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Wei-Wen Su
Purpose: Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS) is a neurocutaneous disorder characterized by facial cutaneous venous dilatation (port-wine stain), leptomeningeal angioma, and ocular abnormalities. Here we report a case of SWS who experienced acute primary angle-closure in the same side of the nevus flammeus. Observations: A 64-years-old female patient with SWS port wine stain on the left side of her face was referred to our ER for acute primary angle-closure (PAC). The IOP was 64 mmHg in the left eye (12 mmHg in OD) and the visual acuity was 20/100...
June 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
A Sekhar, B Corbo, K Das, S Biswas
Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis is a devastating condition with very poor prognosis. With advances in cancer treatment leading to improved survival in solid tumours, the incidence of ante-mortem diagnosis of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis is likely to rise. Without a high index of suspicion and appropriate imaging the diagnosis can be missed. We report two cases of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis secondary to metastatic breast disease with varied clinical presentation where the diagnosis was initially missed.
December 2017: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh
Alessia Pellerino, Luca Bertero, Roberta Rudà, Riccardo Soffietti
Neoplastic meningitis (NM) is a devastating complication of solid tumors with poor outcome. Some randomized clinical trials have been conducted with heterogeneous inclusion criteria, diagnostic parameters, response evaluation and primary endpoints. Recently, the Leptomeningeal Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (LANO) Group and the European Society for Medical Oncology/European Association for Neuro-Oncology have proposed some recommendations in order to provide diagnostic criteria and response evaluation scores for NM...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
Peter Y M Woo, James T F Zhuang, Jason M K Ho, Andrew Seto, Hoi-Tung Wong, Kwong-Yau Chan
Leptomeningeal spread and hydrocephalus are increasingly recognized as late disease complications of glioblastoma with almost a quarter of patients requiring early cerebrospinal fluid shunting. The neurosurgeon is challenged with maintaining shunt patency when tumor disease progression is rapid and adjuvant oncologic therapy has yet to be initiated. We describe our experience in treating a young female with diffuse glioblastoma leptomeningeal spread and communicating hydrocephalus who had several episodes of shunt obstruction due to intraluminal tumor cell-fibrin deposits...
March 13, 2018: Acta Neurochirurgica
Pietro Fiaschi, Filippo Badaloni, Bernarda Cagetti, Luca Bruzzone, Gianluca Marucci, Anna Dellachà, Marco Pavanello, Giuseppe Ganci, Riccardo Padolecchia, Valtero Valsania
Diffuse leptomeningeal glioneuronal tumor was recently added in the World Health Organization classification of Central Nervous System tumors. Although pretty rare, it is more common in the pediatric population, but occasional cases have been reported in adult patients. Despite this tumor has been recognized as a distinct pathological entity, its biological behavior remains unclear. It is considered an indolent neoplasm, even if considerable morbidity has been reported. Because of this reason, further characterization and collection of evidence is crucial...
March 8, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Spyridon Miliaras, Ioannis A Ziogas, Konstantinos S Mylonas, Vasileios N Papadopoulos
Malignant gastrointestinal melanoma is usually a metastatic lesion. We report the case of a 67-year-old female patient who presented with intermittent abdominal pain, fever, rigor and diarrhoea. CT scan of the abdomen revealed a large mass at the right iliac fossa with features concerning for intra-abdominal abscess. Exploratory laparotomy confirmed the preoperative diagnosis of abscess, and a right hemicolectomy was performed. Histopathological examination of the surgical specimen was indicative of malignant melanoma, and immunohistochemical examination showed positivity to S100 protein, Melan-A, HMB-45 and vimentin...
