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Spinal neuromodulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227825/real-time-autonomous-bladder-event-classification-and-closed-loop-control-from-single-channel-pressure-data
#1
Robert Karam, Swarup Bhunia, Steve Majerus, Steven W Brose, Margot S Damaser, Dennis Bourbeau, Robert Karam, Swarup Bhunia, Steve Majerus, Steven W Brose, Margot S Damaser, Dennis Bourbeau, Steve Majerus, Margot S Damaser, Robert Karam, Steven W Brose, Dennis Bourbeau, Swarup Bhunia
Urinary incontinence, or the loss of bladder control, is a debilitating condition affecting millions worldwide, which significantly reduces quality of life. Neuromodulation of lower urinary tract nerves can be used to treat sensations of urgency in many subjects, including those with Spinal Cord Injury (SCI). Event driven, or conditional stimulation has been investigated as a possible improvement to the state-of-the-art open-loop stimulation systems available today. However, this requires a robust, adaptive, and noise-tolerant method of classifying bladder function from real-time bladder pressure measurements...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227179/influence-of-electrode-configuration-on-the-electric-field-distribution-during-transcutaneous-spinal-direct-current-stimulation-of-the-cervical-spine
#2
Sofia R Fernandes, Ricardo Salvador, Cornelia Wenger, Mamede A de Carvalho, Pedro C Miranda, Sofia R Fernandes, Ricardo Salvador, Cornelia Wenger, Mamede A de Carvalho, Pedro C Miranda, Sofia R Fernandes, Pedro C Miranda, Cornelia Wenger, Ricardo Salvador, Mamede A de Carvalho
Transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS) is a recent technique with promising neuromodulatory effects on spinal neuronal circuitry. The main objective of the present study was to perform a finite element analysis of the electric field distribution in tsDCS in the cervical spine region, with varying electrode configurations and geometry. A computational model of a human trunk was generated with nine tissue meshes. Three electrode configurations were tested: A) rectangular saline-soaked sponge target and return electrodes placed over C3 and T3 spinous processes, respectively; B1) circular saline-soaked sponge target and return electrodes placed over C7 spinous process and right deltoid muscle, respectively; B2) same configuration as B1, considering circular shaped electrodes with sponge and rubber layers and a small circular connector on the top surface...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226850/the-effect-of-inter-electrode-distance-on-the-electric-field-distribution-during-transcutaneous-lumbar-spinal-cord-direct-current-stimulation
#3
Rui Bastos, Sofia R Fernandes, Ricardo Salvador, Cornelia Wenger, Mamede A de Carvalho, Pedro C Miranda, Rui Bastos, Sofia R Fernandes, Ricardo Salvador, Cornelia Wenger, Mamede A de Carvalho, Pedro C Miranda, Pedro C Miranda, Rui Bastos, Cornelia Wenger, Ricardo Salvador, Mamede A de Carvalho, Sofia R Fernandes
Previous studies have indicated potential neuromodulation of the spinal circuitry by transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS), such as changes in motor unit recruitment, shortening of the peripheral silent period and interference with supraspinal input to lower motor neurons. All of these effects were dependent on the polarity of the electrodes. The present study investigates how the distance between the electrodes during tsDCS influences the electric field's (E-field) spatial distribution in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (SC)...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211999/platform-to-enable-combined-measurement-of-dopamine-and-neural-activity
#4
Kate L Parent, Daniel F Hill, Lindsey M Crown, Jean-Paul Wiegand, Kathleen F Gies, Michael A Miller, Christopher W Atcherley, Michael L Heien, Stephen L Cowen
Complex behaviors depend on the coordination of the activities of ensembles of neurons and the release of neuromodulators such as dopamine. The mechanisms underlying such coordination are not well-understood due to a lack of instrumentation for combined and real-time monitoring of neuromodulator release and the activities of large ensembles of neurons. Here we describe a measurement platform that allows for the combined monitoring of electrophysiology from a high-density electrode array and dopamine dynamics from a carbon-fiber microelectrode...
