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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156651/specific-effects-of-chronic-dietary-exposure-to-chlorpyrifos-on-brain-gene-expression-a-mouse-study
#1
Maria Michela Pallotta, Raffaele Ronca, Rosa Carotenuto, Immacolata Porreca, Mimmo Turano, Concetta Ambrosino, Teresa Capriglione
chlorpyrifos (CPF) is an organophosphate insecticide used to control pests on a variety of food and feed crops. In mammals, maternal exposure to CPF has been reported to induce cerebral cortex thinning, alteration of long-term brain cognitive function, and Parkinson-like symptoms, but the mechanisms of these processes are not fully understood. In this study, we aimed to gain a deeper understanding of the alterations induced in the brains of mice chronically exposed to CPF by dietary intake. For our purpose, we analysed F1 offspring (sacrificed at 3 and 8 months) of Mus musculus, treated in utero and postnatally with 3 different doses of CPF (0...
November 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156647/effects-of-nutritional-interventions-during-pregnancy-on-infant-and-child-cognitive-outcomes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
REVIEW
Rachael M Taylor, Shanna M Fealy, Alessandra Bisquera, Roger Smith, Clare E Collins, Tiffany-Jane Evans, Alexis J Hure
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that folate, iodine and iron intake during pregnancy impacts on foetal brain development and cognitive function. However, in human studies, the relationship with other dietary nutrients is less clear. OBJECTIVE: This systematic review aims to critically appraise the current literature and meta-analyses results from nutritional interventions during pregnancy that aimed to optimise infant and child cognitive outcomes...
November 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156622/advanced-glycation-end-products-in-the-pathogenesis-of-psoriasis
#3
REVIEW
Anastasia Papagrigoraki, Martina Maurelli, Micol Del Giglio, Paolo Gisondi, Giampiero Girolomoni
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are extremely oxidant and biologically reactive compounds, which form through oxidation of sugars, lipids and amino acids to create aldehydes that bind covalently to proteins. AGEs formation and accumulation in human tissues is a physiological process during ageing but it is enhanced in case of persistent hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and oxidative or carbonyl stress, which are common in patients with moderate to severe psoriasis. Exogenous AGEs may derive from foods, UV irradiation and cigarette smoking...
November 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156611/immunodetection-of-porcine-red-blood-cell-containing-food-ingredients-using-a-porcine-hemoglobin-specific-monoclonal-antibody
#4
Jack A Ofori, Yun-Hwa P Hsieh
Monoclonal antibody (mAb) 24C12-E7 has been found to bind to a 12 kDa antigenic protein in the red blood cell (RBC) of porcine blood. The purpose of this study was to determine the identity of this 12 kDa protein and consequently examine its potential as a marker for monitoring porcine RBC-containing ingredients (PRBCIs) in foods. Proteomic techniques identified the 12 kDa antigenic protein to be a monomer of the tetrameric hemoglobin molecule. Further heat-processing of spray-dried PRBCIs diminishes its detectability...
November 20, 2017: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156580/cellular-localization-of-wheat-high-molecular-weight-glutenin-subunits-in-transgenic-rice-grain
#5
Yeong-Min Jo, Kyoungwon Cho, Hye-Jung Lee, Sun-Hyung Lim, Jin Sun Kim, Young-Mi Kim, Jong-Yeol Lee
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a primary global food cereal. However, when compared to wheat, rice has poor food processing qualities. Dough that is made from rice flour has low viscoelasticity because rice seed lacks storage proteins that are comparable to gluten protein from wheat. Thus, current research efforts aim to improve rice flour processing qualities through the transgenic expression of viscoelastic proteins in rice seeds. In this study, we characterized the transgenic expression of wheat glutenin subunits in rice seeds...
November 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156437/home-composting-using-different-ratios-of-bulking-agent-to-food-waste
#6
Lucas Lourenço Castiglioni Guidoni, Roger Vasques Marques, Rodrigo Bilhalva Moncks, Fabiana Torma Botelho, Matheus Francisco da Paz, Luciara Bilhalva Corrêa, Érico Kunde Corrêa
The negative environmental impacts associated with home composting may be due to the absence of a defined operation criteria for the degradation process. In addition to the potentially low environmental impact in terms of energy and water usage, which is minimal to the manufacture of the composting unit and avoiding the processing and transportation of waste or byproduct, composting at home can also promote a reduction in the emission of unpleasant gases. The proportion of the food waste and bulking agents in the composting mixture may be decisive to fulfill good practices of waste stabilization...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156263/application-of-biochar-from-food-and-wood-waste-as-green-admixture-for-cement-mortar
#7
Souradeep Gupta, Harn Wei Kua, Hui Jun Koh
Landfilling of food waste due to its low recycling rate is raising serious concerns because of associated soil and water contamination, and emission of methane and other greenhouse gases during the degradation process. This paper explores feasibility of using biochar derived from mixed food waste (FWBC), rice waste (RWBC) and wood waste (mixed wood saw dust, MWBC) as carbon sequestering additive in mortar. RWBC is prepared from boiled plain rice, while FWBC is prepared from combination of rice, meat, and vegetables in fixed proportion...
