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markers in chronic kidney disease

Moin A Saleem
Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator -(suPAR) is an inflammatory signal with pleiotropic biological effects depending on context and post-translational modifications. Recently, [Hayek, et al: Nat Med 2017; 23: 945-953] it has been found that there is a link between suPAR and renal disease in several guises, and a key question is whether it is a driver or a marker of renal disease, and if so of which types of kidney damage. Subject of Review: Circulating suPAR has been postulated to cause acute proteinuric kidney disease, specifically focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), though both the animal models and clinical data in the original reports have been challenged...
June 15, 2018: Nephron
Gregory J Weber, Jaleyea Foster, Sathnur B Pushpakumar, Utpal Sen
Hypertension affects nearly one third of the adult US population and is a significant risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD). An expanding body of recent studies indicates that gut microbiome has crucial roles in regulating physiological processes through, among other mechanisms, one mode of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and their target receptors. In addition, these SCFA receptors are potential targets of regulation by host miRNAs, however, the mechanisms through which this occurs is not clearly defined...
June 14, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Katarzyna Lipiec, Piotr Adamczyk, Elżbieta Świętochowska, Katarzyna Ziora, Maria Szczepańska
BACKGROUND: Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) is a form of thrombotic microangiopathy, in the course of which some patients may develop chronic kidney disease (CKD). From a clinical point of view, it is important to search for markers that allow for early identification of patients at risk of a poor prognosis. OBJECTIVES: The study evaluated the serum and urine levels of liver-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) and interleukin 6 (IL-6). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted in 29 children with a history of HUS...
June 13, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Seung Seok Han, Mi-Yeon Yu, Kyung Don Yoo, Jung Pyo Lee, Dong Ki Kim, Yon Su Kim, Seung Hee Yang
Krüppel‑like factor 15 (KLF15), also known as kidney‑enriched transcription factor, is known to participate in podocyte differentiation. However, the role of KLF15 in chronic podocyte injury remains incompletely understood, particularly in proteinuric disease models. In the present study, the 5/6 nephrectomy mouse model was used to induce chronic podocyte injury. Human primary podocytes were isolated by flow cytometry and cultured to emulate the injury process in an in vitro system. Biopsied kidney tissue samples were obtained from patients with primary membranous nephropathy or diabetic nephropathy in order to analyze the relationship between glomerular KLF15 expression and subsequent outcomes...
June 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Becker Meng-Po Law, Ray Wilkinson, Xiangju Wang, Katrina Kildey, Mae Lindner, Kenneth Beagley, Helen Healy, Andrew J Kassianos
Background: γδ T cells are effector lymphocytes recognized as key players during chronic inflammatory processes. Mouse studies suggest a pathological role for γδ T cells in models of kidney disease. Here we evaluated γδ T cells in human native kidneys with tubulointerstitial fibrosis, the pathological hallmark of chronic kidney disease. Methods: γδ T cells were extracted from human kidney tissue and enumerated and phenotyped by multicolour flow cytometry...
April 20, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Erica Pires da Rocha, Lais Gabriela Yokota, Beatriz Motta Sampaio, Karina Zanchetta Cardoso Eid, Dayana Bitencourt Dias, Fernanda Moreira de Freitas, Andre Luis Balbi, Daniela Ponce
Elderly is the main age group affected by acute kidney injury (AKI). There are no studies that investigated the predictive properties of urinary (u) NGAL as an AKI marker in septic elderly population. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of uNGAL as predictor of AKI diagnosis and prognosis in elderly septic patients admitted to ICUs. We prospectively studied elderly patients with sepsis admitted to ICUs from October 2014 to November 2015. Assessment of renal function was performed daily by serum creatinine and urine output...
April 2018: Aging and Disease
Mahdieh Salimi, Sepehr Sarrafzadeh Zargar
INTRODUCTION: The initiation and progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN) is complex. Quantification of mRNA expression in urinary sediment cells (USCs) has emerged as a novel strategy for studying kidney diseases. Insulin requires a family of insulin receptor substrate (IRS) proteins for its physiological effects, and many reports have highlighted the role of insulin and IRS proteins in kidney physiology and disease. This study aimed to assess IRS2 expression in USCs of patients with diabetes mellitus, DN, and nondiabetic chronic kidney disease...