March 9, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Masanori Tachikawa, Hidetoh Toki, Masahiko Watanabe, Masatoshi Tomi, Ken-Ichi Hosoya, Tetsuya Terasaki
The A-subclass of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters is a highly conserved superfamily of potent lipid transporters. Although the ABCA1-like subgroup of ABCA1-4, and A7 have been shown to mediate the transport of endogenous lipids, the roles of the ABCA6-like subgroup transporters, which have been identified as a unique gene cluster on human chromosome 17q24 (ABCA5, A6, A8, A9, and A10) and mouse chromosome 11 (Abca5, a6, a8a, a8b, and a9), remains largely unknown. The purpose of the present study was to clarify the spatial and temporal expression profiles of Abca6-like subgroup transporters in embryonic and postnatal mouse brains by a combination of in situ hybridization and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using magnetically isolated brain vascular endothelial cells...
March 8, 2018: Anatomical Science International
Nobuo Yamashiro, Takamura Nagasaka, Naoki Ooishi, Mai Tsuchiya, Ryusuke Takaki, Fumikazu Kobayashi, Kazumasa Shindo, Yoshihisa Takiyama
We report here the clinical presentation and subsequent autopsy of a 90-year-old man who developed small papules with pain and swelling in his right ear. On admission, he exhibited right facial nerve paralysis, neck stiffness and Kernig's sign. The cell count was elevated and the varicella-zoster virus-PCR was positive in the CSF. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed hyperintense lesions in the left pons and left temporal lobe, in FLAIR images. We diagnosed the patient with Ramsay Hunt syndrome and meningoencephalitis due to varicella-zoster virus...
March 2018: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
Ana Luiza Miranda Silva Dias, Fabiana Higashi, Ana Lúcia M Peres, Pricilla Cury, Edvan de Queiroz Crusoé, Vânia Tietsche de Moraes Hungria
INTRODUCTION: The estimated involvement of the central nervous system in patients with multiple myeloma is rare at about 1%. The infiltration can be identified at the time multiple myeloma is diagnosed or during its progression. However, it is more common in refractory disease or during relapse. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study reviewed data from medical records of patients followed up at the Gammopathy Outpatient Clinic of Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo from January 2008 to December 2016...
January 2018: Revista Brasileira de Hematologia e Hemoterapia
Zhen Ni Zhou, Chelsea Canon, Cathleen Matrai, Eloise Chapman-Davis
The patient is a 42-year-old woman with metastatic primary peritoneal carcinoma and known brain metastases, who subsequently developed cauda equina syndrome after presenting with ataxia, lower extremity weakness, and bowel and bladder incontinence secondary to leptomeningeal metastasis after treatment with neoadjuvant chemotherapy, surgical debulking, and adjuvant chemotherapy. Metastases to the central nervous system (CNS) and leptomeninges are rare events in epithelial ovarian and primary peritoneal carcinomas as these tumours do not have a predilection for the CNS...
2018: Ecancermedicalscience
Susanna Nuvoli, Silvia Contu, Bi Llie Joy Pung, Patrizia Solinas, Giuseppe Madeddu, Angela Spanu
Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (LC) diagnosis is based on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytological analysis and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); however, low sensitivity was evidenced in some cases delaying prompt and adequate treatments. Brain18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18 F-FDG PET) was also employed in doubtful cases. We retrospectively described 4 suspected LC cases with uncertain or undetectable MRI and initially negative CSF cytology. Whole-body (WB) and brain18 F-FDG PET/computed tomography (CT) were used, the latter showing intracranial tracer uptakes suspected for LC in 3/4 cases...
January 2018: Case Reports in Neurology
Rola A Mahmoud, Charles K Abrams
Peripheral neurological complications of lymphomas are rare and much less frequent than central complications. Nonetheless, on occasion, systemic non-Hodgkin's lymphoma may directly infiltrate the peripheral nervous system at various levels. This report describes a man with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and leptomeningeal disease who developed progressive areflexic quadraparesis. Initial electromyography (EMG) was consistent with a polyradiculopathy and a repeat EMG performed 1 month later for worsening symptoms showed evidence of demyelination...