November 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156248/the-symbolic-violence-of-outbreak-a-mixed-methods-quasi-experimental-impact-evaluation-of-social-protection-on-ebola-survivor-wellbeing
#8
Eugene T Richardson, J Daniel Kelly, Osman Sesay, Michael D Drasher, Ishaan K Desai, Raphael Frankfurter, Paul E Farmer, Mohamed Bailor Barrie
Despite over 28,000 reported cases of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in the 2013-16 outbreak in West Africa, we are only beginning to trace the complex biosocial processes that have promoted its spread. Important questions remain, including the effects on survivors of clinical sequelae, loss of family and livelihood, and other psychological and social trauma. Another poorly understood question is what effect social protection and job creation programs have had on survivors' wellbeing. Several clinical and social protection programs have been developed to respond to the needs of EVD survivors; however, little in the way of impact evaluation has taken place...
November 11, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156088/climate-mediated-changes-in-marine-ecosystem-regulation-during-el-ni%C3%A3-o
#9
Martin Lindegren, David M Checkley, J Anthony Koslow, Ralf Goericke, Mark D Ohman
The degree to which ecosystems are regulated through bottom-up, top-down or direct physical processes represents a long-standing issue in ecology, with important consequences for resource management and conservation. In marine ecosystems, the role of bottom-up and top-down forcing has been shown to vary over spatio-temporal scales, often linked to highly variable and heterogeneously distributed environmental conditions. Ecosystem dynamics in the Northeast Pacific have been suggested to be predominately bottom-up regulated...
November 20, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155937/nanoparticle-based-lateral-flow-biosensor-combined-with-multiple-cross-displacement-amplification-for-rapid-visual-and-sensitive-detection-of-vibrio-cholerae
#10
Yi Wang, Hui Li, Yan Wang, Lu Zhang, Jingyun Zhang, Jianguo Xu, Changyun Ye
Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae) is an important human pathogen that is responsible for cholera, a severe acute watery diarrhea. In the current study, a multiple cross displacement amplification (MCDA) coupled with amplicon detection by chromatographic lateral flow biosensor (LFB) method (MCDA-LFB) was successfully established and evaluated for identification of V. cholerae. A set of ten primers was designed specifically to recognize ten different regions of the V. cholerae-specific gene ompW. The optimized time and temperature conditions for the MCDA were 30 min at 63˚C...
November 16, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155849/unusual-occurrence-of-a-dag-motif-in-the-ipomovirus-cassava-brown-streak-virus-and-implications-for-its-vector-transmission
#11
Elijah Ateka, Titus Alicai, Joseph Ndunguru, Fred Tairo, Peter Sseruwagi, Samuel Kiarie, Timothy Makori, Monica A Kehoe, Laura M Boykin
Cassava is the main staple food for over 800 million people globally. Its production in eastern Africa is being constrained by two devastating Ipomoviruses that cause cassava brown streak disease (CBSD); Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV), with up to 100% yield loss for smallholder farmers in the region. To date, vector studies have not resulted in reproducible and highly efficient transmission of CBSV and UCBSV. Most virus transmission studies have used Bemisia tabaci (whitefly), but a maximum of 41% U/CBSV transmission efficiency has been documented for this vector...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155763/quantifying-microorganisms-at-low-concentrations-using-digital-holographic-microscopy-dhm
#12
Manuel Bedrossian, Casey Barr, Chris A Lindensmith, Kenneth Nealson, Jay L Nadeau
Accurately detecting and counting sparse bacterial samples has many applications in the food, beverage, and pharmaceutical processing industries, in medical diagnostics, and for life detection by robotic missions to other planets and moons of the solar system. Currently, sparse bacterial samples are counted by culture plating or epifluorescence microscopy. Culture plates require long incubation times (days to weeks), and epifluorescence microscopy requires extensive staining and concentration of the sample...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155278/mecp2-expression-in-a-rat-model-of-risky-decision-making
#13
Jay V Deng, Caitlin A Orsini, Kristy G Shimp, Barry Setlow
Many neuropsychiatric disorders are associated with abnormal decision making involving risk of punishment, but the underlying molecular basis remains poorly understood. Methyl CpG-binding Protein 2 (MeCP2) is an epigenetic factor that regulates transcription by directly binding to methylated DNA. Here, we evaluated MeCP2 expression in the context of risk-taking behaviors using the Risky Decision-making Task (RDT), in which rats make discrete choices between a small "safe" food reward and a large "risky" food reward accompanied by varying probabilities of punishment...
