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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635376/advances-in-understanding-the-role-of-disease-associated-proteins-in-spinal-muscular-atrophy
#1
Seyyedmohsen Hosseinibarkooie, Svenja Schneider, Brunhilde Wirth
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by alpha motor neuron loss in the spinal cord due to reduced survival of motor neuron (SMN) protein level. While the genetic basis of SMA is well described, the specific molecular pathway underlying SMA is still not fully understood. Areas covered: This review discusses the recent advancements in understanding the molecular pathways in SMA using different omics approaches and genetic modifiers identified in both vertebrate and invertebrate systems...
June 21, 2017: Expert Review of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634006/testosterone-differentially-affects-t-cells-and-neurons-in-murine-and-human-models-of-neuroinflammation-and-neurodegeneration
#2
Megan G Massa, Christina David, Stefanie Jörg, Johannes Berg, Barbara Gisevius, Sarah Hirschberg, Ralf A Linker, Ralf Gold, Aiden Haghikia
The high female-to-male sex ratio of multiple sclerosis (MS) prevalence has continuously confounded researchers, especially in light of male patients' accelerated disease course at later stages of MS. Although multiple studies have concentrated on estrogenic mechanisms of disease modulation, fairly little attention has been paid to androgenic effects in a female system, and even fewer studies have attempted to dissociate hormonal effects on the neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory processes of MS. Herein, we demonstrate the differential effects of hormone treatment on the acute inflammatory and chronic neurodegenerative phases of murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis...
July 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632736/from-the-motor-cortex-to-the-movement-and-back-again
#3
Wondimu W Teka, Khaldoun C Hamade, William H Barnett, Taegyo Kim, Sergey N Markin, Ilya A Rybak, Yaroslav I Molkov
The motor cortex controls motor behaviors by generating movement-specific signals and transmitting them through spinal cord circuits and motoneurons to the muscles. Precise and well-coordinated muscle activation patterns are necessary for accurate movement execution. Therefore, the activity of cortical neurons should correlate with movement parameters. To investigate the specifics of such correlations among activities of the motor cortex, spinal cord network and muscles, we developed a model for neural control of goal-directed reaching movements that simulates the entire pathway from the motor cortex through spinal cord circuits to the muscles controlling arm movements...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631619/modeling-trans-spinal-direct-current-stimulation-for-the-modulation-of-the-lumbar-spinal-motor-pathways
#4
Alexander Kuck, Dick Stegeman, Edwin van Asseldonk
OBJECTIVE: Trans-spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS) is a potential new technique for the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI). TsDCS aims to facilitate plastic changes in the neural pathways of the spinal cord with a positive effect on SCI recovery. To establish tsDCS as a possible treatment option for SCI, it is essential to gain a better understanding of its cause and effects. We seek to understand the acute effect of tsDCS, including the generated electric field (EF) and its polarization effect on the spinal circuits, to determine a cellular target...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630007/rna-localization-making-its-way-to-the-center-stage
#5
REVIEW
Ashley Chin, Eric Lécuyer
Cells are highly organized entities that rely on intricate addressing mechanisms to sort their constituent molecules to precise subcellular locations. These processes are crucial for cells to maintain their proper organization and carry out specialized functions in the body, while genetic perturbations that clog up these addressing systems can contribute to disease aetiology. The trafficking of RNA molecules represents an important layer in the control of cellular organization, a process that is both highly prevalent and for which features of the regulatory machineries have been deeply conserved evolutionarily...
