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Anode stimulation

Kyongje Sung, Barry Gordon
Whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) affects mental functions, and how any such effects arise from its neural effects, continue to be debated. We investigated whether tDCS applied over the visual cortex (Oz) with a vertex (Cz) reference might affect response times (RTs) in a visual search task. We also examined whether any significant tDCS effects would interact with task factors (target presence, discrimination difficulty, and stimulus brightness) that are known to selectively influence one or the other of the two information processing stages posited by current models of visual search...
2018: PloS One
J S Gomes, A P Trevizol, D V Ducos, A Gadelha, B B Ortiz, A O Fonseca, H T Akiba, C C Azevedo, L S P Guimaraes, P Shiozawa, Q Cordeiro, A Lacerda, A M Dias
Background: The lack of efficacy of pharmacological treatments for cognitive and negative symptoms in schizophrenia highlights the need for new interventions. We investigated the effects of tDCS on working memory and negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Method: Double-blinded, randomized, sham-controlled clinical trial, investigating the effects of 10 sessions of tDCS in schizophrenia subjects. Stimulation used 2 mA, for 20 min, with electrodes of 25 cm2 wrapped in cotton material soaked in saline solution...
June 2018: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
Floriana Costanzo, Serena Rossi, Cristiana Varuzza, Pamela Varvara, Stefano Vicari, Deny Menghini
Noninvasive brain stimulation transiently modulates reading ability in individuals with dyslexia by facilitating the underactive neural pathways in them. However, its long-term effects have not been determined. This study confirmed the ameliorative effects of multiple sessions of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) combined with a training for reading on the reading abilities of children and adolescents with dyslexia and examined whether they are long-lasting. Twenty-six children and adolescents with dyslexia received 3 20-minute sessions per week for 6 weeks (18 sessions) of left anodal/right cathodal tDCS, set to 1mA, over the parieto-temporal regions, combined with training for reading...
March 14, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Chong Liao, Song Wu, Yue-Jia Luo, Qing Guan, Fang Cui
Social decision-making engages traditional decision-making processes (e.g. valuation), as well as social cognition processes (e.g. inferring the affective and mental states of another person). Neuroimaging and neuro-stimulation studies have suggested the involvement of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in a variety of social decision-making tasks. Yet no study has investigated the effect of the cortical excitability of mPFC in the decision-making of costly helping behavior. Here, we used tDCS to demonstrate the causal relationship between the cortical excitability of mPFC and costly helping decision-making...
March 14, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Juan Xiong, Meihua Hu, Xiaoping Li, Hongying Li, Xin Li, Xiang Liu, Guozhong Cao, Weishan Li
A porous graphite (PG) is proposed as anode electrocatalyst of microbial fuel cell (MFC), which is synthesized by thermally decomposing ferrous gluconate followed by leaching iron. The physical characterizations from scanning electron microscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, indicate that the resulting PG is mesopore-rich and exhibits high graphitization with oxygen-containing functional groups...
March 5, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Alireza Shahbabaie, Mitra Ebrahimpoor, Ali Hariri, Michael A Nitsche, Javad Hatami, Emad Fatemizadeh, Mohammad Ali Oghabian, Hamed Ekhtiari
Background: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation tool suited to alter cortical excitability and activity via the application of weak direct electrical currents. An increasing number of studies in the addiction literature suggests that tDCS modulates subjective self-reported craving through stimulation of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). The major goal of this study was to explore effects of bilateral DLPFC stimulation on resting state networks (RSNs) in association with drug craving modulation...
March 2018: Brain and Behavior
Wing Ting To, Justin Eroh, John Hart, Sven Vanneste
The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) has been identified as a core region affected by many disorders, representing a promising target for neuromodulation. High Definition-transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (HD-tDCS) is a non-invasive neuromodulation technique that has already shown promising outcomes and has been tested to engage deeper structures. This study investigates whether it is possible to modulate dACC activity using anodal and cathodal HD-tDCS. Furthermore, it examines what effects anodal and cathodal HD-tDCS targeting dACC have on cognitive and emotional processing...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jianwei Cao, Hanli Liu, George Alexandrakis
Cortical circuit reorganization induced by anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the Broca's area of the dominant language hemisphere in 13 healthy adults was quantified by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Transient cortical reorganization patterns in steady-state functional connectivity (seed-based and graph theory analysis) and temporal functional connectivity (sliding window correlation analysis) were recorded before, during, and after applying high current tDCS (1 mA, 8 min)...
April 2018: Neurophotonics
Alessandro Picelli, Elena Chemello, Paola Castellazzi, Mirko Filippetti, Annalisa Brugnera, Marialuisa Gandolfi, Andreas Waldner, Leopold Saltuari, Nicola Smania
BACKGROUND: Preliminary evidence showed additional effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation over the damaged cerebral hemisphere combined with cathodal transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation during robot-assisted gait training in chronic stroke patients. This is consistent with the neural organization of locomotion involving cortical and spinal control. The cerebellum is crucial for locomotor control, in particular for avoidance of obstacles, and adaptation to novel conditions during walking...
2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Kerstin Spielmann, W Mieke E van de Sandt-Koenderman, Majanka H Heijenbrok-Kal, Gerard M Ribbers
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of transcranial direct current stimulation on word-finding treatment outcome in subacute poststroke aphasia. METHODS: In this multi-center, double-blind, randomized controlled trial with 6-month follow-up, we included 58 patients with subacute aphasia (<3 months poststroke), who were enrolled in a stroke rehabilitation program. Patients participated in 2 separate intervention weeks...