November 16, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155248/a-biphasic-reduction-in-a-measure-of-palatability-following-sucrose-consumption-in-mice
#14
Jasmin A Strickland, Joseph M Austen, David J Sanderson
Consumption of foods results in a transient reduction in hedonic value that influences the extent and nature of feeding behavior. The time course of this effect, however, is poorly specified. In an initial experiment, using an analysis of the microstructure of licking in mice we found that consumption of sucrose led to a rapid reduction in lick cluster size, a measure of palatability, which recovered after ten minutes, but reemerged 60min after initial consumption. We then replicated the finding that lick cluster size is reduced after 60min, but not 10min, under conditions in which a number of potential behavioural confounds were removed...
November 15, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155094/motivational-state-controls-the-prediction-error-in-pavlovian-appetitive-aversive-interactions
#15
Vincent Laurent, Bernard W Balleine, R Frederick Westbrook
Contemporary theories of learning emphasize the role of a prediction error signal in driving learning, but the nature of this signal remains hotly debated. Here, we used Pavlovian conditioning in rats to investigate whether primary motivational and emotional states interact to control prediction error. We initially generated cues that positively or negatively predicted an appetitive food outcome. We then assessed how these cues modulated aversive conditioning when a novel cue was paired with a foot shock. We found that a positive predictor of food enhances, whereas a negative predictor of that same food impairs, aversive conditioning...
November 16, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155077/subchronic-oral-toxicity-study-of-korean-red-ginseng-extract-in-sprague-dawley-rats-with-a-4-week-recovery-period
#16
Sang-Jin Park, JeongHo Noh, Eun Ju Jeong, Yong-Soon Kim, Byung-Cheol Han, Seung-Ho Lee, Kyoung-Sik Moon
Ginseng is a major herbal remedy used in Asian countries for thousands of years and known to restore and enhance vital energy. Korean red ginseng, which is processed by steaming and drying fresh Panax ginseng, is most popular and contains unique ginsenosides, which have anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study was carried out to evaluate the repeated oral dose toxicity of Korean red ginseng extract. The test article was administered orally once a day to male and female Sprague-Dawley rats at dose levels of 0, 500, 1000, or 2000 mg/kg/day for 13 consecutive weeks (15 animals/sex/group in the vehicle control and 2000 mg/kg/day groups, and 10 animals/sex/group in the 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day groups)...
November 16, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154995/a-map-of-the-subcellular-distribution-of-phosphoinositides-in-the-erythrocytic-cycle-of-the-malaria-parasite-plasmodium-falciparum
#17
Zeinab Ebrahimzadeh, Angana Mukherjee, Dave Richard
Despite representing a small percentage of the cellular lipids of eukaryotic cells, phosphoinositides (PIPs) are critical in various processes such as intracellular trafficking and signal transduction. Central to their various functions is the differential distribution of PIP species to specific membrane compartments through the actions of kinases, phosphatases and lipases. Despite their importance in the malaria parasite lifecycle, the subcellular distribution of most PIP species in this organism is still unknown...
November 15, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154877/investigation-the-effect-of-graphene-oxide-and-gelatin-starch-weight-ratio-on-the-properties-of-starch-gelatin-go-nanocomposite-films-the-rsm-study
#18
Shima Afshar, Hossein Banisadi
In this study, we reported the design and fabrication of starch/gelatin/graphene oxide biodegradable nanocomposite films with proper potential for food packaging applications. The experiments were designed using Design Expert software via RSM by defining gelatin/starch weight ratio (G/S wt. ratio) and graphene oxide (GO) wt.% as process parameters affecting on the properties of the prepared films. The optimization was done and various properties of the optimum film were investigated. The XRD and SEM images confirmed that GO layers could intercalate in the starch/gelatin matrix and proper dispersion of nanofillers in the matrix obtained via solution casting method...
November 14, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154607/situation-specific-social-norms-as-mediators-of-social-influence-on-snacking
#19
Benjamin Schüz, Thalia Papadakis, Stuart G Ferguson
OBJECTIVE: Social factors are among the most powerful and pervasive influences on eating behavior, snacking in particular. Previous research has shown that being in the presence of people who are eating significantly increases the likelihood of eating and affects the types as well as the amount of food consumed. Much less is known about the processes underlying social influence, but previous research has suggested social norms as mediators. In this study, we extended this perspective to everyday settings and examined whether the presence of other people eating leads to a change in perceived momentary norms, and whether this change predicts snack consumption in real life...
November 20, 2017: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154397/effects-of-high-ambient-temperature-on-plasma-metabolomic-profiles-in-chicks
#20
Shozo Tomonaga, Hirofumi Okuyama, Tetsuya Tachibana, Ryosuke Makino
Exposure to high ambient temperature is detrimental to the poultry industry. To understand the influence from a metabolic perspective, we investigated the effects of exposure to high ambient temperature on plasma low-molecular-weight metabolite levels in chicks using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry-based non-targeted metabolomic analysis. Heat exposure for 4 days suppressed growth and food intake. Of the 92 metabolites identified, the levels of 29 decreased, whereas the levels of nine increased. We performed an enrichment analysis on the identified metabolites and found 35 candidates for metabolic processes affected by heat exposure...
November 20, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
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