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Spinal modulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818672/glutathione-monoethyl-ester-prevents-tdp-43-pathology-in-motor-neuronal-nsc-34%C3%A2-cells
#1
Tong Chen, Bradley J Turner, Philip M Beart, Lucy Sheehan-Hennessy, Chinasom Elekwachi, Hakan Muyderman
Oxidative stress is recognised as central in a range of neurological diseases including Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a disease characterised by fast progressing death of motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord. Cellular pathology includes cytosolic protein aggregates in motor neurons and glia of which potentially cytotoxic hyper-phosphorylated fragments of the Transactive response DNA Binding Protein 43 kDa (TDP-43) constitute a major component. This is closely associated with an additional loss of nuclear TDP-43 expression indicating a "loss of function" mechanism, accelerating motor neuron (MN) loss...
August 14, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814047/a-simple-tool-to-measure-spasticity-in-spinal-cord-injury-subjects
#2
Arash Arami, Nevio L Tagliamonte, Federica Tamburella, Hsieng-Yung Huang, Marco Molinari, Etienne Burdet
This work presents a wearable device and the algorithms for quantitative modelling of joint spasticity and its application in a pilot group of subjects with different levels of spinal cord injury. The device comprises light-weight instrumented handles to measure the interaction force between the subject and the physical therapist performing the tests, EMG sensors and inertial measurement units to measure muscle activity and joint kinematics. Experimental tests included the passive movement of different body segments, where the spasticity was expected, at different velocities...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811488/deregulation-of-zpr1-causes-respiratory-failure-in-spinal-muscular-atrophy
#3
Naresh K Genabai, Annapoorna Kannan, Saif Ahmad, Xiaoting Jiang, Kanchan Bhatia, Laxman Gangwani
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is caused by the low levels of survival motor neuron (SMN) protein and is characterized by motor neuron degeneration and muscle atrophy. Respiratory failure causes death in SMA but the underlying molecular mechanism is unknown. The zinc finger protein ZPR1 interacts with SMN. ZPR1 is down regulated in SMA patients. We report that ZPR1 functions downstream of SMN to regulate HoxA5 levels in phrenic motor neurons that control respiration. Spatiotemporal inactivation of Zpr1 gene in motor neurons down-regulates HoxA5 and causes defects in the function of phrenic motor neurons that results in respiratory failure and perinatal lethality in mice...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808583/successful-spinal-cord-stimulation-for-neuropathic-below-level-spinal-cord-injury-pain-following-complete-paraplegia-a-case-report
#4
Tim A Reck, Gunther Landmann
INTRODUCTION: Neuropathic pain is common in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) and often difficult to treat. We report a case where epidural spinal cord stimulation (SCS) below the level of injury has been successfully applied in a patient with a complete spinal cord lesion. CASE PRESENTATION: A 53-year-old female presented with neuropathic below-level SCI pain of both lower legs and feet due to complete SCI below T5. Time and pain duration since injury was 2 years...
2017: Spinal Cord Series and Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807991/torque-depression-following-active-shortening-is-associated-with-a-modulation-of-cortical-and-spinal-excitation-a-history-dependent-study
#5
Jordan Grant, Chris J McNeil, Leah R Bent, Geoffrey A Power
The reduction in steady-state isometric torque following a shortening muscle action when compared to a purely isometric contraction at the same muscle length and level of activation is termed torque depression (TD). The purpose of this study was to investigate spinal and supraspinal neural responses during the TD state of a maximal voluntary activation of the ankle dorsiflexors. Thirteen subjects (10 male) were recruited for the study. To explore alterations in corticospinal excitability during voluntary muscle activation in the TD state, motor evoked potentials (MEPs), cervicomedullary motor evoked potentials (CMEPs), and maximal compound muscle action potentials (Mmax) were elicited during the isometric steady-state following active shortening (i...
