In this study, we examined the role of Tpm2.1 in non-transformed MCF10A breast epithelial cells in cell migration and cell aggregation, because this isoform is downregulated in primary and metastatic breast cancer as well as various breast cancer cell lines...
July 12, 2017: Oncotarget
Yanhua Wang, Lirong Jiang, Xi Mo, Yu Lan, Xiao Yang, Xinyi Liu, Jian Zhang, Li Zhu, Junling Liu, Xiaolin Wu
Smad4, a key transcription factor in the transforming growth factor-β signaling pathway, is involved in a variety of cell physiologic and pathologic processes. Here, we characterized megakaryocyte/platelet-specific Smad4 deficiency in mice to elucidate its effect on platelet function. We found that megakaryocyte/platelet-specific loss of Smad4 caused mild thrombocytopenia and significantly extended first occlusion time and tail bleeding time in mice. Smad4-deficient platelets showed reduced agonist-induced platelet aggregation...
September 2017: Molecular Pharmacology
Katharina Grundler, Raffaela Rotter, Sloane Tilley, Joachim Pircher, Thomas Czermak, Mustaf Yakac, Erik Gaitzsch, Steffen Massberg, Florian Krötz, Hae-Young Sohn, Ulrich Pohl, Hanna Mannell, Bjoern F Kraemer
INTRODUCTION: Platelets possess critical hemostatic functions in the system of thrombosis and hemostasis, which can be affected by a multitude of external factors. Previous research has shown that platelets have the capacity to synthesize proteins de novo and more recently a multicatalytic protein complex, the proteasome, has been discovered in platelets. Due to its vital function for cellular integrity, the proteasome has become a therapeutic target for anti-proliferative drug therapies in cancer...
December 2016: Thrombosis Research
Angel Matias Sanchez, Marina Ines Flamini, Eleonora Russo, Elena Casarosa, Simone Pacini, Mario Petrini, Andrea Riccardo Genazzani, Tommaso Simoncini
Reproductive hormones influence breast cancer development and progression. While the actions of sex steroids in this setting are established, tentative evidence suggests that follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) may also play a role, yet this remains elusive. We here identify that T-47D breast cancer cells express functional receptors for FSH and LH, and that these hormones regulate breast cancer cell motility and invasion through the control of the actin cytoskeleton and the formation of cortical actin aggregates and focal adhesion complexes...
December 5, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Derek C Sung, Caitlin J Bowen, Kiran A Vaidya, Jingjing Zhou, Nikita Chapurin, Andrew Recknagel, Bin Zhou, Jonathan Chen, Michael Kotlikoff, Jonathan T Butcher
OBJECTIVE: Calcific aortic valve (AoV) disease is a significant clinical problem for which the regulatory mechanisms are poorly understood. Enhanced cell-cell adhesion is a common mechanism of cellular aggregation, but its role in calcific lesion formation is not known. Cadherin-11 (Cad-11) has been associated with lesion formation in vitro, but its function during adult valve homeostasis and pathogenesis is not known. This study aims to elucidate the specific functions of Cad-11 and its downstream targets, RhoA and Sox9, in extracellular matrix remodeling and AoV calcification...
August 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Lars Tatenhorst, Katrin Eckermann, Vivian Dambeck, Luis Fonseca-Ornelas, Hagen Walle, Tomás Lopes da Fonseca, Jan C Koch, Stefan Becker, Lars Tönges, Mathias Bähr, Tiago F Outeiro, Markus Zweckstetter, Paul Lingor
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder, yet disease-modifying treatments do not currently exist. Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) was recently described as a novel neuroprotective target in PD. Since alpha-synuclein (α-Syn) aggregation is a major hallmark in the pathogenesis of PD, we aimed to evaluate the anti-aggregative potential of pharmacological ROCK inhibition using the isoquinoline derivative Fasudil, a small molecule inhibitor already approved for clinical use in humans...
April 22, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
Francisco M Torres-Cruz, Fanny Rodríguez-Cruz, Jaime Escobar-Herrera, Norma Barragán-Andrade, Gustavo Basurto-Islas, Daniela Ripova, Jesús Ávila, Francisco Garcia-Sierra
Abnormal aggregation of Tau in glial cells has been reported in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other tauopathies; however, the pathological significance of these aggregates remains unsolved to date. In this study, we evaluated whether full-length Tau (Tau441) and its aspartic acid421-truncated Tau variant (Tau421) produce alterations in the normal organization of the cytoskeleton and plasma membrane (PM) when transiently expressed in cultured C6-glial cells. Forty-eight hours post-transfection, abnormal microtubule bundling was observed in the majority of the cells, which expressed either Tau441 or Tau421...
March 21, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Ana E González Wusener, Ángela González, Fumihiko Nakamura, Carlos O Arregui
Cell contractility and migration by integrins depends on precise regulation of protein tyrosine kinase and Rho-family GTPase activities in specific spatiotemporal patterns. Here we show that protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B cooperates with β3 integrin to activate the Src/FAK signalling pathway which represses RhoA-myosin-dependent contractility. Using PTP1B null (KO) cells and PTP1B reconstituted (WT) cells, we determined that some early steps following cell adhesion to fibronectin and vitronectin occurred robustly in WT cells, including aggregation of β3 integrins and adaptor proteins, and activation of Src/FAK-dependent signalling at small puncta in a lamellipodium...
