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Spinal modulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238866/the-distribution-of-nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide-phosphate-diaphorase-nadph-d-in-the-medulla-oblongata-spinal-cord-cranial-and-spinal-nerves-of-frog-microhyla-ornata
#1
Arun G Jadhao, Saikat P Biswas, Rahul C Bhoyar, Claudia Pinelli
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d) enzymatic activity has been reported in few amphibian species. In this study, we report its unusual localization in the medulla oblongata, spinal cord, cranial nerves, spinal nerves, and ganglions of the frog, Microhyla ornata. In the rhombencephalon, at the level of facial and vagus nerves, the NADPH-d labeling was noted in the nucleus of the abducent and facial nerves, dorsal nucleus of the vestibulocochlear nerve, the nucleus of hypoglossus nerve, dorsal and lateral column nucleus, the nucleus of the solitary tract, the dorsal field of spinal grey, the lateral and medial motor fields of spinal grey and radix ventralis and dorsalis (2-10)...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237919/the-relation-between-the-frequency-of-short-pulse-electrical-stimulation-of-afferent-nerve-fibers-and-evoked-muscle-force
#2
Jakob L Dideriksen, Kasper Leerskov, Magdalena Czyzewska, Rune Rasmussen
OBJECTIVE: Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is conventionally performed by the stimulation of motor axons causing the muscle fibers innervated by these axons to contract. An alternative strategy that may evoke contractions with more natural motor unit behavior is to stimulate afferent fibers (primarily type Ia) to excite the motor neurons at the spinal level. The aim of the study was to investigate the range of forces that can be evoked in this way and the degree to which the torque can be controlled...
February 20, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237293/method-of-predicting-the-mean-lung-dose-based-on-a-patient-s-anatomy-and-dose-volume-histograms
#3
Anna Zawadzka, Marta Nesteruk, Beata Brzozowska, Paweł F Kukołowicz
The aim of this study was to propose a method to predict the minimum achievable mean lung dose (MLD) and corresponding dosimetric parameters for organs-at-risk (OAR) based on individual patient anatomy. For each patient, the dose for 36 equidistant individual multileaf collimator shaped fields in the treatment planning system (TPS) was calculated. Based on these dose matrices, the MLD for each patient was predicted by the homemade DosePredictor software in which the solution of linear equations was implemented...
April 2017: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229309/nusinersen-first-global-approval
#4
Sheridan M Hoy
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by muscle atrophy and weakness resulting from motor neuron degeneration in the spinal cord and brainstem. It is most commonly caused by insufficient levels of survival motor neuron (SMN) protein (which is critical for motor neuron maintenance) secondary to deletions or mutations in the SMN1 gene. Nusinersen (SPINRAZA™) is a modified antisense oligonucleotide that binds to a specific sequence in the intron, downstream of exon 7 on the pre-messenger ribonucleic acid (pre-mRNA) of the SMN2 gene...
