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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538841/-nutritional-traffic-light-system-for-processed-foods-qualitative-study-of-awareness-understanding-attitudes-and-practices-in-ecuador
#1
Wilma B Freire, William F Waters, Gabriela Rivas-Mariño
Objectives.: To analyze awareness, understanding, attitudes, and practices related to the nutritional traffic light system (NTLS) on processed food packaging in Ecuador. Materials and methods.: 21 discussions were held in focus groups (FG) in populations of various sizes in the coastal, mountainous, and eastern regions. Nine interviews were conducted with key informants (KI) representing large, medium, and small enterprises producing or selling processed foods. Results...
January 2017: Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538798/-analysis-of-tv-food-advertising-in-the-context-of-recommendations-by-the-food-guide-for-the-brazilian-population
#2
Emanuella Gomes Maia, Bruna Vieira de Lima Costa, Francielly de Souza Coelho, Julia Soares Guimarães, Rafaela Garcia Fortaleza, Rafael Moreira Claro
This study aimed to analyze TV food advertising in Brazil based on the recommendations of the Food Guide for the Brazilian Population, 2014. Programming from the four most popular TV channels was recorded on two non-consecutive days in January 2014. The commercials were categorized in (i) foods and beverages, (ii) restaurants, and (iii) non-food services, goods, and products, with those in the first category subdivided according to recommendations in the food guide. The commercials' categories were described by means of their frequency (and 95% confidence interval), for all the records and according to the day of the week...
May 18, 2017: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537084/bringing-menu-labelling-to-independent-restaurants-findings-from-a-voluntary-pilot-project-in-toronto
#3
Tara Brown, Loren Vanderlinden, Anne Birks, Dia Mamatis, Jennifer Levy, Tina Sahay
Toronto Public Health conducted a pilot project to assess the feasibility of menu labelling by independent restaurants. The pilot project was informed by consultations with the industry and other jurisdictions that have implemented a similar initiative. Public Health Dietitians worked closely with these restaurants to help them work toward posting calories and sodium on their menus. This paper reports on the findings of a feasibility assessment that took a mixed-methods approach resulting in a comprehensive process evaluation...
May 24, 2017: Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535667/involvement-of-a-gr2a-expressing-drosophila-pharyngeal-gustatory-receptor-neuron-in-regulation-of-aversion-to-high-salt-foods
#4
Haein Kim, Yong Taek Jeong, Min Sung Choi, Jaekyun Choi, Seok Jun Moon, Jae Young Kwon
Regulation of feeding is essential for animal survival. The pharyngeal sense organs can act as a second checkpoint of food quality, due to their position between external taste organs such as the labellum which initially assess food quality, and the digestive tract. Growing evidence provides support that the pharyngeal sensory neurons regulate feeding, but much is still unknown. We found that a pair of gustatory receptor neurons in the LSO, a Drosophila adult pharyngeal organ which expresses four gustatory receptors, is involved in feeding inhibition in response to high concentrations of sodium ions...
May 2, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535592/stream-salinization-and-fungal-mediated-leaf-decomposition-a-microcosm-study
#5
Cristina Canhoto, Sara Simões, Ana Lúcia Gonçalves, Lúcia Guilhermino, Felix Bärlocher
Salinization is of major global concern due to its effect on stream biota, and ecosystem functions and services. In small streams, litter decomposition is a key ecosystem-level process driven by decomposers, mainly fungi (aquatic hyphomycetes), which link litter and invertebrates. Here we assessed the effects of an environmentally relevant range of salt additions (0, 2, 4, 8, 16gL(-1) NaCl) on (1) fungal growth and species-specific reproductive output and (2) fungal mediated-decomposition of Quercus robur leaves...
May 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535183/time-caloric-restriction-inhibits-the-neoplastic-transformation-of-cirrhotic-liver-in-rats-treated-with-diethylnitrosamine
#6
Christian Molina-Aguilar, María de Jesús Guerrero-Carrillo, Jesús Javier Espinosa-Aguirre, Sitlali Olguin-Reyes, Thania Castro-Belio, Olivia Vázquez-Martínez, Julieta Berenice Rivera-Zavala, Mauricio Díaz-Muñoz
Hepatocellular cancer is the most common type of primary liver cancer. Cirrhosis is the main risk factor that generates this malady. It has been proven that caloric restriction protocols and restricted feeding schedules are protective in experimental carcinogenic models. We tested the influence of a time-caloric restriction protocol (2 h of food access during the daytime for 18 weeks) in an experimental model of cirrhosis-hepatocarcinoma produced by weekly administration of diethylnitrosamine. Our results indicate that time-caloric restriction reduced hepatomegaly and prevented the increase in blood leukocytes promoted by diethylnitrosamine...
