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Spinal modulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079752/changes-in-dorsal-root-ganglion-gene-expression-in-response-to-spinal-cord-stimulation
#1
Dana M Tilley, David L Cedeño, Courtney A Kelley, Margaret DeMaegd, Ramsin Benyamin, Ricardo Vallejo
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been shown to influence pain-related genes in the spinal cord directly under the stimulating electrodes. There is limited information regarding changes occurring at the dorsal root ganglion (DRG). This study evaluates gene expression in the DRG in response to SCS therapy. METHODS: Rats were randomized into experimental or control groups (n = 6 per group). Experimental animals underwent spared-nerve injury, implantation of lead, and continuous SCS (72 hours)...
January 11, 2017: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076603/extracellular-adenosine-5-triphosphate-concentrations-changes-in-rat-spinal-cord-associated-with-the-activation-of-urinary-bladder-afferents-a-microdialysis-study
#2
Jeová Nina Rocha
Objective: To determine adenosine 5'-triphosphate levels in the interstice of spinal cord L6-S1 segment, under basal conditions or during mechanical and chemical activation of urinary bladder afferents. Methods: A microdialysis probe was transversally implanted in the dorsal half of spinal cord L6-S1 segment in female rats. Microdialysate was collected at 15 minutes intervals during 135 minutes, in anesthetized animals. Adenosine 5'-triphosphate concentrations were determined with a bioluminescent assay...
October 2016: Einstein
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069919/calpain-mediated-proteolysis-of-talin-and-fak-regulates-adhesion-dynamics-necessary-for-axon-guidance
#3
Patrick C Kerstein, Kevin M Patel, Timothy M Gomez
: Guidance of axons to their proper synaptic target sites requires spatially and temporally precise modulation of biochemical signals within growth cones. Ionic calcium (Ca(2+)) is an essential signal for axon guidance that mediates opposing affects on growth cone motility. The diverse effects of Ca(2+) arise from the precise localization of Ca(2+) signals into microdomains containing specific Ca(2+) effectors. For example, differences in the mechanical and chemical composition of the underlying substrata elicit local Ca(2+) signals within growth cone filopodia that regulate axon guidance through activation of the protease calpain...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069792/targeting-ent1-and-adenosine-tone-for-the-treatment-of-huntington-s-disease
#4
Yu-Han Kao, Meng-Syuan Lin, Chiung-Mei Chen, Yih-Ru Wu, Hui-Mei Chen, Hsing-Lin Lai, Yijuang Chern, Chun-Jung Lin
Huntington's disease (HD) is caused by an abnormal CAG expansion in the exon 1 of huntingtin gene. The treatment of HD is an unmet medical need. Given the important role of adenosine in modulating brain activity, in this study, levels of adenosine and adenine nucleotides in the cerebral spinal fluid of patients with HD and in the brain of two mouse models of HD (R6/2 and Hdh(150Q)) were analysed. The expression and activity of ENT1 in the striatum of mice with HD were measured. Targeting adenosine tone for treating HD was examined in R6/2 mice by genetic removal of ENT1 and by giving an ENT1 inhibitor, respectively...
January 9, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068836/electro-acupuncture-modulates-l1-adhesion-molecule-expression-after-mouse-spinal-cord-injury
#5
Zhe Wei, Yan Wang, Weijiang Zhao, Melitta Schachner
Spinal cord injury is a devastating neurological disease in desperate need of a cure. We have previously shown that overexpression of the adhesion molecule L1 contributes to locomotor recovery after injury and were therefore interested in how electro-acupuncture would influence the expression of this molecule. Here, we investigated the effects of electro-acupuncture at "Jiaji" points (EX-B2), newly established by us, in young adult mice to determine whether improved recovery via electro-acupuncture could be due to enhanced L1 expression...
January 9, 2017: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062917/the-enteric-nervous-system-and-the-musculature-of-the-colon-are-altered-in-patients-with-spina-bifida-and-spinal-cord-injury
#6
Marjanne den Braber-Ymker, Martin Lammens, Michel J A M van Putten, Iris D Nagtegaal
Neurogenic bowel dysfunction occurs in a large percentage of adult patients with spina bifida (SB) and spinal cord injury (SCI), significantly affecting their quality of life. Although bowel motility is autonomously regulated by the enteric nervous system (ENS), disruption of the modulation of the ENS by extrinsic innervation as present in many patients with SB and SCI might lead to motility disorders. In order to gain insight in the pathophysiology, we studied histological changes of the neuromuscular structures in the colon of SB and SCI patients...