March 9, 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Sarah S Sheldon, Kyle E Mathewson
The phase of alpha (8-12 Hz) brain oscillations have been associated with moment to moment changes in visual attention and awareness. Previous work has demonstrated that endogenous oscillations and subsequent behavior can be modulated by oscillating transcranial current stimulation (otCS). The purpose of the current study is to establish the efficacy of cathodal otCS for modulation of the ongoing alpha brain oscillations, allowing for modulation of individual's visual perception. Thirty-six participants performed a target detection with sham and 10-Hz cathodal otCS...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Taly Bonder, Daniel Gopher, Yaffa Yeshurun
The present study examined the mutual influence of cortical neuroenhancement and allocation of spatial attention on perception. Specifically, it explored the effects of transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) on visual acuity measured with a Landolt gap task and attentional precues. The exogenous cues were used to draw attention either to the location of the target or away from it, generating significant performance benefits and costs. Anodal tDCS applied to posterior occipital area for 15 min improved performance during stimulation, reflecting heightened visual acuity...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Valeria Mondini, Anna Lisa Mangia, Angelo Cappello
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and neurofeedback-guided motor imagery (MI) have attracted considerable interest in neurorehabilitation, given their ability to influence neuroplasticity. As tDCS has been shown to modulate event-related desynchronization (ERD), the neural signature of motor imagery detected for neurofeedback, a combination of the techniques was recently proposed. One limitation of this approach is that the area targeted for stimulation is the same from which the signal for neurofeedback is acquired...
2018: PloS One
Qian Cao, Xiaomin Niu
People derive value from self-justifications by allowing themselves to lie for self-interest while feeling honest. This study explores, with the use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), whether ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) could modulate genuine (dis)honesty by inhibiting self-justification for dishonesty. A total of 149 participants complete a die-in-a-cup task, in which they were asked to roll a six-sided die placed in an opaque cup twice but to report the first roll only. The experimental results show that anodal tDCS over right VLPFC increased 35...
March 3, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Sanne Broeder, Elke Heremans, Marcelo Pinto Pereira, Evelien Nackaerts, Raf Meesen, Geert Verheyden, Alice Nieuwboer
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the primary motor cortex (M1) can boost motor performance in Parkinson's disease (PD) when it is applied at rest. However, the potential supplementary therapeutic effect of the concurrent application of tDCS during the training of motor tasks is largely unknown. The present study examined the effects of tDCS on upper limb motor blocks during a freezing-provoking writing task (the funnel task) requiring up- and down-stroke movements at alternating amplitudes...
February 28, 2018: Human Movement Science
Jesse M Resnick, Gabrielle E O'Brien, Jay T Rubinstein
Since cochlear implant function involves direct depolarization of spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) by applied current, SGN physiological health must be an important factor in cochlear implant (CI) outcomes. This expected relationship has, however, been difficult to confirm in implant recipients. Suggestively, animal studies have demonstrated both acute and progressive SGN ultrastructural changes (notably axon demyelination), even in the absence of soma death, and corresponding altered physiology following sensorineural deafening...
February 14, 2018: Hearing Research
Anthony B Ciccone, Jake A Deckert, Cory R Schlabs, Max J Tilden, Trent J Herda, Philip M Gallagher, Joseph P Weir
Stimulation of the left insular cortex may affect heart rate variability (HRV) and exercise effort perception. These studies investigated the effects transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and electrode orientation on HRV and repeated maximal knee extensions. In study 1, following sham stimulation, anodal left temporal lobe stimulation, or anodal right temporal lobe stimulation, 10 male and 10 female subjects (age=21.0±1.5 yr) completed 50 maximum isokinetic extensions at 180°s. There was a significant effect of stimulation condition on HRV for only one (SD2; p=...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Sangeetha Madhavan, Anjali Sivaramakrishnan, Sam Bond, Qin Li Jiang
INTRODUCTION: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been explored as a neuromodulatory tool to prime motor function in several neurological disorders. Studies using tDCS in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are limited. We investigated the safety, feasibility and effects of long-term tDCS in an individual with ALS. METHODS: A 36-year-old male diagnosed with clinically definite ALS received 12 sessions each of anodal, sham, and cathodal tDCS. Outcome measures included disease progression (revised ALS functional rating scale (ALSFRS-R)), clinical measures of endurance and mobility, and corticomotor excitability...
February 28, 2018: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
Meg Simione, Felipe Fregni, Jordan R Green
Motor cortex transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been shown to enhance motor learning in healthy adults as well as various neurological conditions. However, there has been limited data on whether tDCS enhances jaw motor performance during different oral behaviors such as speech, maximum syllable repetition, and chewing. Because the effects of anodal and cathodal stimulation are known to be dependent on task demands, we hypothesized that tDCS would have a distinct effect on the jaw motor performance during these disparate oral behaviors...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Heng Guo, Zhuoran Zhang, Shu Da, Xiaotian Sheng, Xichao Zhang
Background: Studies on risk preferences have long been of great concern and have examined the neural basis underlying risk-based decision making. However, studies using conventional transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) revealed that bilateral stimulation could change risk propensity with limited evidence of precisely focalized unilateral high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS). The aim of this experiment was to investigate the effect of HD-tDCS focalizing the left dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) on risk-taking behavior during the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART)...
February 2018: Brain and Behavior
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