February 17, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208601/surgical-neurostimulation-for-spinal-cord-injury
#5
REVIEW
Aswin Chari, Ian D Hentall, Marios C Papadopoulos, Erlick A C Pereira
Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating neurological condition characterized by a constellation of symptoms including paralysis, paraesthesia, pain, cardiovascular, bladder, bowel and sexual dysfunction. Current treatment for SCI involves acute resuscitation, aggressive rehabilitation and symptomatic treatment for complications. Despite the progress in scientific understanding, regenerative therapies are lacking. In this review, we outline the current state and future potential of invasive and non-invasive neuromodulation strategies including deep brain stimulation (DBS), spinal cord stimulation (SCS), motor cortex stimulation (MCS), transcutaneous direct current stimulation (tDCS) and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in the context of SCI...
February 10, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192079/electrical-neuromodulation-of-the-cervical-spinal-cord-facilitates-forelimb-skilled-function-recovery-in-spinal-cord-injured-rats
#6
Monzurul Alam, Guillermo Garcia-Alias, Benita Jin, Jonathan Keyes, Hui Zhong, Roland R Roy, Yury Gerasimenko, Daniel C Lu, V Reggie Edgerton
Enabling motor control by epidural electrical stimulation of the spinal cord is a promising therapeutic technique for the recovery of motor function after a spinal cord injury (SCI). Although epidural electrical stimulation has resulted in improvement in hindlimb motor function, it is unknown whether it has any therapeutic benefit for improving forelimb fine motor function after a cervical SCI. We tested whether trains of pulses delivered at spinal cord segments C6 and C8 would facilitate the recovery of forelimb fine motor control after a cervical SCI in rats...
February 9, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160397/alternate-intraspinal-targets-for-spinal-cord-stimulation-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
George C Chang Chien, Nagy Mekhail
BACKGROUND: Conventional dorsal column spinal cord stimulation (SCS) provides less than optimal pain relief for certain pain syndromes and anatomic pain distributions. Practitioners have sought to treat these challenging therapeutic areas with stimulation of alternate intraspinal targets. OBJECTIVE: To identify and systematically review the evidence for the value neuromodulating specific neuronal targets within the spinal canal to achieve relief of chronic pain...
February 3, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159637/transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-tms-responses-elicited-in-hindlimb-muscles-as-an-assessment-of-synaptic-plasticity-in-spino-muscular-circuitry-after-chronic-spinal-cord-injury
#8
Hayk A Petrosyan, Valentina Alessi, Sue A Sisto, Mark Kaufman, Victor L Arvanian
Electromagnetic stimulation applied at the cranial level, i.e. transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), is a technique for stimulation and neuromodulation used for diagnostic and therapeutic applications in clinical and research settings. Although recordings of TMS elicited motor-evoked potentials (MEP) are an essential diagnostic tool for spinal cord injured (SCI) patients, they are reliably recorded from arm, and not leg muscles. Mid-thoracic contusion is a common SCI that results in locomotor impairments predominantly in legs...
January 31, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158157/successful-long-term-nerve-root-stimulation-for-chronic-neuropathic-pain-a-real-world-single-center-canadian-experience
#9
Adrian B Levine, David A Steven, Andrew G Parrent, Keith W MacDougall
BACKGROUND: Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is a well-established treatment for chronic neuropathic pain in the lower limbs. However, some patients have pain in distributions that are difficult to target specifically and consistently with SCS. This often involves pain in the groin or upper limbs, or pain limited to a specific dermatome. We hypothesized that dorsal nerve root stimulation (DNRS) would provide similar pain relief for these patients, compared to our results using SCS. OBJECTIVES: In this study we report our experience treating patients with chronic neuropathic pain using SCS and DNRS...
February 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144626/modulation-of-rhythmic-activity-in-mammalian-spinal-networks-is-dependent-on-excitability-state
#10
Simon A Sharples, Patrick J Whelan
Neuromodulators play an important role in activating rhythmically active motor networks; however, what remains unclear are the network interactions whereby neuromodulators recruit spinal motor networks to produce rhythmic activity. Evidence from invertebrate systems has demonstrated that the effect of neuromodulators depends on the pre-existing state of the network. We explored how network excitation state affects the ability of dopamine to evoke rhythmic locomotor activity in the neonatal mouse isolated spinal cord...