January 6, 2017: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060912/early-fesoterodine-fumarate-administration-prevents-neurogenic-detrusor-overactivity-in-a-spinal-cord-transected-rat-model
#7
Xavier Biardeau, Mikolaj Przydacz, Shachar Aharony, George Loutochin, Lysanne Campeau, Maeva Kyheng, Jacques Corcos
BACKGROUND: In spinal cord injury, onset of detrusor overactivity (DO) is detrimental for quality of life (incontinence) and renal risk. Prevention has only been achieved with complex sophisticated electrical neuromodulation techniques. PURPOSE: To assess the efficacy of early fesoterodine fumarate (FF) administration in preventing bladder overactivity in a spinal cord transected (SCT) rat model. METHODS: 33 Sprague-Dawley rats were allocated to 6 groups-Group 1: 3 normal controls; Group 2: 6 SCT controls; Group 3: 6 SCT rats + FF 0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060194/chronic-lateral-epicondylalgia-does-not-exhibit-mechanical-pain-modulation-in-response-to-noxious-conditioning-heat-stimulus
#8
Edwin Choon Wyn Lim, Michele Sterling, Bill Vicenzino
The impaired attenuation of pain by the application of a noxious conditioning stimulus at a segmentally distinct site, known as conditioned pain modulation, has been implicated in clinical pain states. Chronic lateral epicondylalgia (LE), which is characterized by lower pressure pain thresholds at sites remote to the affected elbow and spinal cord hyperexcitability, is a clinical pain state that might plausibly involve less efficacious conditioned pain modulation. This study aimed to determine if LE exhibits a less efficacious conditioned pain modulation compared to healthy controls...
January 3, 2017: Clinical Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057537/the-chloride-co-transporters-nkcc1-and-kcc2-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-eae
#9
Muhammad Saad Yousuf, Kasia Zubkow, Gustavo Tenorio, Bradley Kerr
Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) often complain of neuropathic pain. According to the Gate Control Theory of Pain, spinal networks of GABAergic inhibitory interneurons are important in modulating nociceptive inputs from the periphery. Na+-K+-2Cl- co-transporter 1 (NKCC1) and K+-Cl- co-transporter 2 (KCC2) generally dictate the tone of GABA/glycine inhibition by regulating intracellular chloride concentrations. In this study, we investigated the role of NKCC1 and KCC2 in neuropathic pain observed in the animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a commonly used model to study the pathophysiology of MS...
January 3, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049756/a-role-for-prolyl-isomerase-pin1-in-the-phosphorylation-dependent-modulation-of-prrxl1-function
#10
Ricardo Soares-Dos-Reis, Ana Sofia Pessoa, Ana Filipa Dias, Miguel Falcão, Mariana Raimundo Matos, Rui Vitorino, Filipe Almeida Monteiro, Deolinda Lima, Carlos Reguenga
Prrxl1 encodes for a paired-like homeodomain transcription factor essential for the correct establishment of the dorsal root ganglion - spinal cord nociceptive circuitry during development. Prrxl1 -null mice display gross anatomical disruption of this circuitry, which translates to a markedly diminished sensitivity to noxious stimuli. Here, by the use of an Immunoprecipitation-Mass Spectrometry approach, we identify 5 highly conserved phosphorylation sites (T110, S119, S231, S233, S251) in PRRXL1 primary structure...
January 3, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048973/effect-of-physical-exercise-and-anabolic-steroid-treatment-on-spinal-motoneurons-and-surrounding-glia-of-wild-type-and-als-mice
#11
Roman M Kassa, Roberta Bonafede, Federico Boschi, Marina Bentivoglio, Raffaella Mariotti
Motoneuron degeneration is the hallmark of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The cause and predisposing factors for sporadic ALS are still unknown. Exposure to a specific environmental risk factors in subjects with a susceptibility genotype may increase the risk of the disease. The role of physical activity and the use of anabolic steroids are still debated in epidemiological studies on patients and murine models of ALS. To assess at the cellular level the role (beneficial or detrimental) of physical exercise and the use of anabolic steroid, we here investigated, in SOD1(G93A) (mSOD1) mice and wild-type littermates, changes in the ventral horn after regular exercise, treatment with the anabolic androgenic steroid 19-nortestosterone (nandrolone), and their combination, compared with matched control sedentary mice...
