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Brain wave

Agnieszka Niemierzycka, Krzysztof Tomczuk, Mirosław Mikicin, Agnieszka Zdrodowska, Grzegorz Orzechowski, Marek Kowalczyk
OBJECTIVE: The article represents the preliminary study, with the aim of the experiment being to examine whether different types of light sources used commonly in building interiors combined with various color temperature have an effect on EEG activity. The effect of frequency pulsation and color temperature on brain activity in EEG examinations in the beta 2 band was assumed. MATERIAL/PARTICIPANTS: Twenty healthy men aged 19-25 years participated in the experiment...
March 8, 2018: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
Alberto Avolio, Mi Ok Kim, Audrey Adji, Sumudu Gangoda, Bhargava Avadhanam, Isabella Tan, Mark Butlin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Concepts of pulsatile arterial haemodynamics, including relationships between oscillatory blood pressure and flow in systemic arteries, arterial stiffness and wave propagation phenomena have provided basic understanding of underlying haemodynamic mechanisms associated with elevated arterial blood pressure as a major factor of cardiovascular risk, particularly the deleterious effects of isolated systolic hypertension in the elderly. This topical review assesses the effects of pulsatility of blood pressure and flow in the systemic arteries on the brain...
March 19, 2018: Current Hypertension Reports
Timothy M Hughes, Lynne E Wagenknecht, Suzanne Craft, Akiva Mintz, Gerardo Heiss, Priya Palta, Dean Wong, Yun Zhou, David Knopman, Thomas H Mosley, Rebecca F Gottesman
OBJECTIVE: Arterial stiffness has been associated with evidence of cerebral small vessel disease (cSVD) and fibrillar β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition in the brain. These complex relationships have not been examined in racially and cognitively diverse cohorts. METHODS: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC)-Neurocognitive Study collected detailed cognitive testing for adjudication of dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), brain MRI, and arterial stiffness by pulse wave velocity (PWV, carotid-femoral [cfPWV] and heart-carotid [hcPWV])...
March 16, 2018: Neurology
Lara M Wierenga, Marieke G N Bos, Elisabeth Schreuders, Ferdi Vd Kamp, Jiska S Peper, Christian K Tamnes, Eveline A Crone
The onset of adolescence in humans is marked by hormonal changes that give rise to secondary sexual characteristics, noted as puberty. It has, however, proven challenging to unravel to what extent pubertal changes may have organizing effects on the brain beyond chronological age, as reported in animal studies. The present longitudinal study aimed to characterize the unique effects of age and puberty on subcortical brain volumes and included three waves of data collection at two-year intervals and 680 T1-weighted MRI scans of 271 participants (54% females) aged between 8 and 29 years old...
March 8, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Timothée Proix, Viktor K Jirsa, Fabrice Bartolomei, Maxime Guye, Wilson Truccolo
Recent studies have shown that seizures can spread and terminate across brain areas via a rich diversity of spatiotemporal patterns. In particular, while the location of the seizure onset area is usually invariant across seizures in an individual patient, the source of traveling (2-3 Hz) spike-and-wave discharges during seizures can either move with the slower propagating ictal wavefront or remain stationary at the seizure onset area. Furthermore, although many focal seizures terminate synchronously across brain areas, some evolve into distinct ictal clusters and terminate asynchronously...
March 14, 2018: Nature Communications
Satoshi Kuroki, Takamasa Yoshida, Hidekazu Tsutsui, Mizuho Iwama, Reiko Ando, Takayuki Michikawa, Atsushi Miyawaki, Toshio Ohshima, Shigeyoshi Itohara
Multisensory integration (MSI) is a fundamental emergent property of the mammalian brain. During MSI, perceptual information encoded in patterned activity is processed in multimodal association cortex. The systems-level neuronal dynamics that coordinate MSI, however, are unknown. Here, we demonstrate intrinsic hub-like network activity in the association cortex that regulates MSI. We engineered calcium reporter mouse lines based on the fluorescence resonance energy transfer sensor yellow cameleon (YC2.60) expressed in excitatory or inhibitory neurons...
