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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088572/bcs-class-iv-drugs-highly-notorious-candidates-for-formulation-development
#1
REVIEW
Rohan Ghadi, Neha Dand
BCS class IV drugs (e.g., amphotericin B, furosemide, acetazolamide, ritonavir, paclitaxel) exhibit many characteristics that are problematic for effective oral and per oral delivery. Some of the problems associated include low aqueous solubility, poor permeability, erratic and poor absorption, inter and intra subject variability and significant positive food effect which leads to low and variable bioavailability. Also, most of the class IV drugs are substrate for P-glycoprotein (low permeability) and substrate for CYP3A4 (extensive pre systemic metabolism) which further potentiates the problem of poor therapeutic potential of these drugs...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088546/product-vs-corporate-carbon-footprint-some-methodological-issues-a-case-study-and-review-on-the-wine-sector
#2
Alejandra Navarro, Rita Puig, Pere Fullana-I-Palmer
Carbon footprint (CF) is nowadays one of the most widely used environmental indicators. The scope of the CF assessment could be corporate (when all production processes of a company are evaluated, together with upstream and downstream processes following a life cycle approach) or product (when one of the products is evaluated throughout its life cycle). Our hypothesis was that usually product CF studies (PCF) collect corporate data, because it is easier for companies to obtain them than product data. Six main methodological issues to take into account when collecting corporate data to be used for PCF studies were postulated and discussed in the present paper: fugitive emissions, credits from waste recycling, use of "equivalent factors", reference flow definition, accumulation and allocation of corporate values to minor products...
January 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088406/short-communication-effects-of-vacuum-freeze-drying-on-inactivation-of-cronobacter-sakazakii-atcc29544-in-liquid-media-with-different-initial-inoculum-levels
#3
Rui Jiao, Jina Gao, Xiyan Zhang, Maofeng Zhang, Jiren Chen, Qingping Wu, Jumei Zhang, Yingwang Ye
Vacuum freeze-drying is an important food-processing technology for valid retention of nutrients and bioactive compounds. Cronobacter sakazakii has been reported to be associated with severe infections in neonates through consumption of contaminated powdered infant formula. In this study, effects of vacuum freeze-drying treatment for 12, 24, and 36 h on inactivation of C. sakazakii with different initial inoculum levels in sterile water, tryptic soy broth (TSB), skim milk, and whole milk were determined. Results indicated that the lethality rate of C...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088215/non-associative-versus-associative-learning-by-foraging-predatory-mites
#4
Peter Schausberger, Stefan Peneder
BACKGROUND: Learning processes can be broadly categorized into associative and non-associative. Associative learning occurs through the pairing of two previously unrelated stimuli, whereas non-associative learning occurs in response to a single stimulus. How these two principal processes compare in the same learning task and how they contribute to the overall behavioural changes brought about by experience is poorly understood. We tackled this issue by scrutinizing associative and non-associative learning of prey, Western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis, by the predatory mite, Neoseiulus californicus...
January 14, 2017: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088114/between-exposure-access-and-use-reconsidering-foodscape-influences-on-dietary-behaviours
#5
Christelle Clary, Stephen Augustus Matthews, Yan Kestens
Good accessibility to both healthy and unhealthy food outlets is a greater reality than food deserts. Yet, there is a lack of conceptual insights on the contextual factors that push individuals to opt for healthy or unhealthy food outlets when both options are accessible. Our comprehension of foodscape influences on dietary behaviours would benefit from a better understanding of the decision-making process for food outlet choices. In this paper, we build on the fundamental position that outlet choices are conditioned by how much outlets' attributes accommodate individuals' constraints and preferences...
January 11, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087497/developing-nutrition-label-reading-skills-a-web-based-practice-approach
#6
Lisa M Soederberg Miller, Laurel A Beckett, Jacqueline J Bergman, Machelle D Wilson, Elizabeth A Applegate, Tanja N Gibson
BACKGROUND: Nutrition labels offer the information needed to follow Dietary Guidelines for Americans, yet many individuals use labels infrequently or ineffectively due to limited comprehension and the effort required to use them. OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to develop and test a Web-based label-reading training tool to improve individuals' ability to use labels to select more healthful foods. We were particularly interested in determining whether practice can lead to increased accuracy using labels as well as decreased effort, together reflecting greater efficiency...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087425/variations-of-metabolites-and-proteome-in-lonicera-japonica-thunb-buds-and-flowers-under-uv-radiation
#7
Wei Zhu, Wen Zheng, Xingjiang Hu, Xiaobao Xu, Lin Zhang, Jingkui Tian
Lonicera japonica Thunb., also known as Jin Yin Hua and Japanese honeysuckle, is used as a herbal medicine in Asian countries. Its flowers have been used in folk medicine in the clinic and in making food or healthy beverages for over 1500years in China. To investigate the molecular processes involved in L. japonica development from buds to flowers exposed to UV radiation, a comparative proteomics analysis was performed. Fifty-four proteins were identified as differentially expressed, including 42 that had increased expression and 12 that had decreased expression...