May 23, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535048/control-of-maillard-reactions-in-foods-strategies-and-chemical-mechanisms
#7
Marianne N Lund, Colin Ray
Maillard reactions lead to changes in food color, organoleptic properties, protein functionality, and protein digestibility. Numerous different strategies for controlling Maillard reactions in foods have been attempted during the last decades. In this paper, recent advances in strategies for controlling the Maillard reaction and subsequent downstream reaction products in food systems are critically reviewed. The underlying mechanisms at play are presented, strengths and weaknesses of each strategy are discussed, and reasonable reaction mechanisms are proposed to reinforce the evaluations...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534616/microbes-and-the-next-nitrogen-revolution
#8
Ilje Pikaar, Silvio Matassa, Korneel Rabaey, Benjamin Leon Bodirsky, Alexander Popp, Mario Herrero, Willy Verstraete
The Haber Bosch process is among the greatest inventions of the 20th century. It provided agriculture with reactive nitrogen and ultimately mankind with nourishment for a population of 7 billion people. However, the present agricultural practice of growing crops for animal production and human food constitutes a major threat to the sustainability of the planet in terms of reactive nitrogen pollution. In view of the shortage of directly feasible and cost-effective measures to avoid these planetary nitrogen burdens and the necessity to remediate this problem, we foresee the absolute need for, and expect, a revolution in the use of microbes as a source of protein...
May 23, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533970/a-comparison-of-freezing-damage-during-isochoric-and-isobaric-freezing-of-the-potato
#9
Chenang Lyu, Gabriel Nastase, Gideon Ukpai, Alexandru Serban, Boris Rubinsky
BACKGROUND: Freezing is commonly used for food preservation. It is usually done under constant atmospheric pressure (isobaric). While extending the life of the produce, isobaric freezing has detrimental effects. It causes loss of food weight and changes in food quality. Using thermodynamic analysis, we have developed a theoretical model of the process of freezing in a constant volume system (isochoric). The mathematical model suggests that the detrimental effects associated with isobaric freezing may be reduced in an isochoric freezing system...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533789/beans-phaseolus-ssp-as-a-model-for-understanding-crop-evolution
#10
REVIEW
Elena Bitocchi, Domenico Rau, Elisa Bellucci, Monica Rodriguez, Maria L Murgia, Tania Gioia, Debora Santo, Laura Nanni, Giovanna Attene, Roberto Papa
Here, we aim to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the most significant outcomes in the literature regarding the origin of Phaseolus genus, the geographical distribution of the wild species, the domestication process, and the wide spread out of the centers of origin. Phaseolus can be considered as a unique model for the study of crop evolution, and in particular, for an understanding of the convergent phenotypic evolution that occurred under domestication. The almost unique situation that characterizes the Phaseolus genus is that five of its ∼70 species have been domesticated (i...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533770/from-vineyard-soil-to-wine-fermentation-microbiome-approximations-to-explain-the-terroir-concept
#11
REVIEW
Ignacio Belda, Iratxe Zarraonaindia, Matthew Perisin, Antonio Palacios, Alberto Acedo
Wine originally emerged as a serendipitous mix of chemistry and biology, where microorganisms played a decisive role. From these ancient fermentations to the current monitored industrial processes, winegrowers and winemakers have been continuously changing their practices according to scientific knowledge and advances. A new enology direction is emerging and aiming to blend the complexity of spontaneous fermentations with industrial safety of monitored fermentations. In this context, wines with distinctive autochthonous peculiarities have a great acceptance among consumers, causing important economic returns...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533660/genes-emotions-and-gut-microbiota-the-next-frontier-for-the-gastroenterologist
#12
REVIEW
Arturo Panduro, Ingrid Rivera-Iñiguez, Maricruz Sepulveda-Villegas, Sonia Roman
Most medical specialties including the field of gastroenterology are mainly aimed at treating diseases rather than preventing them. Genomic medicine studies the health/disease process based on the interaction of the human genes with the environment. The gastrointestinal (GI) system is an ideal model to analyze the interaction between our genes, emotions and the gut microbiota. Based on the current knowledge, this mini-review aims to provide an integrated synopsis of this interaction to achieve a better understanding of the GI disorders related to bad eating habits and stress-related disease...
May 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533422/paternal-hyperglycemia-in-rats-exacerbates-the-development-of-obesity-in-offspring
#13
Xiaoqin Shi, Xinyu Li, Yi Hou, Xuemei Cao, Yuyao Zhang, Heng Wang, Hongying Wang, Chuan Peng, Jibin Li, Qifu Li, Chaodong Wu, Xiaoqiu Xiao
Parental history with obesity or diabetes will increase the risk for developing metabolic diseases in offspring. However, literatures as to transgenerational inheritance of metabolic dysfunctions through male lineage are relatively scarce. In current study, we aimed to evaluate influences of paternal hyperglycemia on metabolic phenotypes in offspring. Male SD rats were ip injected with streptozotocin (STZ) or citrate buffer (CB, as control). STZ-injected rats with glucose levels higher than 16 mM were selected to breed with normal female rats...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532653/hippocampal-ca1-local-field-potential-oscillations-induced-by-olfactory-cue-of-liked-food
#14
Nifareeda Samerphob, Dania Cheaha, Surapong Chatpun, Ekkasit Kumarnsit
Eating motivation is induced not only by negative energy balance but also food related cues. However, neural processing for acquisition of learned food preference remains to be established. This study aimed to identify hippocampal neural signaling in response to olfactory cue (chocolate scent) after completion of repetitive chocolate sessions. Male Swiss albino mice implanted with intracranial electrode into the hippocampus were used for local field potential (LFP) recording. Animals were given chocolate sessions (a piece of 2 g chocolate per each mouse to eat on day 1, 3, 5 and 7)...