March 13, 2018: Cell Reports
Jovana Kovacevic, Gregoire Maroteaux, Desiree Schut, Maarten Loos, Mohit Dubey, Julika Pitsch, Esther Remmelink, Bastijn Koopmans, James Crowley, L Niels Cornelisse, Patrick F Sullivan, Susanne Schoch, Ruud F Toonen, Oliver Stiedl, Matthijs Verhage
De novo heterozygous mutations in STXBP1/Munc18-1 cause early infantile epileptic encephalopathies (EIEE4, OMIM #612164) characterized by infantile epilepsy, developmental delay, intellectual disability, and can include autistic features. We characterized the cellular deficits for an allelic series of seven STXBP1 mutations and developed four mouse models that recapitulate the abnormal EEG activity and cognitive aspects of human STXBP1-encephalopathy. Disease-causing STXBP1 variants supported synaptic transmission to a variable extent on a null background, but had no effect when overexpressed on a heterozygous background...
March 12, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Krzysztof Kucharz, Martin Lauritzen
Cortical spreading depolarization waves, the cause underlying migraine aura, are also the markers and mechanism of pathology in the acutely injured human brain. Propagation of spreading depolarization wave uniquely depends on the interaction between presynaptic and postsynaptic glutamate N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). In the normally perfused brain, even a single wave causes a massive depolarization of neurons and glia, which results in transient loss of neuronal function and depression of the ongoing electrocorticographic activity...
March 12, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Nina Wolinski, Nicholas R Cooper, Paul Sauseng, Vincenzo Romei
The speed of theta brain oscillatory activity is thought to play a key role in determining working memory (WM) capacity. Individual differences in the length of a theta cycle (ranging between 4 and 7 Hz) might determine how many gamma cycles (>30 Hz) can be nested into a theta wave. Gamma cycles are thought to represent single memory items; therefore, this interplay could determine individual memory capacity. We directly tested this hypothesis by means of parietal transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) set at slower (4 Hz) and faster (7 Hz) theta frequencies during a visuospatial WM paradigm...
March 14, 2018: PLoS Biology
Kazunari Ikeda
If a representation of an auditory attention channel was present in the auditory cortices but not in the subcortical structures, it would be predicted that the early event-related brain potential (ERP) would disagree with the late ERP in selective attention effects. To examine this idea, the present study recorded the auditory brain stem response (ABR) as an early ERP and also the negative difference, the processing negativity and the irrelevant positive difference waves as late ERPs during dichotic listening...
March 13, 2018: Neuroreport
P Lorenzo Bozzelli, Seham Alaiyed, Eunyoung Kim, Sonia Villapol, Katherine Conant
The perineuronal net (PNN) represents a lattice-like structure that is prominently expressed along the soma and proximal dendrites of parvalbumin- (PV-) positive interneurons in varied brain regions including the cortex and hippocampus. It is thus apposed to sites at which PV neurons receive synaptic input. Emerging evidence suggests that changes in PNN integrity may affect glutamatergic input to PV interneurons, a population that is critical for the expression of synchronous neuronal population discharges that occur with gamma oscillations and sharp-wave ripples...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Jia Shi, Yuye Wang, Tunan Chen, Degang Xu, Hengli Zhao, Linyu Chen, Chao Yan, Longhuang Tang, Yixin He, Hua Feng, Jianquan Yao
The imaging diagnosis and prognostication of different degrees of traumatic brain injury (TBI) is very important for early care and clinical treatment. Especially, the exact recognition of mild TBI is the bottleneck for current label-free imaging technologies in neurosurgery. Here, we report an automatic evaluation method for TBI recognition with terahertz (THz) continuous-wave (CW) transmission imaging based on machine learning (ML). We propose a new feature extraction method for biological THz images combined with the transmittance distribution features in spatial domain and statistical distribution features in normalized gray histogram...
March 5, 2018: Optics Express
Hailong Song, Landry M Konan, Jiankun Cui, Catherine E Johnson, Martin Langenderfer, DeAna Grant, Tina Ndam, Agnes Simonyi, Tommi White, Utkan Demirci, David R Mott, Doug Schwer, Graham K Hubler, Ibolja Cernak, Ralph G DePalma, Zezong Gu
Explosive blast-induced mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), a "signature wound" of recent military conflicts, commonly affects service members. While past blast injury studies have provided insights into TBI with moderate- to high-intensity explosions, the impact of primary low-intensity blast (LIB)-mediated pathobiology on neurological deficits requires further investigation. Our prior considerations of blast physics predicted ultrastructural injuries at nanoscale levels. Here, we provide quantitative data using a primary LIB injury murine model exposed to open field detonation of 350 grams of high-energy explosive C4...