January 10, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087355/generation-of-quercetin-cellulose-acetate-phthalate-systems-for-delivery-by-supercritical-antisolvent-process
#8
I García-Casas, A Montes, C Pereyra, E J Martínez de la Ossa
Supercritical antisolvent process (SAS) has been used to precipitate microparticles of quercetin, a plant pigment found in many foods and used for medical treatments, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries, together with nanoparticles of cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP), a polymer quite frequently used in drug delivery. Previously, precipitation of nanoparticles of CAP by the same process was studied at different conditions of pressure, temperature, CO2and solution flow rates, nozzle diameter and initial concentration of the solution...
January 10, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087338/auditory-hindbrain-atrophy-and-anomalous-calcium-binding-protein-expression-after-neonatal-exposure-to-monosodium-glutamate
#9
Lindsey Foran, Kaitlyn Blackburn, Randy J Kulesza
Glutamate is the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, and is stored and released by both neurons and astrocytes. Despite the important role of glutamate as a neurotransmitter, elevated extracellular glutamate can result in excitotoxicity and apoptosis. Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a naturally occurring sodium salt of glutamic acid that is used as a flavor enhancer in many processed foods. Previous studies have shown that MSG administration during the early postnatal period results in neurodegenerative changes in several forebrain regions, characterized by neuronal loss and neuroendocrine abnormalities...
January 10, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087312/immunisation-choice-of-host-adjuvants-and-boosting-schedules-with-emphasis-on-polyclonal-antibody-production
#10
REVIEW
Philippe Delahaut
Polyclonal antibodies are frequently used as immunodiagnostic tools in fundamental research. They are also used for routine diagnostic purposes in human and veterinary medicine and for quality control procedures in the food-processing industry. The antibody is a major component of the detection system. It binds with the molecule to be identified. This conjugate is subsequently revealed by means of binding the antibody with a radio-isotope, a fluorescent substance, an enzyme inducing a color change, or a biosensor based analytical system...
January 10, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086873/cecal-micrornaome-response-to-salmonella-enterica-serovar-enteritidis-infection-in-white-leghorn-layer
#11
Guixian Wu, Yukai Qi, Xiaoyi Liu, Ning Yang, Guiyun Xu, Liying Liu, Xianyao Li
BACKGROUND: Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) is a food-borne pathogen and of great threat to human health through consuming the contaminated poultry products. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in different biological activities and have been shown to regulate the innate immunity in the bacterial infection. The objective of this study is to identify miRNAs associated with SE infection in laying chicken cecum. RESULTS: Average number of reads of three libraries constructed from infected and non-infected chickens was 12,476,156 and 10,866,976, respectively...
January 13, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080996/mitigating-amphibian-chytridiomycoses-in-nature
#12
REVIEW
Trenton W J Garner, Benedikt R Schmidt, An Martel, Frank Pasmans, Erin Muths, Andrew A Cunningham, Che Weldon, Matthew C Fisher, Jaime Bosch
Amphibians across the planet face the threat of population decline and extirpation caused by the disease chytridiomycosis. Despite consensus that the fungal pathogens responsible for the disease are conservation issues, strategies to mitigate their impacts in the natural world are, at best, nascent. Reducing risk associated with the movement of amphibians, non-amphibian vectors and other sources of infection remains the first line of defence and a primary objective when mitigating the threat of disease in wildlife...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080995/rapid-emergence-of-pathogens-in-agro-ecosystems-global-threats-to-agricultural-sustainability-and-food-security
#13
REVIEW
Bruce A McDonald, Eva H Stukenbrock
Agricultural ecosystems are composed of genetically depauperate populations of crop plants grown at a high density and over large spatial scales, with the regional composition of crop species changing little from year to year. These environments are highly conducive for the emergence and dissemination of pathogens. The uniform host populations facilitate the specialization of pathogens to particular crop cultivars and allow the build-up of large population sizes. Population genetic and genomic studies have shed light on the evolutionary mechanisms underlying speciation processes, adaptive evolution and long-distance dispersal of highly damaging pathogens in agro-ecosystems...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080981/phenotypic-interactions-between-tree-hosts-and-invasive-forest-pathogens-in-the-light-of-globalization-and-climate-change
#14
REVIEW
Jan Stenlid, Jonàs Oliva
Invasive pathogens can cause considerable damage to forest ecosystems. Lack of coevolution is generally thought to enable invasive pathogens to bypass the defence and/or recognition systems in the host. Although mostly true, this argument fails to predict intermittent outcomes in space and time, underlining the need to include the roles of the environment and the phenotype in host-pathogen interactions when predicting disease impacts. We emphasize the need to consider host-tree imbalances from a phenotypic perspective, considering the lack of coevolutionary and evolutionary history with the pathogen and the environment, respectively...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079301/case-study-for-lean-management-in-the-public-sector-improving-combination-product-review-at-the-food-drug-administration
#15
Michael J Rappel, Nina L Hunter, April I Alexandrow, Kyle O Hair, Rachel E Sherman, Robert M Califf
Therapeutics known as combination products because they combine drug, device, and/or biologic elements can offer important advantages relative to single-modality products. However, regulatory policy in this arena has lagged relative to increases in product submissions and complexity of these products. In this article, we describe how the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) applied Lean management methods to improve and streamline the process by which different FDA Centers and Offices coordinate review of combination products...