February 22, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228721/patients-with-chronic-spinal-cord-injury-exhibit-reduced-autonomic-modulation-during-an-emotion-recognition-task
#5
Gonzalo Varas-Díaz, Enzo P Brunetti, Gonzalo Rivera-Lillo, Pedro E Maldonado
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating event for individuals, who frequently develop motor and sensory impairment as well as autonomic dysfunction. Previous studies reported that autonomic activity plays a major role in social cognition and that difficulties in the ability to interpret social information are commonly observed in a variety of mental disorders, which in turn correlate with a poor autonomic nervous system (ANS) regulation. It is well established that subjects with SCI have an alteration in ANS regulation mechanisms...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227763/network-effects-and-pathways-in-deep-brain-stimulation-in-parkinson-s-disease
#6
N Koirala, V Fleischer, O Granert, G Deuschl, M Muthuraman, S Groppa, N Koirala, V Fleischer, O Granert, G Deuschl, M Muthuraman, S Groppa
Deep brain stimulation of subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) became a standard therapeutic option in Parkinson's disease (PD), even though the underlying modulated network of STN-DBS is still poorly described. Probabilistic tractography and connectivity analysis as derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) were performed together with modelling of implanted electrode positions and linked postoperative clinical outcome. Fifteen patients with idiopathic PD without dementia were selected for DBS treatment. After pre-processing, probabilistic tractography was run from cortical and subcortical seeds of the hypothesized network to targets represented by the positions of the active DBS contacts...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226803/closed-loop-afferent-electrical-stimulation-for-recovery-of-hand-function-in-individuals-with-motor-incomplete-spinal-injury-early-clinical-results
#7
Christopher J Schildt, Sarah H Thomas, Elizabeth S Powell, Lumy Sawaki, Sridhar Sunderam, Christopher J Schildt, Sarah H Thomas, Elizabeth S Powell, Lumy Sawaki, Sridhar Sunderam, Lumy Sawaki, Christopher J Schildt, Elizabeth S Powell, Sarah H Thomas, Sridhar Sunderam
Afferent electrical stimulation is known to augment the effect of rehabilitative therapy through use-dependent cortical plasticity. Experiments pairing transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) have shown a timing-dependent effect on motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitude suggesting that PNS applied in closed-loop (CL) mode could augment this effect through positive reinforcement. We present early results from a clinical trial in which an EEG brain-machine interface (BMI) was used to apply PNS to two subjects in response to motor intent detected from sensorimotor cortex in a cue-driven hand grip task...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226426/physiological-mechanisms-for-stabilizing-the-limb-when-acting-against-physical-constraints
#8
P Senot, L Damm, M Tagliabue, J McIntyre, P Senot, L Damm, M Tagliabue, J McIntyre, P Senot, L Damm, M Tagliabue, J McIntyre
Smooth physical interaction with our environment, such as when working with tools, requires adaptability to unpredictable perturbations that can be achieved through impedance control of multi-joint limbs. Modulation of arm stiffness can be achieved either increasing co-contraction of antagonistic muscles or by increasing the gain of spinal reflex loops. According to the "automatic gain scaling" principle, the spinal reflex gain, as measured via the H-reflex, scales with muscle activation. A previous experiment from our labs suggested, however, that reflex gains might instead be scaled to the force exerted by the limb, perhaps as a means to counteract destabilizing external forces...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225915/exogenous-neuregulin-1-attenuates-stz-induced-diabetic-peripheral-neuropathic-pain-in-rats
#9
Fang Zhou, Zhongyuan Xia, Kang Liu, Qin Zhou
Purpose: To investigate whether modulating NRG1 could attenuate diabetic neuropathic pain and analyze the underlying mechanism. Methods: Male SD rats were randomly divided into control group, diabetic group, NRG1 intervention group. After STZ-induced 2 weeks, NRG1 intervention daily for consecutive 7 days. 4 weeks after NRG1 intervention, both the mechanical withdrawal threshold and the morphological changes of the dorsal root ganglion and sural nerve were observed...
January 2017: Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225868/n-acetylcysteine-downregulates-phosphorylated-p-38-expression-but-does-not-reverse-the-increased-superoxide-anion-levels-in-the-spinal-cord-of-rats-with-neuropathic-pain
#10
A Horst, J A de Souza, M C Q Santos, A P K Riffel, C Kolberg, M F M Ribeiro, L S de Fraga, W A Partata
We determined the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on the expression of the phosphorylated p38 (p-p38) protein and superoxide anion generation (SAG), two important players in the processing of neuropathic pain, in the lumbosacral spinal cord of rats with chronic constriction injury (CCI)-induced neuropathic pain. The sciatic functional index (SFI) was also measured to assess the functional recovery post-nerve lesion. Thirty-six male Wistar rats were divided equally into the following groups: Naive (rats did not undergo surgical manipulation); Sham (rats in which all surgical procedures involved in CCI were used except the ligature), and CCI (rats in which four ligatures were tied loosely around the right common sciatic nerve), which received 2, 4, or 8 intraperitoneal injections of NAC (150 mg·kg-1·day-1) or saline beginning 4 h after CCI...