May 19, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532626/single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-of-abcc2-modulate-renal-secretion-of-endogenous-organic-anions
#15
Kienana Muhrez, Bérenger Largeau, Patrick Emond, Montigny Frédéric, Jean-Michel Halimi, Patrick Trouillas, Chantal Barin-LE Guellec
The ATP-binding cassette family transporter MRP2 (multidrug resistance-associated protein 2), encoded by the ABCC2 gene, is involved in the renal excretion of numerous xenobiotics and it is likely that it also transports many endogenous molecules arising from not only normal essential metabolic processes but also from environmental toxins or food intake. We used a targeted gas chromatography-mass spectrometry metabolomics analysis to study whether endogenous organic anions are differentially excreted in urines of healthy volunteers according to their genotype for three functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ABCC2...
May 19, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532592/extending-the-scope-of-eco-labelling-in-the-food-industry-to-drive-change-beyond-sustainable-agriculture-practices
#16
Marco A Miranda-Ackerman, Catherine Azzaro-Pantel
New consumer awareness is shifting industry towards more sustainable practices, creating a virtuous cycle between producers and consumers enabled by eco-labelling. Eco-labelling informs consumers of specific characteristics of products and has been used to market greener products. Eco-labelling in the food industry has yet been mostly focused on promoting organic farming, limiting the scope to the agricultural stage of the supply chain, while carbon labelling informs on the carbon footprint throughout the life cycle of the product...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532529/effect-of-childhood-nutrition-counselling-on-intelligence-in-adolescence-a-15-year-follow-up-of-a-cluster-randomised-trial
#17
Tiago N Munhoz, Iná S Santos, Simone de M Karam, Jose Martines, Gretel Pelto, Raquel Barcelos, Helen Gonçalves, Neiva Cj Valle, Luciana Anselmi, Alicia Matijasevich
OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to assess the effects of an early childhood nutrition counselling intervention on intelligence (as measured by the intelligence quotient (IQ)) at age 15-16 years. DESIGN: A single-blind, cluster-randomised trial. SETTING: In 1998, in Southern Brazil, mothers of children aged 18 months or younger were enrolled in a nutrition counselling intervention (n 424). Counselling included encouragement and promotion of exclusive breast-feeding until 6 months of age and continued breast-feeding supplemented by protein-, lipid- and carbohydrate-rich foods after age 6 months up to age 2 years...
May 23, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532018/characterization-of-physical-and-biodegradation-properties-of-poly-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate-sepiolite-nanocomposites
#18
Omer Shakil, Farha Masood, Tariq Yasin
The pristine sepiolite was treated with the 3-aminopropyl triethoxy silane (APTES). The APTES grafted sepiolite (APTES-G-SP) was used to develop the poly-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate (PHBV)/sepiolite nanocomposite films by the solution-casting method. Scanning electron micrographs showed that the APTES-G-SP fibers were well embedded in the polymer matrix. Fourier transform Infrared spectroscopy attributed the formation of covalent bonds between the APTES-G-SP and PHBV in the nanocomposite film. Thermal and water-barrier properties of the nanocomposite films were significantly improved...
August 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532010/design-of-experiments-for-microencapsulation-applications-a-review
#19
REVIEW
Filipa Paulo, Lúcia Santos
Microencapsulation techniques have been intensively explored by many research sectors such as pharmaceutical and food industries. Microencapsulation allows to protect the active ingredient from the external environment, mask undesired flavours, a possible controlled release of compounds among others. The purpose of this review is to provide a background of design of experiments in microencapsulation research context. Optimization processes are required for an accurate research in these fields and therefore, the right implementation of micro-sized techniques at industrial scale...
August 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531830/isotope-coded-derivatization-based-lc-esi-ms-ms-methods-using-a-pair-of-novel-reagents-for-quantification-of-hydroxycinnamic-acids-and-hydroxybenzoic-acids-in-fermented-brown-rice-product
#20
Shoujiro Ogawa, Kiriko Takafuji, Sumi Tsubuku, Yukiko Horie, Shigeo Ikegawa, Tatsuya Higashi
Hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs) and hydroxybenzoic acids (HBAs) are antioxidant phytochemicals found in rice and effective for the prevention of human diseases including cancer. FBRA, which is a functional food manufactured by fermenting brown rice and rice bran with Aspergillus oryzae, has been demonstrated to have chemopreventive effects against carcinogenesis in various organs. In this study, we developed methods for the relative and absolute quantification of ferulic acid, sinapic acid, caffeic acid, protocatechuic acid and syringic acid in the FBRA and raw material (RM; unfermented brown rice and rice bran) samples by LC/ESI-MS/MS combined with derivatization using a newly developed reagent, N-(2-aminoethyl)-4-(diethylamino)benzamide (ADB) and its deuterium-coded analog, d-ADB...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
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