2015: Biology Open
Feng-Tao Liu, Yu-Jie Yang, Jian-Jun Wu, Shan Li, Yi-Lin Tang, Jue Zhao, Zhen-Yang Liu, Bao-Guo Xiao, Ji Zuo, Wen Liu, Jian Wang
Accumulation of α-synuclein (α-syn) is pivotally implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson׳s disease (PD), and enhancing its clearance might be a promising strategy in PD treatment. It has recently been shown that Rho kinase (ROCK) activation is involved in many neurodegenerative diseases, and some ROCK inhibitors might promote the degradation of abnormal protein aggregates. However, it is not known if fasudil, the only ROCK inhibitor available in clinical setting, could promote the degradation of α-syn, and ameliorate the α-syn induced neurotoxicity...
February 1, 2016: Brain Research
Soyoung Hong, Jae Yeon Lee, Changmo Hwang, Jennifer H Shin, Yongdoo Park
The aggregation of multiple cells, such as mesenchymal condensation, is an important biological process in skeletal muscle development, osteogenesis, and adipogenesis. Due to limited in vivo study model systems, a simple and effective in vitro three-dimensional (3D) aggregation system is required to study the mechanisms of multicellular aggregation and its applications. We first generated controlled mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) aggregates using a bioprinting technique to monitor their aggregation and sprouting...
February 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Yue-Hua Jiang, Wei Sun, Wei Li, Hong-Zhen Hu, Le Zhou, Hui-Hui Jiang, Jing-Xin Xu
BACKGROUND: Dysfunction of vascular endothelium is implicated in many pathological situations. Cytoskeleton plays an importance role in vascular endothelial permeability barrier and inflammatory response. Many Chinese herbs have the endothelial protective effect, of which, "Astragalus membranaceus" is a highly valued herb for treatment of cardiovascular and renal diseases in traditional Chinese medicine, In this study, we tested whether calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucoside (Calycosin), a main effective monomer component of "Astragalus membranaceus", could protect endothelial cells from bacterial endotoxin (LPS)-induced cell injury...
2015: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Benjamin Aj Reddi, Samantha M Iannella, Stephanie N O'Connor, Adam M Deane, Scott R Willoughby, David P Wilson
BACKGROUND: Impaired coagulation contributes to the morbidity and mortality associated with septic shock. Whether abnormal platelet contraction adds to the bleeding tendency is unknown. Platelets contract when Ca(2+)-dependent myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) phosphorylates Ser19 of myosin light chain (MLC20), promoting actin-myosin cross-bridge cycling. Contraction is opposed when myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP) dephosphorylates MLC20. It is thought that Rho kinase (ROK) inhibits MLCP by phosphorylating Thr855 of the regulatory subunit MYPT, favouring platelet contraction...
December 2015: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
Yuko Iida, Tomoaki Doi, Haruhiko Tokuda, Rie Matsushima-Nishiwaki, Masanori Tsujimoto, Gen Kuroyanagi, Naohiro Yamamoto, Yukiko Enomoto, Kumiko Tanabe, Takanobu Otsuka, Toru Iwama, Shinji Ogura, Osamu Kozawa, Hiroki Iida
We have previously demonstrated that ristocetin, an activator of GPIb/IX/V, induces the release of soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) via thromboxane A2 production in human platelets. It has been shown that thromboxane A2 induces the activation of Rho-kinase, a downstream effector of Rho, in human platelets. In the present study, we investigated the exact roles of Rho-kinase in thromboxane A2-induced platelet activation. We found that U46619, a thromboxane receptor (TP) agonist, induced the phosphorylation of cofilin, a target of Rho-kinase signaling, and that the cofilin phosphorylation by U46619 was suppressed by Y27632 or fasudil, specific inhibitors of Rho-kinase...
March 2015: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Richard T Amison, Stefania Momi, Abigail Morris, Giorgia Manni, Sandra Keir, Paolo Gresele, Clive P Page, Simon C Pitchford
BACKGROUND: Clinical studies reveal platelet activation in patients with asthma, allergic rhinitis, and eczema. This is distinct from platelet aggregation, which is critical for the maintenance of hemostasis and in which a role for platelet purinergic receptors is well documented. However, purines are also essential for inflammatory cell trafficking in animal models of allergic lung inflammation, which are known to be platelet dependent, yet the role of purines in the platelet activation accompanying inflammation is unknown...
February 2015: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Hui-Ju Tsai, Chien-Ling Huang, Yao-Wen Chang, Ding-Yuan Huang, Chung-Ching Lin, Jonathan A Cooper, Ju-Chien Cheng, Ching-Ping Tseng
OBJECTIVE: The essential role of platelet activation in hemostasis and thrombotic diseases focuses attention on unveiling the underlying intracellular signals of platelet activation. Disabled-2 (Dab2) has been implicated in platelet aggregation and in the control of clotting responses. However, there is not yet any in vivo study to provide direct evidence for the role of Dab2 in hemostasis and platelet activation. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Megakaryocyte lineage-restricted Dab2 knockout (Dab2(-/-)) mice were generated to delineate in vivo functions of Dab2 in platelets...
November 2014: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
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