June 16, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627417/regulation-of-primary-motor-cortex-excitability-by-repetitive-passive-finger-movement-frequency
#6
Ryoki Sasaki, Masaki Nakagawa, Shota Tsuiki, Shota Miyaguchi, Sho Kojima, Kei Saito, Yasuto Inukai, Mitsuhiro Masaki, Naofumi Otsuru, Hideaki Onishi
Somatosensory input induced by passive movement activates primary motor cortex (M1). We applied repetitive passive movement (RPM) of different frequencies to test if modulation of M1 excitability depends on RPM frequency. Twenty-seven healthy subjects participated in this study. Motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to left M1 were recorded from the right first dorsal interosseous muscle (FDI) to assess corticospinal excitability (experiment 1: n=15), and F-waves were measured from the right FDI as an index of spinal motoneuron excitability (experiment 2: n=15)...
June 14, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627415/examination-to-assess-the-clinical-exam-and-documentation-of-spine-pathology-among-orthopaedic-residents
#7
Jack M Haglin, John L Zeller, Kenneth A Egol, Donna P Phillips
BACKGROUND: The Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) guidelines require residency programs to teach and evaluate residents in six overarching "core competencies" and document progress through educational milestones. In order to assess the progress of orthopaedic interns' skills in performing a history, physical exam, and documentation of the encounter for a standardized patient with spinal stenosis, a Structured Objective Clinical Examination (OSCE) was conducted for 13 orthopaedic intern residents, following a one month boot camp that included communications skills and curriculum in history and physical examination...
June 13, 2017: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626390/profiles-of-vgf-peptides-in-the-rat-brain-and-their-modulations-after-phencyclidine-treatment
#8
Barbara Noli, Fabrizio Sanna, Carla Brancia, Filomena D'Amato, Barbara Manconi, Federica Vincenzoni, Irene Messana, Maria R Melis, Antonio Argiolas, Gian-Luca Ferri, Cristina Cocco
From the VGF precursor protein originate several low molecular weight peptides, whose distribution in the brain and blood circulation is not entirely known. Among the VGF peptides, those containing the N-terminus portion were altered in the cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) and hypothalamus of schizophrenia patients. "Hence, we aimed to better investigate the involvement of the VGF peptides in schizophrenia by studying their localization in the brain regions relevant for the disease, and revealing their possible modulations in response to certain neuronal alterations occurring in schizophrenia"...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625870/pax3-and-pax7-mediated-dbx1-regulation-orchestrates-the-patterning-of-intermediate-spinal-interneurons
#9
Chris Gard, Gloria Gonzalez-Curto, Youcef El-Mokhtar Frarma, Elodie Chollet, Nathalie Duval, Valentine Auzié, Frédéric Auradé, Lisa Vigier, Frédéric Relaix, Alessandra Pierani, Frédéric Causeret, Vanessa Ribes
Transcription factors are key orchestrators of the emergence of neuronal diversity within the developing spinal cord. As such, the two paralogous proteins Pax3 and Pax7 regulate the specification of progenitor cells within the intermediate neural tube, by defining a neat segregation between those fated to form motor circuits and those involved in the integration of sensory inputs. To attain insights into the molecular means by which they control this process, we have performed detailed phenotypic analyses of the intermediate spinal interneurons (IN), namely the dI6, V0D, V0VCG and V1 populations in compound null mutants for Pax3 and Pax7...
June 15, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625856/nitroglycerin-increases-serotonin-transporter-expression-in-rat-spinal-cord-but-anandamide-modulated-this-effect
#10
Gábor Nagy-Grócz, Zsuzsanna Bohár, Annamária Fejes-Szabó, Klaudia Flóra Laborc, Eleonóra Spekker, Lilla Tar, László Vécsei, Árpád Párdutz
Migraine is one of the most prevalent neurological diseases, which affects 16% of the total population. The exact pathomechanism of this disorder is still not well understood, but it seems that serotonin and its transporter have a crucial role in the pathogenesis. One of the animal models of migraine is the systemic administration of nitroglycerin (NTG), a nitric oxide (NO) donor. NO can initiate a central sensitization process in the trigeminal system, which is also present in migraineurs. Recent studies showed that the endocannabinoid system has a modulatory role on the trigeminal activation and sensitization...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624955/presynaptic-inhibition-of-nociceptive-neurotransmission-by-somatosensory-neuron-secreted-suppressors
#11
REVIEW
Kaicheng Li, Bing Cai, Changlin Li, Xu Zhang
Noxious stimuli cause pain by activating cutaneous nociceptors. The Aδ- and C-fibers of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons convey the nociceptive signals to the laminae I-II of spinal cord. In the dorsal horn of spinal cord, the excitatory afferent synaptic transmission is regulated by the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid and modulators such as opioid peptides released from the spinal interneurons, and by serotonin, norepinepherine and dopamine from the descending inhibitory system. In contrast to the accumulated evidence for these central inhibitors and their neural circuits in the dorsal spinal cord, the knowledge about the endogenous suppressive mechanisms in nociceptive DRG neurons remains very limited...