May 2018: Iranian Journal of Kidney Diseases
Sayoko Yonemoto, Takayuki Hamano, Naohiko Fujii, Karin Shimada, Satoshi Yamaguchi, Ayumi Matsumoto, Keiichi Kubota, Nobuhiro Hashimoto, Tatsufumi Oka, Masamitsu Senda, Yusuke Sakaguchi, Isao Matsui, Yoshitaka Isaka
Higher red cell distribution width (RDW) has been reported to predict mortality among patients with various diseases, including chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, whether RDW is associated with renal outcome remains unclear. We investigated the relationship between RDW and renal outcome in patients with non-dialysis-dependent CKD (NDD-CKD). This prospective, observational study of patients with CKD was conducted at a single nephrology department. First, we performed regression analyses for the decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) during the first 3 months of observation to determine its short-term association with RDW...
2018: PloS One
Einat Bigelman, Lena Cohen, Genya Aharon-Hananel, Ran Levy, Zach Rozenbaum, Ann Saada, Gad Keren, Michal Entin-Meer
BACKGROUND: Mitochondria hold crucial importance in organs with high energy demand especially the heart. We investigated whether chronic kidney disease (CKD), which eventually culminates in cardiorenal syndrome, could affect cardiac mitochondria and assessed the potential involvement of angiotensin II (AngII) in the process. METHODS: Male Lewis rats underwent 5/6 nephrectomy allowing CKD development for eight months or for eleven weeks. Short-term CKD rats were administered with AngII receptor blocker (ARB)...
2018: PloS One
Jakob Voelkl, Trang Td Luong, Rashad Tuffaha, Katharina Musculus, Tilman Auer, Xiaoming Lian, Christoph Daniel, Daniel Zickler, Beate Boehme, Michael Sacherer, Bernhard Metzler, Dietmar Kuhl, Maik Gollasch, Kerstin Amann, Dominik N Müller, Burkert Pieske, Florian Lang, Ioana Alesutan
Medial vascular calcification, associated with enhanced mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD), is fostered by osteo-/chondrogenic transdifferentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Here, we describe that serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 (SGK1) was upregulated in VSMCs under calcifying conditions. In primary human aortic VSMCs, overexpression of constitutively active SGK1S422D, but not inactive SGK1K127N, upregulated osteo-/chondrogenic marker expression and activity, effects pointing to increased osteo-/chondrogenic transdifferentiation...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Dana C Crawford, Jessica N Cooke Bailey, Kristy Miskimen, Penelope Miron, Jacob L McCauley, John R Sedor, John F ƠToole, William S Bush
Germline and somatic genomic variation represent the bulk of 'omics data available for precision medicine research. These data, however, may fail to capture the dynamic biological processes that underlie disease development, particularly for chronic diseases of aging such as chronic kidney disease (CKD). To demonstrate the value of additional dynamic precision medicine data, we sequenced somatic T-cell receptor rearrangements, markers of the adaptive immune response, from genomic DNA collected during a clinical encounter from 15 participants with CKD and associated co-morbidities...
2018: AMIA Summits on Translational Science Proceedings
Derek K Ng, Anthony A Portale, Susan L Furth, Bradley A Warady, Alvaro Muñoz
PURPOSE: Coefficients of determination (R2 ) for continuous longitudinal data are typically reported as time constant, if they are reported at all. The widely used mixed model with random intercepts and slopes yields the total outcome variance as a time-varying function. We propose a generalized and intuitive approach based on this variance function to estimate the time-varying predictive power (R2 ) of a variable on outcome levels and changes. METHODS: Using longitudinal estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) from the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children Study, linear mixed models characterized the R2 for two chronic kidney disease (CKD) risk factors measured at baseline: a traditional marker (proteinuria) and a novel marker (fibroblast growth factor 23 [FGF23])...
May 17, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Piotr Kuczera, Marcin Adamczak, Grzegorz Machnik, Boguslaw Okopien, Andrzej Wiecek
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Oxidative stress is one of the leading factors contributing to increased mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and secondary hyperparathyroidism (sHPT). Cinacalcet is now commonly used in the treatment of sHPT in patients with CKD. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of treatment with cinacalcet on the oxidative stress markers in patients on hemodialysis with sHPT. METHODS: In 58 hemodialysed patients with sHPT (parathyroid hormone [PTH] > 300 pg/mL) plasma Advanced Oxidation Protein Products (AOPP), serum total antioxidant capacity - ImAnOx (TAS/TAC), serum PTH, calcium and phosphate concentrations were assessed before the first dose of cinacalcet and after 6 months of treatment...