March 5, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Manuel Valiente, Manmeet S Ahluwalia, Adrienne Boire, Priscilla K Brastianos, Sarah B Goldberg, Eudocia Q Lee, Emilie Le Rhun, Matthias Preusser, Frank Winkler, Riccardo Soffietti
Metastasis, involving the spread of systemic cancer to the brain, results in neurologic disability and death. Current treatments are largely palliative in nature; improved therapeutic approaches represent an unmet clinical need. However, recent experimental and clinical advances challenge the bleak long-term outcome of this disease. Encompassing key recent findings in epidemiology, genetics, microenvironment, leptomeningeal disease, neurocognition, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, and prophylaxis, we review preclinical and clinical studies to provide a comprehensive picture of contemporary research and the management of secondary brain tumors...
March 2018: Trends in Cancer
Elena Vetlova, Denis A Golbin, Andrey V Golanov, Alexander A Potapov, Sergey M Banov, Natalia Antipina, Valery V Kostjuchenko, Dmitry Y Usachev, Artem Y Belyaev, Sergey Goryaynov
INTRODUCTION:  Preoperative stereotactic radiosurgery (pre-SRS) is a recent advancement in the strategy for brain metastasis (BM) management, and available data demonstrate the advantages of pre-SRS before postoperative radiation treatment, including lower rates of local toxicity, leptomeningeal progression, and a high percentage of local control. The authors presented the results of pre-SRS in patients with BM. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nineteen patients with BM (11 female and eight male) have been treated at N...
December 26, 2017: Curēus
Biljana Milatović, Jovica Saponjski, Haris Huseinagić, Mirza Moranjkić, Svetlana Milošević Medenica, Ivan Marinković, Igor Nikolić, Slobodan Marinkovic
BACKGROUND: Identification and anatomic features of the feeding arteries of the arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) is very important due to neurologic, radiologic, and surgical reasons. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-seven patients with AVMs were examined by using a digital subtraction angiographic (DSA) and computerized tomographic (CT) examination, including 3D reconstruction of the brain vessels. In addition, the arteries of 4 human brain stems and 8 cerebral hemispheres were microdissected...
March 3, 2018: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
(no author information available yet)
NCAM+ CD45+ medulloblastoma cells were shown to be medulloblastoma circulating tumor cells (CTC).
March 2, 2018: Cancer Discovery
Emmet J Jordan, Maeve A Lowery, Olca Basturk, Peter J Allen, Kenneth H Yu, Viviane Tabar, Kathryn Beal, Diane L Reidy, Yoshiya Yamada, Yelena Janjigian, Ghassan K Abou-Alfa, Eileen M O'Reilly
PURPOSE: To assess clinical characteristics of patients with metastatic pancreas ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and brain metastases (BM), and to assess somatic and germ-line molecular profiles where performed. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with PDAC and BM between January 1990 and January 2016 were identified. Molecular characteristics of somatic and germ-line testing where performed in the subset of patients who had provided informed consent. Somatic alterations were assessed by either MSK-IMPACT testing (>340 key cancer genes) or Sequenom testing (8-gene panel)...
February 7, 2018: Clinical Colorectal Cancer
Jose Carlos Benítez, Romà Bastús, Luis Luizaga, Luis Cirera, Marc Campayo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 26, 2018: Archivos de Bronconeumología
J Bryan Iorgulescu, Sean Ferris, Ashima Agarwal, Sandro Casavilca Zambrano, D Ashley Hill, Robert Schmidt, Arie Perry
Meningioangiomatosis (MA) is a rare entity characterized by the perivascular spread of meningothelial and fibroblastic cells along the Virchow-Robin spaces of small leptomeningeal and intracortical blood vessels [1,2]. Sporadic cases of MA are thought to represent benign hamartomatous proliferations that are associated with refractory seizures and plaque-like cerebral hemispheric masses, primarily involving the temporal and/or frontal lobes. A distinct subset of MA presents in association with neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2), where the MA is often multifocal, non-epileptogenic, and accompanied by perilesional glial microhamartomas [3,4]...
March 1, 2018: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
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