January 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137700/effects-on-breathing-of-agonists-to-%C3%AE-opioid-or-gabaa-receptors-dialyzed-into-the-ventral-respiratory-column-of-awake-and-sleeping-goats
#11
Thomas M Langer, Suzanne E Neumueller, Emma Crumley, Nicholas J Burgraff, Sawan Talwar, Matthew R Hodges, Lawrence Pan, Hubert V Forster
Pulmonary ventilation (V̇I) in awake and sleeping goats does not change when antagonists to several excitatory G protein-coupled receptors are dialyzed unilaterally into the ventral respiratory column (VRC). Concomitant changes in excitatory neuromodulators in the effluent mock cerebral spinal fluid (mCSF) suggest neuromodulatory compensation. Herein, we studied neuromodulatory compensation during dialysis of agonists to inhibitory G protein-coupled or ionotropic receptors into the VRC. Microtubules were implanted into the VRC of goats for dialysis of mCSF mixed with agonists to either μ-opioid (DAMGO) or GABAA (muscimol) receptors...
January 27, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123025/sodium-pumps-mediate-activity-dependent-changes-in-mammalian-motor-networks
#12
Laurence D Picton, Filipe Nascimento, Matthew J Broadhead, Keith T Sillar, Gareth B Miles
: Ubiquitously expressed sodium pumps are best known for maintaining the ionic gradients and resting membrane potential required for generating action potentials. However, activity- and state-dependent changes in pump activity can also influence neuronal firing and regulate rhythmic network output. Here we demonstrate that changes in sodium pump activity regulate locomotor networks in the spinal cord of neonatal mice. The sodium pump inhibitor, ouabain, increased the frequency and decreased the amplitude of drug-induced locomotor bursting, effects that were dependent on the presence of the neuromodulator dopamine...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120724/neuromodulation-of-spinal-locomotor-networks-in-rodents
#13
Manuel Díaz-Ríos, Pierre A Guertin, Marla Rivera-Oliver
BACKGROUND: The basic motor patterns driving rhythmic limb movements during walking are generated by networks of neurons called central pattern generators (CPGs). Within motor control systems, neuromodulators are necessary for proper and efficient CPG function because they induce or regulate essential components of spinal network activity, including firing parameters of CPG neurons and network synaptic strength, allowing the network to change/adapt and sometimes to even become functional...
January 24, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120050/spinal-cord-stimulation-for-vegetative-state-and-minimally-conscious-state-changes-in-consciousness-level-and-motor-function
#14
Takamitsu Yamamoto, Mitsuru Watanabe, Toshiki Obuchi, Kazutaka Kobayashi, Hideki Oshima, Chikashi Fukaya, Atsuo Yoshino
Twenty-one vegetative state (VS) patients and 10 minimally conscious state (MCS) patients were treated by spinal cord stimulation (SCS) following an electrophysiological evaluation 3 months or more after the onset of brain injury.A flexible four-contact cylindrical electrode was inserted into the epidural space of the cervical vertebrae, and placed at cervical levels C2-C4. Five-hertz stimulation was applied for 5 min every 30 min during the daytime at an intensity that produced muscle twitches of the upper extremities...
2017: Acta Neurochirurgica. Supplement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120048/recovery-from-chronic-diseases-of-consciousness-state-of-the-art-in-neuromodulation-for-persistent-vegetative-state-and-minimally-conscious-state
#15
Pier Paolo Mattogno, Giuseppe Barbagallo, Gerardo Iacopino, Gaetano Pappalardo, Giuseppe LA Rocca, Francesco Signorelli, Jun Zhong, Massimiliano Visocchi
Chronic diseases of consciousness (CDC) can still be considered a challenging frontier for modern medicine, probably because of their not completely understood physiopathological mechanisms. Following encouraging evidence on cerebral hemodynamics, some authors have hypothesized a role for neuromodulation in the treatment of CDC patients. In the past 40 years, spinal cord stimulation (SCS) and deep brain stimulation (DBS) have been used experimentally for the treatment of patients in a severe altered state of consciousness, with some interesting but not conclusive results...
2017: Acta Neurochirurgica. Supplement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120045/reconstructive-neurosurgery-a-challenge
#16
Massimiliano Visocchi
The International Society of Reconstructive Neurosurgery (ISRN) is an "open" multidisciplinary Society in evolution. Many different members of the Society inspire new trends in many different neurosurgical fields, all dealing with neurosurgical reconstruction.Spine and peripheral nerve reconstructive surgery, central nervous system revascularization (via surgery and interventional radiology), neuromodulation, bioengineering, and transplantation are recent tools used to promote reconstruction, restoration, and rehabilitation...