August 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802811/effects-of-respiratory-training-on-heart-rate-variability-and-baroreflex-sensitivity-in-individuals-with-chronic-spinal-cord-injury
#6
Bonnie E Legg Ditterline, Sevda C Aslan, David C Randall, Susan J Harkema, Camilo Castillo, Alexander V Ovechkin
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of pressure threshold respiratory training (RT) on heart rate variability and baroreflex sensitivity in persons with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). DESIGN: Before-after intervention case-controlled clinical study. SETTING: SCI research center and outpatient rehabilitation unit. PARTICIPANTS: Persons with chronic SCI ranging from C2 to T11 that participated in RT (n=24) and untrained chronic SCI controls ranging from C2 to T9 (n=20)...
August 9, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799972/increased-pain-sensitivity-in-accident-related-chronic-pain-patients-with-comorbid-posttraumatic-stress
#7
Henrik Bjarke Vaegter, Tonny Elmose Andersen, Mathea Harvold, Per Grunwald Andersen, Thomas Graven-Nielsen
OBJECTIVES: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is prevalent in chronic pain, and associated with increased pain, hyperalgesia and psychological distress. This study aimed to investigate anti-nociceptive and pro-nociceptive pain mechanisms, pain intensity, and psychological distress (depression, anxiety, pain catastrophizing, and fear of movement) in patients with accident-related chronic spinal pain with (N=44) and without (N=64) comorbid PTSD characteristics. METHODS: Cuff algometry was performed on lower legs to assess pressure pain threshold (cPPT), tolerance (cPTT), temporal summation of pain (TSP: increase in pain scores to ten repeated stimulations), and conditioning pain modulation (CPM: increase in cPPT during cuff pain conditioning on the contralateral leg)...
August 9, 2017: Clinical Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796107/the-effect-of-functional-mandibular-shift-on-the-muscle-spindle-systems-in-head-neck-muscles-and-the-related-neurotransmitter-histamine
#8
Bing-Li Du, Jiang-Ning Li, Hong-Ming Guo, Song Li, Biao Liu
The aim of this study is to explore the effects of abnormal occlusion and functional recovery caused by functional mandible deviation on the head and neck muscles and muscle spindle sensory-motor system by electrophysiological response and endogenous monoamine neurotransmitters' distribution in the nucleus of the spinal tract. Seven-week-old male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 7 groups: normal control group, 2W experimental control group, 2W functional mandible deviation group, 2W functional mandible deviation recovery group, 4W experimental control group, 4W functional mandible deviation group, 4W functional mandible deviation recovery group...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794197/hyperalgesia-and-sensitization-of-dorsal-horn-neurons-following-activation-of-nk-1-receptors-in-the-rostral-ventromedial-medulla
#9
Sergey G Khasabov, Patrick Malecha, Joseph Noack, Janneta Tabakov, Glenn J Giesler, Donald A Simone
Neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) project to the spinal cord and are involved in descending modulation of pain. Several studies have shown that activation of neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptors in the RVM produces hyperalgesia, although underlying mechanisms are not clear. In parallel studies, we compared behavioral measures of hyperalgesia to electrophysiological responses of nociceptive dorsal horn neurons produced by activation of NK-1 receptors in the RVM. Injection of the selective NK-1 receptor agonist, Sar9,Met(O2)(11)-Substance P (SSP) into the RVM produced dose-dependent mechanical and heat hyperalgesia that was blocked by co-administration of the selective NK-1 receptor antagonist, L-733,060...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791705/ascending-pathways-that-mediate-cholinergic-modulation-of-lumbar-motor-activity
#10
REVIEW
Lili Anglister, Meir Cherniak, Aharon Lev-Tov
Deciphering neuronal pathways that reactivate spinal central pattern generators (CPGs) and modulate the activity of spinal motoneurons in mammals in the absence of supraspinal control is important for understanding of neural control of movement and for developing novel therapeutic approaches to improve the mobility of spinal cord injury patients. Previously, we showed that the sacral and lumbar cholinergic system could potently modulate the locomotor CPGs in newborn rodents. Here, we review these and our more recent studies of sacral relay neurons with lumbar projections to the locomotor CPGs and to lumbar motoneurons and demonstrate that sacral and lumbar cholinergic components have the capacity to control the frequency of the locomotor CPGs and at the same time the motor output of the activated lumbar motoneurons during motor behavior...