June 7, 2018: Nephron
Giuseppe Castellano, Rossana Franzin, Alessandra Stasi, Chiara Divella, Fabio Sallustio, Paola Pontrelli, Giuseppe Lucarelli, Michele Battaglia, Francesco Staffieri, Antonio Crovace, Giovanni Stallone, Marc Seelen, Mohamed R Daha, Giuseppe Grandaliano, Loreto Gesualdo
Pericytes are one of the principal sources of scar-forming myofibroblasts in chronic kidneys disease. However, the modulation of pericyte-to-myofibroblast transdifferentiation (PMT) in the early phases of acute kidney injury is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the role of complement in inducing PMT after transplantation. Using a swine model of renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, we found the occurrence of PMT after 24 h of I/R injury as demonstrated by reduction of PDGFRβ+ /NG2+ cells with increase in myofibroblasts marker αSMA...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Tomas Seeman, Magdalena Fortova, Bruno Sopko, Richard Prusa, Michael Pohl, Ulrike John
BACKGROUND: Hypomagnesaemia is present in 40-50% of children with autosomal dominant renal cysts and diabetes syndrome (RCAD). On contrary, the prevalence of hypomagnesaemia in children with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) has never been examined. We aimed to investigate whether hypomagnesaemia is present in children with polycystic kidney diseases. METHODS: Children with cystic kidney diseases were investigated in a cross-sectional study. Serum levels of magnesium (S-Mg) and fractional excretion of magnesium (FE-Mg) were tested...
January 1, 2018: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
L Parker Gregg, Maria Clarissa Tio, Xilong Li, Beverley Adams-Huet, James A de Lemos, S Susan Hedayati
BACKGROUND: Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 -(MCP-1), a marker of inflammation and monocyte recruitment to atherosclerotic plaques, is associated with cardiovascular (CV) outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Although plasma levels are elevated in chronic kidney disease (CKD), associations with reduced kidney function or outcomes in CKD have not been explored. METHODS: In this population-based, probability-sampled, longitudinal cohort of 3,257 participants, including 286 (8...
June 6, 2018: American Journal of Nephrology
Kristen Sgambat, Jennifer Roem, Mark Mitsnefes, Anthony A Portale, Susan Furth, Bradley Warady, Asha Moudgil
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular (CV) risk is high in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and further compounded in those who are overweight. Children with CKD have a unique body habitus not accurately assessed by body mass index (BMI). Waist-to-height ratio (WHr), a better predictor of CV risk in populations with short stature, has not been investigated in children with CKD. METHODS: Analysis of 1723 visits of 593 participants enrolled in the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD) study was conducted...
June 5, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Jiun-Ruey Hu, Josef Coresh, Lesley A Inker, Andrew S Levey, Zihe Zheng, Casey M Rebholz, Adrienne Tin, Lawrence J Appel, Jingsha Chen, Mark J Sarnak, Morgan E Grams
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) involves significant metabolic abnormalities and has a high mortality rate. Because the levels of serum metabolites in patients with CKD might provide insight into subclinical disease states and risk for future mortality, we determined which serum metabolites reproducibly associate with mortality in CKD using a discovery and replication design. Metabolite levels were quantified via untargeted liquid chromatography and mass spectroscopy from serum samples of 299 patients with CKD in the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) study as a discovery cohort...
June 2, 2018: Kidney International
Gabriela Tirado-Conte, Josep Rodés-Cabau, Ramón Rodríguez-Olivares, Marco Barbanti, Thibault Lhermusier, Ignacio Amat-Santos, Stefan Toggweiler, Asim N Cheema, Antonio J Muñoz-García, Vicenc Serra, Francesca Giordana, Gabriela Veiga, Pilar Jiménez-Quevedo, Francisco Campelo-Parada, Lucca Loretz, Denise Todaro, María Del Trigo, José M Hernández-García, Bruno García Del Blanco, Francesco Bruno, José M de la Torre Hernández, Pieter Stella, Corrado Tamburino, Carlos Macaya, Luis Nombela-Franco
BACKGROUND: Chronic liver disease is a known risk factor for perioperative morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Very little data exist about such patients treated with transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Our objective was to evaluate early and late clinical outcomes in a large cohort of patients with liver disease undergoing TAVR and to determine predictive factors of mortality among these patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: This multicenter study collected data from 114 patients with chronic liver disease who underwent TAVR in 12 institutions...
March 2018: Circulation. Cardiovascular Interventions
Adina Mihaela Epure, Magali Leyvraz, Yvan Mivelaz, Stefano Di Bernardo, Bruno R da Costa, Arnaud Chiolero, Nicole Sekarski
INTRODUCTION: Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) is a surrogate marker of atherosclerosis that is measured in adults and children to better understand the natural history of cardiovascular disease (CVD). In adults, CIMT is predictive of myocardial infarction and stroke. In children and adolescents, CIMT is used to assess vascular changes in the presence of CVD risk factors (obesity, hypertension, smoking, etc) or clinical conditions associated with a high risk for premature CVD. However, there is no comprehensive overview, in a life-course epidemiology perspective, of the risk factors and determinants of CIMT in children...
June 4, 2018: BMJ Open
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