February 16, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223941/enhanced-corticospinal-excitability-and-volitional-drive-in-response-to-shortening-and-lengthening-strength-training-and-changes-following-detraining
#11
Jamie Tallent, Stuart Goodall, Karl C Gibbon, Tibor Hortobágyi, Glyn Howatson
There is a limited understanding of the neurological adaptations responsible for changes in strength following shortening and lengthening resistance training and subsequent detraining. The aim of the study was to investigate differences in corticospinal and spinal responses to resistance training of the tibialis anterior muscle between shortening or lengthening muscle contractions for 4 weeks and after 2 weeks of detraining. Thirty-one untrained individuals were assigned to either shortening or lengthening isokinetic resistance training (4 weeks, 3 days/weeks) or a non-training control group...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223516/targeting-human-mas-related-g-protein-coupled-receptor-x1-to-inhibit-persistent-pain
#12
Zhe Li, Pang-Yen Tseng, Vinod Tiwari, Qian Xu, Shao-Qiu He, Yan Wang, Qin Zheng, Liang Han, Zhiping Wu, Anna L Blobaum, Yiyuan Cui, Vineeta Tiwari, Shuohao Sun, Yingying Cheng, Julie H Y Huang-Lionnet, Yixun Geng, Bo Xiao, Junmin Peng, Corey Hopkins, Srinivasa N Raja, Yun Guan, Xinzhong Dong
Human Mas-related G protein-coupled receptor X1 (MRGPRX1) is a promising target for pain inhibition, mainly because of its restricted expression in nociceptors within the peripheral nervous system. However, constrained by species differences across Mrgprs, drug candidates that activate MRGPRX1 do not activate rodent receptors, leaving no responsive animal model to test the effect on pain in vivo. Here, we generated a transgenic mouse line in which we replaced mouse Mrgprs with human MrgprX1 This humanized mouse allowed us to characterize an agonist [bovine adrenal medulla 8-22 (BAM8-22)] and a positive allosteric modulator (PAM), ML382, of MRGPRX1...
February 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222563/afferent-electrical-stimulation-during-cycling-improves-spinal-processing-of-sensorimotor-function-after-incomplete-spinal-cord-injury
#13
Stefano Piazza, Diego Serrano-Muñoz, Julio Gómez-Soriano, Diego Torricelli, Antonio Segura-Fragosa, José Luis Pons, Julian Taylor
OBJECTIVE: Appropriate afferent feedback delivery during the execution of motor tasks is important for rehabilitation after incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI). However, during leg-cycling therapy, the plantar afferent feedback is minimal. We hypothesize that the augmentation of sensory input by combining cycling with a locomotor-like stimulation of plantar cutaneous innervations (ES-cycling), might help to restore proper spinal processing of sensorimotor function. METHODS: 13 non-injured subjects and 10 subjects with iSCI performed 10 minutes of cycling and, on another session, of ES-cycling...
February 10, 2017: NeuroRehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222382/corporeal-illusions-in-chronic-spinal-cord-injuries
#14
Michele Scandola, Salvatore Maria Aglioti, Renato Avesani, Gianettore Bertagnoni, Anna Marangoni, Valentina Moro
While several studies have investigated corporeal illusions in patients who have suffered from a stroke or undergone an amputation, only anecdotal or single case reports have explored this phenomenon after spinal cord injury. Here we examine various different types of bodily misperceptions in a comparatively large group of 49 people with spinal cord injury in the post-acute and chronic phases after the traumatic lesion onset. An extensive battery of questionnaires concerning a variety of body related feelings was administered and the results were correlated to the main clinical variables...