August 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791431/glycine-receptors-and-glycine-transporters-targets-for-novel-analgesics
#11
REVIEW
Hanns Ulrich Zeilhofer, Mario A Acuña, Jacinthe Gingras, Gonzalo E Yévenes
Glycinergic neurotransmission has long been known for its role in spinal motor control. During the last two decades, additional functions have become increasingly recognized-among them is a critical contribution to spinal pain processing. Studies in rodent pain models provide proof-of-concept evidence that enhancing inhibitory glycinergic neurotransmission reduces chronic pain symptoms. Apparent strategies for pharmacological intervention include positive allosteric modulators of glycine receptors and modulators or inhibitors of the glial and neuronal glycine transporters GlyT1 and GlyT2...
August 8, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789587/light-on-a-sensory-interface-linking-the-cerebrospinal-fluid-to-motor-circuits-in-vertebrates
#12
Lydia Djenoune, Claire Wyart
The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is circulating around the entire central nervous system (CNS). The main function of the CSF has been thought to insure the global homeostasis of the CNS. Recent evidence indicates that the CSF also dynamically conveys signals modulating the development and the activity of the nervous system. The later observation implies that cues from the CSF could act on neurons in the brain and the spinal cord via bordering receptor cells. Candidate neurons to enable such modulation are the cerebrospinal fluid-contacting neurons (CSF-cNs) that are located precisely at the interface between the CSF and neuronal circuits...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781156/evaluation-of-deformed-image-based-dose-calculations-for-adaptive-radiotherapy-of-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma
#13
Miranda Poon, Catherine Holborn, Ka Fai Cheng, Winky Wing Ki Fung, George Chiu
The ultimate goal of adaptive radiotherapy (ART) is to deliver truly customized radiation treatments. Currently, the quality of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images is still inferior to that of conventional CT images in contour delineations and dose calculations for replanning purposes. This retrospective study aims to evaluate the dosimetric accuracy of using deformed conventional CT images for dose calculations, in the hope of inferring the feasibility of ART using planning CT (PCT) images that deformed to up-to-date CBCT images for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC)...
August 3, 2017: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776505/effects-of-cathodal-trans-spinal-direct-current-stimulation-on-lower-urinary-tract-function-in-normal-and-spinal-cord-injury-mice-with-overactive-bladder
#14
Zaghloul Ahmed
OBJECTIVE: Lower urinary tract (LUT) dysfunction is a monumental problem affecting quality of life following neurotrauma, such as spinal cord injury (SCI). Proper function of the bladder and its associated structures depends on coordinated activity of the neuronal circuitry in the spinal cord and brain. Disconnection between the spinal and brain centers controlling the LUT causes fundamental changes in the mechanisms involved in the micturition and storage reflexes. We investigated the effects of cathodal trans-spinal direct current stimulation (c-tsDCS) of the lumbosacral spine on bladder and external urinary sphincter (EUS) functions...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774489/-normal-tissue-tolerance-to-external-beam-radiation-therapy-bone-marrow-and-cortical-bone-structures
#15
A Schernberg, C Hennequin
In patients undergoing external radiation therapy, bone marrow and cortical bone structures are all often neglected as organs at risk. Still, from increased febrile neutropenia risk in patients undergoing chemoradiation for a pelvic tumour to increased risk of vertebral fracture when undergoing hypofractioned stereotactic radiotherapy of a spinal metastasis, adverse effects are frequent and sometimes serious. This literature review first defines the rules for contouring these structures, then the dose constraints currently recommended...