March 8, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Masatsugu Niwayama
We quantitatively investigated the measurement sensitivity of spatially resolved spectroscopy (SRS) across six tissue models: cerebral tissue, a small animal brain, the forehead of a fetus, an adult brain, forearm muscle, and thigh muscle. The optical path length in the voxel of the model was analyzed using Monte Carlo simulations. It was found that the measurement sensitivity can be represented as the product of the change in the absorption coefficient and the difference in optical path length in two states with different source-detector distances...
March 2018: Journal of Biomedical Optics
Jessica Dubois, Julien Lefèvre, Hugo Angleys, François Leroy, Clara Fischer, Jessica Lebenberg, Ghislaine Dehaene-Lambertz, Cristina Borradori-Tolsa, François Lazeyras, Lucie Hertz-Pannier, Jean-François Mangin, Petra Hüppi, David Germanaud
In the human brain, the appearance of cortical sulci is a complex process that takes place mostly during the second half of pregnancy, with a relatively stable temporal sequence across individuals. Since deviant gyrification patterns have been observed in many neurodevelopmental disorders, mapping cortical development in vivo from the early stages on is an essential step to uncover new markers for diagnosis or prognosis. Recently this has been made possible by MRI combined with post-processing tools, but the reported results are still fragmented...
March 6, 2018: NeuroImage
Jean-Michel Cioni, Hovy Ho-Wai Wong, Dario Bressan, Lay Kodama, William A Harris, Christine E Holt
The axons of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are topographically sorted before they arrive at the optic tectum. This pre-target sorting, typical of axon tracts throughout the brain, is poorly understood. Here, we show that cytoplasmic FMR1-interacting proteins (CYFIPs) fulfill non-redundant functions in RGCs, with CYFIP1 mediating axon growth and CYFIP2 specifically involved in axon sorting. We find that CYFIP2 mediates homotypic and heterotypic contact-triggered fasciculation and repulsion responses between dorsal and ventral axons...
March 7, 2018: Neuron
Andrik I Becht, Marieke G N Bos, Stefanie A Nelemans, Sabine Peters, Wilma A M Vollebergh, Susan J T Branje, Wim H J Meeus, Eveline A Crone
This multimethod multisample longitudinal study examined how neurological substrates associated with goal directedness and information seeking are related to adolescents' identity. Self-reported data on goal-directedness were collected across three biannual waves in Study 1. Identity was measured one wave later. Study 1 design and measurements were repeated in Study 2 and extended with structural brain data (nucleus accumbens [NAcc] and prefrontal cortex gray matter volume [PFC]), collected across three biannual waves...
March 8, 2018: Child Development
Arundhati Undurti, Elizabeth A Colasurdo, Carl L Sikkema, Jaclyn S Schultz, Elaine R Peskind, Kathleen F Pagulayan, Charles W Wilkinson
The most frequent injury sustained by US service members deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan is mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI), or concussion, by far most often caused by blast waves from improvised explosive devices or other explosive ordnance. TBI from all causes gives rise to chronic neuroendocrine disorders with an estimated prevalence of 25-50%. The current study expands upon our earlier finding that chronic pituitary gland dysfunction occurs with a similarly high frequency after blast-related concussions...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Marie-Ève Desjardins, Andrée-Ann Baril, Jean-Paul Soucy, Thien Thanh Dang-Vu, Alex Desautels, Dominique Petit, Jacques Montplaisir, Antonio Zadra
Study objectives: The present study assessed brain perfusion patterns with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) during sleepwalkers' post-sleep deprivation slow-wave sleep and resting-state wakefulness. Methods: Following a 24-hr period of sleep deprivation, 10 sleepwalkers and 10 sex- and age-matched controls were scanned with a high-resolution SPECT scanner. Participants were injected with99mTc-ECD after 2 minutes of stable slow-wave sleep within their first sleep cycle as well as during resting-state wakefulness, both after a subsequent 24-hr period of sleep deprivation...
March 3, 2018: Sleep
Qin Huang, Rui Liu, Shen Gui, Jinling Lu, Pengcheng Li
Cortical spreading depression (CSD), a propagation wave of transient neuronal and glial deplorization followed by suppression of spontaneous brain activity, has been hypothesized to be the underlying mechanism of migraine aura and triggers the headache attack. Evidence from various animal models accumulates since its first discovery in 1944 and provides support for this hypothese. In this paper, alterations of bilateral cortical responses are investigated in a mice migrainous model of CSD using voltage-sensitive dye imaging under hindlimb and cortical stimulation...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Biophotonics
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