2017: Acta Neurochirurgica. Supplement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116797/a-multidisciplinary-infection-control-bundle-to-reduce-the-number-of-spinal-cord-stimulator-infections
#17
Erlangga Yusuf, Sven Bamps, Bénédicte Thüer, Jan Mattheussen, Jean-Paul Ursi, Elke Del Biondo, Kris de Smedt, Raf Van Paesschen, Dirk Berghmans, Kaat Hofkens, Jef Van Schaeren, Tony van Havenbergh, Bruno Van Herendael
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of a quality improvement project that resulted in an infection control bundle to reduce the number of spinal cord stimulator (SCS) infections. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was performed in a single center for neuromodulation from January 1, 2014, through May 31, 2016. In response to a high number of surgical site infections (SSIs) after SCS surgery, a multidisciplinary team analyzed the surgical process and developed an infection prevention bundle consisting of five items: 1) showering and decolonization for five days prior to surgery and showering in the hospital on the morning of surgery; 2) performing the SCS implantation as the first in the daily operating room (OR) program; 3) maintaining a minimal number of people in the OR; 4) providing home care nurses with a folder with SCS wound care instructions including pictures; 5) giving oral specific wound care instructions to patients...
January 24, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060912/early-fesoterodine-fumarate-administration-prevents-neurogenic-detrusor-overactivity-in-a-spinal-cord-transected-rat-model
#18
Xavier Biardeau, Mikolaj Przydacz, Shachar Aharony, George Loutochin, Lysanne Campeau, Maeva Kyheng, Jacques Corcos
BACKGROUND: In spinal cord injury, onset of detrusor overactivity (DO) is detrimental for quality of life (incontinence) and renal risk. Prevention has only been achieved with complex sophisticated electrical neuromodulation techniques. PURPOSE: To assess the efficacy of early fesoterodine fumarate (FF) administration in preventing bladder overactivity in a spinal cord transected (SCT) rat model. METHODS: 33 Sprague-Dawley rats were allocated to 6 groups-Group 1: 3 normal controls; Group 2: 6 SCT controls; Group 3: 6 SCT rats + FF 0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042918/the-neurostimulation-appropriateness-consensus-committee-nacc-safety-guidelines-for-the-reduction-of-severe-neurological-injury
#19
Timothy R Deer, Tim J Lamer, Jason E Pope, Steven M Falowski, David A Provenzano, Konstantin Slavin, Stanley Golovac, Jeffrey Arle, Joshua M Rosenow, Kayode Williams, Porter McRoberts, Samer Narouze, Sam Eldabe, Shivanand P Lad, Jose A De Andrés, Eric Buchser, Philippe Rigoard, Robert M Levy, Brian Simpson, Nagy Mekhail
INTRODUCTION: Neurostimulation involves the implantation of devices to stimulate the brain, spinal cord, or peripheral or cranial nerves for the purpose of modulating the neural activity of the targeted structures to achieve specific therapeutic effects. Surgical placement of neurostimulation devices is associated with risks of neurologic injury, as well as possible sequelae from the local or systemic effects of the intervention. The goal of the Neurostimulation Appropriateness Consensus Committee (NACC) is to improve the safety of neurostimulation...
January 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031400/spinal-cord-direct-current-stimulation-differentially-modulates-neuronal-activity-in-the-dorsal-and-ventral-spinal-cord
#20
Weiguo Song, John H Martin
Spinal cord direct current stimulation (sDCS) has the potential for promoting motor function after injury through its modulatory actions on sensory processing, reflex functions, the motor cortex (M1) motor map, and motor output. Here we addressed systems-level mechanisms underlying sDCS neuromodulation of spinal circuits activated by M1 and peripheral forelimb electrical stimulation in anesthetized healthy rats. We determined the effects of cathodal and anodal sDCS (c- and a-sDCS) on local field potentials (LFP) and single-unit activity recorded at 32 sites simultaneously within the 6th cervical segment using a silicon multi-electrode array...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
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