July 31, 2017: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771712/organization-of-alpha-transducin-immunoreactive-system-in-the-brain-and-retina-of-larval-and-young-adult-sea-lamprey-petromyzon-marinus-and-their-relationship-with-other-neural-systems
#16
Antón Barreiro-Iglesias, Blanca Fernández-López, Daniel Sobrido-Cameán, Ramón Anadón
We employed an anti-transducin antibody (Gαt-S), in combination with other markers, to characterize the Gαt-S-immunoreactive (ir) system in the CNS of the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus. Gαt-S immunoreactivity was observed in some neuronal populations and numerous fibers distributed throughout the brain. Double Gαt-S- and opsin-ir neurons (putative photoreceptors) are distributed in the hypothalamus (postoptic commissure nucleus, dorsal and ventral hypothalamus) and caudal diencephalon, confirming results of García-Fernández et al...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769869/impact-of-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-on-functional-movement-disorders-cortical-modulation-or-a-behavioral-effect
#17
Béatrice Garcin, Francine Mesrati, Cécile Hubsch, Thomas Mauras, Iulia Iliescu, Lionel Naccache, Marie Vidailhet, Emmanuel Roze, Bertrand Degos
INTRODUCTION: Recent studies suggest that repeated transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) improves functional movement disorders (FMDs), but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. The objective was to determine whether the beneficial action of TMS in patients with FMDs is due to cortical neuromodulation or rather to a cognitive-behavioral effect. METHOD: Consecutive patients with FMDs underwent repeated low-frequency (0.25 Hz) magnetic stimulation over the cortex contralateral to the symptoms or over the spinal roots [root magnetic stimulation (RMS)] homolateral to the symptoms...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768912/single-cell-profiling-reveals-gpcr-heterogeneity-and-functional-patterning-during-neuroinflammation
#18
Denise Tischner, Myriam Grimm, Harmandeep Kaur, Daniel Staudenraus, Jorge Carvalho, Mario Looso, Stefan Günther, Florian Wanke, Sonja Moos, Nelly Siller, Johanna Breuer, Nicholas Schwab, Frauke Zipp, Ari Waisman, Florian C Kurschus, Stefan Offermanns, Nina Wettschureck
GPCR expression was intensively studied in bulk cDNA of leukocyte populations, but limited data are available with respect to expression in individual cells. Here, we show a microfluidic-based single-cell GPCR expression analysis in primary T cells, myeloid cells, and endothelial cells under naive conditions and during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, the mouse model of multiple sclerosis. We found that neuroinflammation induces characteristic changes in GPCR heterogeneity and patterning, and we identify various functionally relevant subgroups with specific GPCR profiles among spinal cord-infiltrating CD4 T cells, macrophages, microglia, or endothelial cells...
August 3, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768745/altered-modulation-of-sensorimotor-rhythms-with-chronic-paralysis
#19
Stephen T Foldes, Douglas John Weber, Jennifer L Collinger
After paralysis, the disconnection between the cortex and its peripheral targets leads to neuroplasticity throughout the nervous system. However, it is unclear how chronic paralysis specifically impacts cortical oscillations associated with attempted movement of impaired limbs. We hypothesized that mu (8-13Hz) and beta (15-30Hz) event-related desynchronization (ERD) would be less modulated for individuals with hand paralysis due to cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). To test this, we compared the modulation of ERD from magnetoencephalography (MEG) during attempted and imagined grasping performed by participants with cervical SCI (n = 12) and able-bodied controls (n = 13)...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767505/age-dependent-plasticity-in-endocannabinoid-modulation-of-pain-processing-through-postnatal-development
#20
Charlie H-T Kwok, Ian M Devonshire, Amer Imraish, Charles M Greenspon, Stevie Lockwood, Catherine Fielden, Andrew Cooper, Stephen Woodhams, Sarir Sarmad, Catherine A Ortori, David A Barrett, David Kendall, Andrew J Bennett, Victoria Chapman, Gareth J Hathway
Significant age and experience-dependent remodelling of spinal and supraspinal neural networks occur resulting in altered pain responses in early life. In adults endogenous opioid peptide and endocannabinoid (ECs) pain control systems exist which modify pain responses but the role they play in acute responses to pain and postnatal neurodevelopment is unknown. Here we have studied the changing role of the ECs in brainstem nuclei essential for the control of nociception from birth to adulthood in both rat and human...
August 1, 2017: Pain
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