June 15, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623664/mechanosensory-neurons-control-the-timing-of-spinal-microcircuit-selection-during-locomotion
#12
Claire Wyart, Steven Knafo, Kevin Fidelin, Andrew Prendergast, Po-En Brian Tseng, Alexandre Parrin, Charles William Dickey, Urs Lucas Böhm, Sophie Nunes FIgueiredo, Olivier Thouvenin, Hugues Pascal-Moussellard
Despite numerous physiological studies about reflexes in the spinal cord, the contribution of mechanosensory feedback to active locomotion and the nature of underlying spinal circuits remains elusive. Here we investigate how mechanosensory feedback shapes active locomotion in a genetic model organism exhibiting simple locomotion-the zebrafish larva. We show that mechanosensory feedback enhances the recruitment of motor pools during active locomotion. Furthermore, we demonstrate that inputs from mechanosensory neurons increase locomotor speed by prolonging fast swimming at the expense of slow swimming during stereotyped acoustic escape responses...
June 17, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622274/a-role-for-neurokinin-1-receptor-neurons-in-the-rostral-ventromedial-medulla-in-the-development-of-chronic-postthoracotomy-pain
#13
Sergey G Khasabov, Jeffrey Chi-Fei Wang, Donald A Simone, Gary R Strichartz
Thoracotomy results in chronic postoperative pain (CPTP) in half of the cases. Earlier findings in rat models of persistent post-surgical pain suggest that spinal pathways are critical for pain onset but not its maintenance. Descending systems from the brain stem modulate nociceptive transmission in the spinal cord and contribute to persistent pain, but their role in chronic postoperative pain has not been studied. Here, we ablated pronociceptive neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R)-expressing neurons in the rat rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) to identify their role in CPTP...
July 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620838/modelling-fus-mislocalisation-in-an-in-vitro-model-of-innervated-human-muscle
#14
Sonja Prpar Mihevc, Mojca Pavlin, Simona Darovic, Marko Živin, Matej Podbregar, Boris Rogelj, Tomaz Mars
Degeneration of distal axons and neuromuscular junctions is an early feature in the pathology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), which culminates in motor neuron loss due to axon retraction and muscle atrophy. The complex interactions in the pathogenesis of ALS between motor neurons, muscle cells and accompanying glia require an appropriate experimental model. Here, we have defined a co-culture model based on human myotubes innervated by neurons from embryonic rat spinal cord explants to investigate the pathology and treatment of ALS...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618292/influence-of-transcutaneous-spinal-stimulation-on-human-ltp-like-pain-amplification-a-randomized-double-blind-study-in-volunteers
#15
L M Schweizer, P K Zahn, E M Pogatzki-Zahn, W Magerl, M Tegenthoff, C H Meyer-Frießem
OBJECTIVE: Transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS) has been proven to affect nociceptive signal processing. We designed a randomized, double-blind, cross-over study to investigate whether tsDCS applied before or after inducing long-term potentiation-(LTP)-like hyperalgesia may decrease nociceptive sensitivity. METHODS: In healthy volunteers, tsDCS (2.5mA, 15min) was applied to the thoracic spine prior (n=14) or immediately following (n=12) electrical high-frequency stimulation (HFS) to the thigh, inducing hyperalgesia...