February 17, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221164/positive-and-negative-cues-for-modulating-neurite-dynamics-and-receptor-expression
#15
Melissa Wrobel, Harini Gayathari Sundararaghavan
Many current peripheral nerve repair strategies focus on delivering positive, growth promoting cues (e.g. extracellular matrix, ECM) while eliminating negative, growth inhibiting cues (e.g. chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, CSPGs) at the injury site. We hypothesized that recapitulating the positive and negative cues of the peripheral nerve injury microenvironment would improve regeneration. First, we tested the effects of a characteristic CSPG, Chondroitin Sulfate A (CSA) on neurite dynamics of dissociated chick embryo dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons using time lapse video microscopy...
February 21, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217104/priming-neural-circuits-to-modulate-spinal-reflex-excitability
#16
Stephen P Estes, Jennifer A Iddings, Edelle C Field-Fote
While priming is most often thought of as a strategy for modulating neural excitability to facilitate voluntary motor control, priming stimulation can also be utilized to target spinal reflex excitability. In this application, priming can be used to modulate the involuntary motor output that often follows central nervous system injury. Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) often experience spasticity, for which antispasmodic medications are the most common treatment. Physical therapeutic/electroceutic interventions offer an alternative treatment for spasticity, without the deleterious side effects that can accompany pharmacological interventions...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215399/restoring-standing-capabilities-with-feedback-control-of-functional-neuromuscular-stimulation-following-spinal-cord-injury
#17
REVIEW
Raviraj Nataraj, Musa L Audu, Ronald J Triolo
This paper reviews the field of feedback control for neuroprosthesis systems that restore advanced standing function to individuals with spinal cord injury. Investigations into closed-loop control of standing by functional neuromuscular stimulation (FNS) have spanned three decades. The ultimate goal for FNS standing control systems is to facilitate hands free standing and enabling the user to perform manual functions at self-selected leaning positions. However, most clinical systems for home usage currently only provide basic upright standing using preprogrammed stimulation patterns...
February 15, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215142/small-molecule-modulation-of-hdac6-activity-the-propitious-therapeutic-strategy-to-vanquish-neurodegenerative-disorders
#18
Shabir Ahmad Ganai
Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are epigenetic enzymes creating the transcriptionally inactive state of chromatin by erasing acetyl moiety from histone and non-histone substrates. HDAC6 modulates several biological pathways in dividing cells as well as in post-mitotic neurons, and has been implicated in the pathophysiology of neurodegeneration. The distinct cellular functions and survival in these cells are reliant on HDAC6-mediated processes including intracellular trafficking, chaperone-mediated stress responses, anti-oxidation and protein degradation...
8, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214378/calcium-signaling-through-l-type-calcium-channels-role-in-pathophysiology-of-spinal-nociceptive-transmission
#19
REVIEW
Olivier Roca-Lapirot, Houda Radwani, Franck Aby, Frédéric Nagy, Marc Landry Pascal Fossat
L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) are ubiquitous channels in the central nervous system. L-type calcium channels (LTCs) are mostly post-synaptic channels regulating neuronal firing and gene expression. They play a role in important physio-pathological processes such as learning and memory, Parkinson's disease, autism and, as recognized more recently, in the pathophysiology of pain processes. Classically, the fundamental role of these channels in cardiovascular functions has limited the use of classical molecules to treat LTC-dependent disorders...
February 18, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212662/marked-central-nervous-system-pathology-in-cd59-knockout-rats-following-passive-transfer-of-neuromyelitis-optica-immunoglobulin-g
#20
Xiaoming Yao, Alan S Verkman
Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (herein called NMO) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system in which pathogenesis involves complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) produced by immunoglobulin G autoantibodies targeting aquaporin-4 (AQP4-IgG) on astrocytes. We reported evidence previously, using CD59(-/-) mice, that the membrane-associated complement inhibitor CD59 modulates CDC in NMO (Zhang and Verkman, J. Autoimmun. 53:67-77, 2014). Motivated by the observation that rats, unlike mice, have human-like complement activity, here we generated CD59(-/-) rats to investigate the role of CD59 in NMO and to create NMO pathology by passive transfer of AQP4-IgG under conditions in which minimal pathology is produced in normal rats...
February 17, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
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