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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783205/individual-approach-to-the-treatment-of-obese-copd-patients-can-reduce-anthropometric-indicators-the-level-of-systemic-inflammation-and-improve-the-quality-of-life
#1
Lesia V Savchenko, Igor P Kaidashev
OBJECTIVE: Introduction: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and obesity are major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and according to current estimates, the global burden of these conditions will be even greater. The basis for COPD treatment is bronchodilator therapy and non-pharmacotherapy approaches, such as respiratory rehabilitation and dietary counseling. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of lifestyle modification on anthropometric indices, markers of systemic inflammation, quality of life in patients with COPD and obesity...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783050/disruption-of-ergosterol-and-tryptophan-biosynthesis-as-well-as-cell-wall-integrity-pathway-and-the-intracellular-ph-homeostasis-lead-to-mono-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate-toxicity-in-budding-yeast
#2
Linghuo Jiang, Litong Wang, Tianshu Fang, Vassilios Papadopoulos
Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are substances in the environment, food, and consumer products that interfere with hormone homeostasis, metabolism or reproduction in humans and animals. One such EDC, the plasticizer di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP), exerts its function through its principal bioactive metabolite, mono-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (MEHP). To fully understand the effects of MEHP on cellular processes and metabolism as well as to assess the impact of genetic alteration on the susceptibility to MEHP-induced toxicity, we screened MEHP-sensitive mutations on a genome-scale in the eukaryotic model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
May 15, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783045/factors-affecting-gene-expression-and-activity-of-heme-and-manganese-dependent-catalases-in-lactobacillus-casei-strains
#3
Annamaria Ricciardi, Rocco Gerardo Ianniello, Eugenio Parente, Teresa Zotta
Catalases reduce oxidative stress by degrading hydrogen peroxide to molecular oxygen and water. The presence of heme-dependent or manganese-dependent catalases was observed for a long time in lactic acid bacteria (LAB) but, to date, knowledge on the factors affecting gene expression and enzymatic functionality are limited to a very few strains. In this study, the effect of atmosphere of incubation (not aerated static growth vs aerated shaken growth) and supplementation with Fe2+ , hemin, Mn2+ or their combinations on the catalase production of respiration-competent strain Lactobacillus casei N87 was evaluated using a 24 factorial design...
May 8, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782023/double-stranded-rna-oral-delivery-methods-to-induce-rna-interference-in-phloem-and-plant-sap-feeding-hemipteran-insects
#4
Saikat Kumar B Ghosh, Wayne B Hunter, Alexis L Park, Dawn E Gundersen-Rindal
Phloem and plant sap feeding insects invade the integrity of crops and fruits to retrieve nutrients, in the process damaging food crops. Hemipteran insects account for a number of economically substantial pests of plants that cause damage to crops by feeding on phloem sap. The brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) and the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae) are hemipteran insect pests introduced in North America, where they are an invasive agricultural pest of high-value specialty, row, and staple crops and citrus fruits, as well as a nuisance pest when they aggregate indoors...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781380/finally-a-regimen-to-extend-human-life-expectancy
#5
James Larrick, Andrew R Mendelsohn
The US has the most expensive healthcare system worldwide. Yet measures of healthspan and life expectancy are well below the major industrialized nations. With the US population aged 65 and older projected to double by mid-century a healthcare crisis is looming. Within this context huge interest and investment has emerged in technologies and drugs to address aging with an expected benefit to healthspan. The thesis being that such basic interventions will reduce morbidity caused by many chronic diseases where biological age itself is the major risk factor...
May 21, 2018: Rejuvenation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781046/comparison-of-filtration-mechanisms-of-food-and-industrial-grade-tio-2-nanoparticles
#6
Chen Chen, Ian M Marcus, Travis Waller, Sharon L Walker
The removal of food and industrial grade titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) particles through drinking water filtration was assessed via direct visualization of an in situ 2-D micromodel. The goal of this research was to determine whether variances in surface composition, aggregate size, and ionic strength result in different transport and deposition processes in porous media. Food and industrial grade TiO2 particles were characterized by measuring their hydrodynamic diameter, zeta potential, and zero point of charge before introduction into the 2-D micromodel...
May 21, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780300/encoding-of-sucrose-s-palatability-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-shell-and-its-modulation-by-exteroceptive-auditory-cues
#7
Miguel Villavicencio, Mario G Moreno, Sidney A Simon, Ranier Gutierrez
Although the palatability of sucrose is the primary reason for why it is over consumed, it is not well understood how it is encoded in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAcSh), a brain region involved in reward, feeding, and sensory/motor transformations. Similarly, untouched are issues regarding how an external auditory stimulus affects sucrose palatability and, in the NAcSh, the neuronal correlates of this behavior. To address these questions in behaving rats, we investigated how food-related auditory cues modulate sucrose's palatability...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780200/growing-fresh-food-on-future-space-missions-environmental-conditions-and-crop-management
#8
Esther Meinen, Tom Dueck, Frank Kempkes, Cecilia Stanghellini
This paper deals with vegetable cultivation that could be faced in a space mission. This paper focusses on optimization, light, temperature and the harvesting process, while other factors concerning cultivation in space missions, i.e. gravity, radiation, were not addressed. It describes the work done in preparation of the deployment of a mobile test facility for vegetable production of fresh food at the Neumayer III Antarctic research station. A selection of vegetable crops was grown under varying light and temperature conditions to quantify crop yield response to climate factors that determine resource requirement of the production system...