May 18, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618070/morin-suppresses-astrocyte-activation-and-regulates-cytokine-release-in-bone-cancer-pain-rat-models
#16
Wei Jiang, Ying Wang, Wei Sun, Mengyuan Zhang
As inflammatory and immune responses are involved in pathophysiology of debilitating neuropathic pain, reagents that can modulate these two responses may have therapeutic potential. Morin, derived from the moraceae family of plants, benefits inflammation-related diseases, but its antinociceptive effects on cancer pain remain elusive. In the present study, we investigated antinociceptive effects of morin on bone cancer pain using a rat model, where rats were subject to implantation of Walker 256 mammary gland carcinoma cells into the tibia...
June 15, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616020/minocycline-targets-multiple-secondary-injury-mechanisms-in-traumatic-spinal-cord-injury
#17
REVIEW
Robert B Shultz, Yinghui Zhong
Minocycline hydrochloride (MH), a semi-synthetic tetracycline derivative, is a clinically available antibiotic and anti-inflammatory drug that also exhibits potent neuroprotective activities. It has been shown to target multiple secondary injury mechanisms in spinal cord injury, via its anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-apoptotic properties. The secondary injury mechanisms that MH can potentially target include inflammation, free radicals and oxidative stress, glutamate excitotoxicity, calcium influx, mitochondrial dysfunction, ischemia, hemorrhage, and edema...
May 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616017/inhibition-and-enhancement-of-neural-regeneration-by-chondroitin-sulfate-proteoglycans
#18
REVIEW
Heikki Rauvala, Mikhail Paveliev, Juha Kuja-Panula, Natalia Kulesskaya
The current dogma in neural regeneration research implies that chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) inhibit plasticity and regeneration in the adult central nervous system (CNS). We argue that the role of the CSPGs can be reversed from inhibition to activation by developmentally expressed CSPG-binding factors. Heparin-binding growth-associated molecule (HB-GAM; also designated as pleiotrophin) has been studied as a candidate molecule that might modulate the role of CSPG matrices in plasticity and regeneration...
May 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608305/quality-assurance-of-the-preopanc-trial-2012-003181-40-for-preoperative-radiochemotherapy-in-pancreatic-cancer-the-dummy-run
#19
Eva Versteijne, Eelco Lens, Astrid van der Horst, Arjan Bel, Jorrit Visser, Cornelis J A Punt, Mustafa Suker, Casper H J van Eijck, Geertjan van Tienhoven
BACKGROUND: The Dutch Pancreatic Cancer Group initiated the national, multicentre, controlled PREOPANC trial, randomising between preoperative radiochemotherapy and direct explorative laparotomy for patients with (borderline) resectable pancreatic cancer. The aim of this dummy run is to evaluate compliance with the radiotherapy protocol of this trial, and the quality of delineation and radiation plans. METHODS: Eleven radiation oncology departments open for accrual of patients in the PREOPANC trial were provided with all necessary information of a selected 'dummy' patient...
June 12, 2017: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607170/oxytocin-and-serotonin-brain-mechanisms-in-the-non-human-primate
#20
Lefevre Arthur, Richard Nathalie, Jazayeri Mina, Beuriat Pierre-Aurélien, Fieux Sylvain, Zimmer Luc, Duhamel Jean-René, Sirigu Angela
Oxytocin is increasingly studied for its therapeutic potential in psychiatric disorders which are associated with the deregulation of several neurotransmission systems. Studies in rodents demonstrated that the interaction between oxytocin (OT) and serotonin (5-HT) is critical for several aspects of social behavior. Using PET-scan in humans we have recently found that 5-HT 1A receptor (5-HT1AR) function is modified after intra-nasal oxytocin intake. However, the underlying mechanism between OT and 5-HT remains unclear...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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