December 31, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048914/su-g-brc-02-a-novel-multi-criteria-optimization-approach-to-generate-deliverable-intensity-modulated-radiation-therapy-imrt-treatment-plans
#12
G Kirlik, W D'Souza, H Zhang
PURPOSE: To present a novel multi-criteria optimization (MCO) solution approach that generates treatment plans with deliverable apertures using column generation. METHODS: We demonstrate our method with 10 locally advanced head-and-neck cancer cases retrospectively. In our MCO formulation, we defined an objective function for each structure in the treatment volume. This resulted in 9 objective functions, including 3 distinct objectives for primary target volume, high-risk and low-risk target volumes, 5 objectives for each of the organs-at-risk (OARs) (two parotid glands, spinal cord, brain stem and oral cavity), and one for the non-target non-OAR normal tissue...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048874/su-f-t-616-comparison-of-different-techniques-using-rtog0631-guidelines-in-spine-sbrt
#13
H Acar, M Cebe, H Mabhouti, G Codel, P Pacaci, E Serin, E Sanli, N Kucuk, E Kucukmorkoc, M Doyuran, D Canoglu, A Altinok, H Caglar
PURPOSE: Stereotactic body radiosurgery (SBRT) for spine metastases involves irradiation using a single high dose fraction. The purpose of this study was to investigate a Hybrid VMAT/IMRT technique which combines volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for spine SBRT in terms of its dosimetric quality and treatment efficiency using Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0631 guidelines. METHODS: 7 fields IMRT, 2 full arcs VMAT and Hybrid VMAT/IMRT were created for ten previously treated patients...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048824/su-f-t-123-the-simulated-effect-of-the-breath-hold-reproducibility-treating-locally-advanced-lung-cancer-with-pencil-beam-scanned-proton-therapy
#14
J Dueck, R Perrin, G F Persson, A Lomax, M Josipovic, S A Engelholm, D C Weber, P Munck, A F Rosenschöld
PURPOSE: The breath-hold (BH) technique has been suggested to mitigate motion and reduce target coverage degradation due to motion effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of inter-BH residual motion on the dose distribution for pencil beam scanned (PBS) proton therapy of locally-advanced lung cancer patients. METHODS: A dataset of visually-guided BH CT scans was acquired (10 scans per patient) taken from five lung cancer patients: three intra-fractionally repeated CT scans on treatment days 2,16 and 31, in addition to the day 0 planning CT scan...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048517/tu-h-brc-03-evaluation-of-very-high-energy-electron-vhee-beams-in-comparison-to-vmat-and-pbs-treatment-plans
#15
E Schueler, K Eriksson, E Hynning, B Loo, P Maxim
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of very high-energy electron (VHEE) beams in comparison to clinically delivered treatment plans generated with volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and proton pencil beam scanning (PBS) technology. METHODS: Three clinical cases were selected (prostate, lung, and pediatric CNS). The VHEE plans were calculated in the Monte Carlo EGSnrc code and pencil beam doses were calculated using the DOSxyznrc MC code for 100 and 200 MeV beams...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048508/su-f-t-573-evaluation-of-ebt-xd-radiochromic-films-for-verification-of-sbrt-and-srs-treatment-delivery
#16
J Aubry, K Zerouali
PURPOSE: To evaluate the accuracy and precision of radiochromic films EBT-XD for quality control of stereotaxic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) plan delivery. METHODS: A film cut in 3×10 cm2 strips was irradiated from 0 to 20 Gy in increments of 1 to 1.5 Gy using a 15 MeV electron beam. Triple-channel film calibration was completed 24 hours later by scanning the film strips on an Epson 10000XL scanner using a well-defined protocol...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048366/su-f-t-632-on-the-use-of-intensity-modulated-arc-therapy-for-thoracic-vertebral-metastases-sbrt-treatment
#17
D Pokhrel, M Mallory, R Badkul, H Jiang, H Saleh, F Wang, C Lominska
PURPOSE: To retrospectively evaluate quality, efficiency and delivery accuracy of intensity modulated arc therapy (IMAT) plans for thoracic-vertebral metastases using stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). METHODS: After obtaining approval of RPC-benchmark plan, seven previously treated thoracic-vertebral metastases patients with non-coplanar hybrid arcs(NC-HA)using 1-2 3D-dynamic conformal partial-arcs plus 7-9 IMRT-beams were re-optimized with IMAT using 3 full co-planar arcs...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048275/su-f-j-168-dosimetric-impact-of-mr-image-distortion-in-treatment-planning
#18
Y Yan, J Yang, S Beddar, G Ibbott, P Balter, R Kudchadker, S Krishnan, C Fuller, J Wang
PURPOSE: To evaluate the dosimetric impact of MR image distortion in treatment planning. METHODS: Based on the realistic MRI distortion measurement data from an integrated MRI-Linac system, we created a generalized distortion model and applied it to CT images to simulate distorted MRI images. Ten patients with IMRT plans generated in Pinnacle treatment planning system in 5 anatomical cancer sites (lung, prostate, spinal cord, liver, and pancreas) were retrospectively selected for the simulation...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048265/su-g-brc-03-a-novel-multi-criteria-optimization-method-for-volumetric-modulated-arc-therapy-vmat-treatment-planning
#19
G Kirlik, W D'Souza, H Zhang
PURPOSE: To present a novel multi-criteria optimization (MCO) solution approach that generates treatment plans for VMAT. METHODS: We demonstrate our method with generating double-arc VMAT plans for 10 locally advanced head-and-neck cancer cases retrospectively. In our MCO formulation, we defined an objective function for each structure in the treatment volume. This resulted in 9 objective functions, including 3 distinct objectives for primary, high-risk and low-risk target volumes, 5 objectives for each of the organs-at-risk (OARs) (two parotid glands, spinal cord, brain stem and oral cavity), and one for the non-target non-OAR normal tissue...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048228/su-f-p-26-study-of-radiation-dose-evaluation-for-organs-at-risk-using-mri-in-intensity-modulated-radiation-therapy-for-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma
#20
G Gong, Y Guo, Y Yin
PURPOSE: To study the contour and dosimetric feature of organs at risk (OARs) applying magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images in intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) compared to computed tomography (CT) images. METHODS: 35 NPC patients was selected into this trail. CT simulation with non-contrast and contrast enhanced scan, MRI simulation with non-contrast and contrast enhanced T1, T2 and diffusion weighted imaging were achieved sequentially...
June 2016: Medical Physics
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