May 17, 2018: Scientia Horticulturae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779849/how-much-progress-has-there-been-in-the-second-line-treatment-of-multiple-sclerosis-a-2017-update
#9
REVIEW
A Maarouf, C Boutière, A Rico, B Audoin, J Pelletier
In 1993, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the first drug specifically for treating multiple sclerosis (MS). More than two decades later, a dozen such treatments are now available. Of these, four are considered second-line treatments for use in escalation strategies and two new drugs are currently undergoing accreditation procedures. Soon, they will provide clinicians with a range of six effective disease-modifying treatments (DMTs) to thwart the inflammatory processes in MS patients with active disease...
May 17, 2018: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779495/closing-the-phosphorus-cycle-in-a-food-system-insights-from-a-modelling-exercise
#10
H R J van Kernebeek, S J Oosting, M K van Ittersum, R Ripoll-Bosch, I J M de Boer
Mineral phosphorus (P) used to fertilise crops is derived from phosphate rock, which is a finite resource. Preventing and recycling mineral P waste in the food system, therefore, are essential to sustain future food security and long-term availability of mineral P. The aim of our modelling exercise was to assess the potential of preventing and recycling P waste in a food system, in order to reduce the dependency on phosphate rock. To this end, we modelled a hypothetical food system designed to produce sufficient food for a fixed population with a minimum input requirement of mineral P...
May 21, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779494/not-so-sweet-refrain-sugar-sweetened-beverage-taxes-industry-opposition-and-harnessing-the-lessons-learned-from-tobacco-control-legal-challenges
#11
Anita George
As a growing number of countries implement, or announce plans to introduce, a sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) tax, this paper explores the public health rationale for such a tax and provides an overview of the international normative and policy instruments supporting the introduction of fiscal measures on sugary drinks. After examining parallels between the legal arguments raised by the food and beverage industry in opposition to SSB taxes and those raised by the tobacco industry in response to tobacco control measures, this paper draws four key lessons that will assist countries to design effective and robust SSB tax measures and counter food and beverage industry opposition: regulatory distinctions in tax coverage should be based on bona fide, evidence-based reasoning; evidence-based measures need to be tailored to a country's public health objectives as part of a comprehensive strategy to address unhealthy diet consumption; procedural requirements and due process should be observed in the drafting and implementation of the measure; and regulatory space exists within domestic constitutions, laws and international trade and investment agreements recognising the sovereign right of states to regulate in the interests of public health...
May 21, 2018: Health Economics, Policy, and Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778951/positive-influence-of-school-meals-on-food-consumption-in-brazil
#12
Nathália Tarossi Locatelli, Daniela Silva Canella, Daniel Henrique Bandoni
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the contribution of school meals to healthy food consumption among public school students in Brazil. METHODS: The data from the National Adolescent School-Based Health Survey (PeNSE), containing 86,660 ninth-grade students, were used. The students were asked about their consumption of school meals and of food in general over the preceeding seven days and on the day before the interview. A multinomial regression was performed to assess the relationship between the students' food consumption over the previous seven days and regular consumption of school meals (≥3 days/week), which were adjusted for sociodemographic factors...
March 23, 2018: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778793/impact-of-vermiculite-on-ammonia-emissions-and-organic-matter-decomposition-of-food-waste-during-composting
#13
Zaihua He, Hong Lin, Jiewei Hao, Xiangshi Kong, Kai Tian, Zhanlin Bei, Xingjun Tian
This study investigated the effects of adding vermiculite to the food waste composting process. Four treatments with varying vermiculite percent compositions, 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% (w/w, wet weight of food waste basis) mixed with initial food waste were designed and then composted for 42 days. Results show that adding vermiculite prolongs the thermophilic phase, speeds up the organic matter loss, reduces the NH3 emissions and electrical conductivity values. Compared to the control, the amount of nitrogen loss through NH3 emissions in the treatments of 5%, 10% and 15% vermiculite decreased by 9...
May 9, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778677/growth-impacts-of-saharan-dust-mineral-nutrients-and-co-2-on-a-planktonic-herbivore-in-southern-mediterranean-lakes
#14
Manuel Villar-Argaiz, Marco J Cabrerizo, Juan Manuel González-Olalla, Macarena S Valiñas, Sanja Rajic, Presentación Carrillo
Rising levels of CO2 can boost plant biomass but reduce its quality as a food source for herbivores. However, significant uncertainties remain as to the degree to which the effect is modulated by other environmental factors and the underlying processes causing these responses in nature. To address these questions, we carried out CO2 -manipulation experiments using natural seston from three lakes under nutrient-enriched conditions (mimicking eutrophication and atmospheric dust-input processes) as a food source for the planktonic Daphnia pulicaria...