January 12, 2017: Clinical and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079235/quality-of-life-in-swallowing-of-the-elderly-patients-affected-by-stroke
#16
Émerson Soares Pontes, Ana Karênina de Freitas Jordão do Amaral, Flávia Luiza Costa do Rêgo, Elma Heitmann Mares Azevedo, Priscila Oliveira Costa Silva
BACKGROUND: - The elderly population faces many difficulties as a result of the aging process. Conceptualize and evaluate their life quality is a challenge, being hard to characterize the impact on daily activities and on functional capacity. The stroke is one of the most disabling neurological diseases, becoming a public health problem. As an aggravating result, there is dysphagia, a disorder that compromises the progression of the food from the mouth to the stomach, causing clinical complications to the individual...
January 2017: Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077743/seroepidemiology-of-human-brucellosis-among-blood-donors-in-southern-ethiopia-calling-attention-to-a-neglected-zoonotic-disease
#17
Bereket Workalemahu, Tsegaye Sewunet, Ayalew Astatkie
Human brucellosis is neglected in southern Ethiopia. Although traditional food processing practices and animal husbandry which increase the risk of brucellosis are common, it has not been properly studied yet. This study was conducted to determine the seroepidemiology of brucellosis among apparently healthy individuals in southern Ethiopia. In the study, blood samples were collected to screen for serum agglutinins reactive to stained antigen of Brucella abortus Standard tube titration was performed for reactive serum to determine the titer of the agglutinin...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077705/processing-of-intraoral-olfactory-and-gustatory-signals-in-the-gustatory-cortex-of-awake-rats
#18
Chad L Samuelsen, Alfredo Fontanini
: The integration of gustatory and olfactory information is essential to the perception of flavor. Human neuroimaging experiments have pointed to the gustatory cortex (GC) as one of the areas involved in mediating flavor perception. Although GC's involvement in encoding the chemical identity and hedonic value of taste stimuli is well studied, it is unknown how single GC neurons process olfactory stimuli emanating from the mouth. In this study, we relied on multielectrode recordings to investigate how single GC neurons respond to intraorally delivered tastants and tasteless odorants dissolved in water and whether/how these two modalities converge in the same neurons...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077565/mahmi-database-a-comprehensive-metahit-based-resource-for-the-study-of-the-mechanism-of-action-of-the-human-microbiota
#19
Aitor Blanco-Míguez, Alberto Gutiérrez-Jácome, Florentino Fdez-Riverola, Anália Lourenço, Borja Sánchez
The Mechanism of Action of the Human Microbiome (MAHMI) database is a unique resource that provides comprehensive information about the sequence of potential immunomodulatory and antiproliferative peptides encrypted in the proteins produced by the human gut microbiota. Currently, MAHMI database contains over 300 hundred million peptide entries, with detailed information about peptide sequence, sources and potential bioactivity. The reference peptide data section is curated manually by domain experts. The in silico peptide data section is populated automatically through the systematic processing of publicly available exoproteomes of the human microbiome...
2017: Database: the Journal of Biological Databases and Curation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077514/representational-similarity-mapping-of-distributional-semantics-in-left-inferior-frontal-middle-temporal-and-motor-cortex
#20
Francesca Carota, Nikolaus Kriegeskorte, Hamed Nili, Friedemann Pulvermüller
Language comprehension engages a distributed network of frontotemporal, parietal, and sensorimotor regions, but it is still unclear how meaning of words and their semantic relationships are represented and processed within these regions and to which degrees lexico-semantic representations differ between regions and semantic types. We used fMRI and representational similarity analysis to relate word-elicited multivoxel patterns to semantic similarity between action and object words. In left inferior frontal (BA 44-45-47), left posterior middle temporal and left precentral cortex, the similarity of brain response patterns reflected semantic similarity among action-related verbs, as well as across lexical classes-between action verbs and tool-related nouns and, to a degree, between action verbs and food nouns, but not between action verbs and animal nouns...
January 10, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
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