May 17, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778471/influence-of-protein-content-and-storage-temperature-on-the-particle-morphology-and-flowability-characteristics-of-milk-protein-concentrate-powders
#15
Karthik Sajith Babu, Kaliramesh Siliveru, J K Amamcharla, Praveen V Vadlani, R P Kingsly Ambrose
Milk protein concentrate (MPC) powders are widely used as ingredients for food product formulations due to their nutritional profile and sensory attributes. Processing parameters, storage conditions, and composition influences the flow properties of MPC powders. This study investigated the bulk and shear flow properties of 70.3, 81.5, and 88.1% (wt/wt, protein content) MPC after storage for 12 wk at 25 and 40°C. Additionally, the morphological and functional changes of the MPC powders were investigated and correlated with flowability...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778160/food-contamination-as-a-pathway-for-lead-exposure-in-children-during-the-2010-2013-lead-poisoning-epidemic-in-zamfara-nigeria
#16
Simba Tirima, Casey Bartrem, Ian von Lindern, Margrit von Braun, Douglas Lind, Shehu Mohamed Anka, Aishat Abdullahi
In 2010, an estimated 400 to 500 children died of acute lead poisoning associated with artisanal gold mining in Zamfara, Nigeria. Processing of gold ores containing up to 10% lead within residential compounds put residents, especially children, at the highest risk. Principal routes of exposure were incidental ingestion and inhalation of contaminated soil and dusts. Several Nigerian and international health organizations collaborated to reduce lead exposures through environmental remediation and medical treatment...
May 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778156/preparation-and-characterization-of-a-novel-hybrid-chelating-material-for-effective-adsorption-of-cu-ii-and-pb-ii
#17
Ya Liu, Peng Qian, Yang Yu, Bo Yu, Yongliang Wang, Shufeng Ye, Yunfa Chen
The discharge of heavy metal ions such as Cu2+ and Pb2+ poses a severe threat to public health and the environment owing to their extreme toxicity and bioaccumulation through food chains. Herein, we report a novel organic-inorganic hybrid adsorbent, Al(OH)3 -poly(acrylamide-dimethyldiallylammonium chloride)-graft-dithiocarbamate (APD), for rapid and effective removal of Cu2+ and Pb2+ . In this adsorbent, the "star-like" structure of Al(OH)3 -poly(acrylamide-dimethyldiallylammonium chloride) served as the support of dithiocarbamate (DTC) functional groups for easy access of heavy metal ions and assisted development of large and compact floccules...
May 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778094/substrate-sustained-release-based-high-efficacy-biosynthesis-of-gaba-by-lactobacillus-brevis-ncl912
#18
Qiong Wang, Xiaohua Liu, Jinheng Fu, Shuixing Wang, Yuanhong Chen, Kunpeng Chang, Haixing Li
BACKGROUND: Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) plays a significant role in the food and drug industries. Our previous study established an efficient fed-batch fermentation process for Lactobacillus brevis NCL912 production of GABA from monosodium L-glutamate; however, monosodium L-glutamate may not be an ideal substrate, as it can result in the rapid increase of pH due to decarboxylation. Thus, in this study, L-glutamic acid was proposed as a substrate. To evaluate its potential, key components of the fermentation medium affecting GABA synthesis were re-screened and re-optimized to enhance GABA production from L...
May 19, 2018: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777733/food-allergy-guidance-in-the-united-states-military-a-work-group-report-from-the-aaaai-military-allergy-and-immunology-assembly-maia
#19
Kirk Waibel, Rachel Lee, Christopher Coop, Yun Mendoza, Kevin White
A diagnosis of food allergy adversely impacts one's ability to join or remain in the military. Inadequate knowledge or misconceptions of current military-specific standards regarding food allergy and how these apply to enlistment, induction, and retention in the United States military can potentially lead to inaccurate counseling as each military service has specific regulations which impact the evaluation and decision-making process. Recognizing this knowledge gap, the American Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology (AAAAI) Military Allergy and Immunology Assembly (MAIA) established a Work Group who reviewed and summarized all aspects of military instructions, policies, and regulations regarding IgE mediated food allergy...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776493/mechanisms-in-bariatric-surgery-gut-hormones-diabetes-resolution-and-weight-loss
#20
Jens Juul Holst, Sten Madsbad, Kirstine N Bojsen-Møller, Maria Saur Svane, Nils Bruun Jørgensen, Carsten Dirksen, Christoffer Martinussen
Gastric bypass surgery leads to profound changes in the secretion of gut hormones with effects on metabolism, appetite, and food intake. Here, we discuss their contributions to the improvement in glucose tolerance and the weight loss that results from the operations. We find that the improved glucose tolerance is due the following events: a negative energy balance and resulting weight loss, which improve first hepatic and later peripheral insulin sensitivity, in combination with increased postprandial insulin secretion elicited particularly by exaggerated glucagon-like peptide-1 responses...
May 2018: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
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