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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350588/arguments-against-the-role-of-cortical-spreading-depression-in-migraine
#1
Piet Borgdorff
Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is a wave of increased electrocortical activity and vasodilation, followed by sustained decreased activity and prolonged vasoconstriction. Although the discovery of CSD has been ascribed to Leão, rather than vasoconstriction, he only observed a depression of neural activity combined with vasodilation, with much weaker stimulation than used by his followers. There is a longstanding belief that CSD underlies migraine aura, with its positive symptoms such as mosaic patterns and its negative symptoms such as scotoma, and a similar propagation speed and vasoreaction pattern...
January 19, 2018: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348018/myocardial-inflammation-predicts-remodeling-and-neuroinflammation-after-myocardial-infarction
#2
James T Thackeray, Henri C Hupe, Yong Wang, Jens P Bankstahl, Georg Berding, Tobias L Ross, Johann Bauersachs, Kai C Wollert, Frank M Bengel
BACKGROUND: The local inflammatory tissue response after acute myocardial infarction (MI) determines subsequent healing. Systemic interaction may induce neuroinflammation as a precursor to neurodegeneration. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to assess the influence of MI on cardiac and brain inflammation using noninvasive positron emission tomography (PET) of the heart-brain axis. METHODS: After coronary artery ligation or sham surgery, mice (n = 49) underwent serial whole-body PET imaging of the mitochondrial translocator protein (TSPO) as a marker of activated macrophages and microglia...
January 23, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347421/turing-like-structures-in-a-functional-model-of-cortical-spreading-depression
#3
A Yu Verisokin, D V Verveyko, D E Postnov
Cortical spreading depression (CSD) along with migraine waves and spreading depolarization events with stroke or injures are the front-line examples of extreme physiological behaviors of the brain cortex which manifest themselves via the onset and spreading of localized areas of neuronal hyperactivity followed by their depression. While much is known about the physiological pathways involved, the dynamical mechanisms of the formation and evolution of complex spatiotemporal patterns during CSD are still poorly understood, in spite of the number of modeling studies that have been already performed...
December 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343201/the-impact-of-blackcurrant-juice-on-attention-mood-and-brain-wave-spectral-activity-in-young-healthy-volunteers
#4
A W Watson, E J Okello, H J Brooker, S Lester, G J McDougall, K A Wesnes
There is a growing body of evidence from randomized controlled trials which indicates that consumption of berries has a positive effect upon the cognitive function of healthy adults. It has been recommended that studies combining cognitive and physiological measures be undertaken in order to strengthen the evidence base for the putative effects of flavonoid consumption on cognitive outcomes. This pilot study utilized a randomized, double-blind and placebo controlled crossover design to assess the influence of the acute administration of anthocyanin-rich blackcurrant juice, standardized at 500 mg of polyphenols, on mood and attention...
January 17, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341330/real-time-and-high-resolution-bioimaging-with-bright-aggregation-induced-emission-dots-in-short-wave-infrared-region
#5
Ji Qi, Chaowei Sun, Abudureheman Zebibula, Hequn Zhang, Ryan T K Kwok, Xinyuan Zhao, Wang Xi, Jacky W Y Lam, Jun Qian, Ben Zhong Tang
Fluorescence imaging in the spectral region beyond the conventional near-infrared biological window (700-900 nm) can theoretically afford high resolution and deep tissue penetration. Although some efforts have been devoted to developing a short-wave infrared (SWIR; 900-1700 nm) imaging modality in the past decade, long-wavelength biomedical imaging is still suboptimal owing to the unsatisfactory materials properties of SWIR fluorophores. Taking advantage of organic dots based on an aggregation-induced emission luminogen (AIEgen), herein microscopic vasculature imaging of brain and tumor is reported in living mice in the SWIR spectral region...
January 17, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336132/auditory-system-synchronization-and-cochlear-function-in-patients-with-normal-hearing-with-tinnitus-comparison-of-multiple-feature-with-longer-duration-and-single-feature-with-shorter-duration-tinnitus
#6
Sujoy Kumar Makar, Geetha Mukundan, Geeta Gore
OBJECTIVE: To observe cochlear and brainstem function in normal hearing ears with tinnitus using DPOAE and ABR audiometry. DESIGN: Case-control study. SAMPLE SIZE: Included 60 normal hearing male patients with age less than 45 years; control group consisted of 30 patients without tinnitus and the study group consisted of those with unilateral tinnitus of at least 6 month duration. Pure tone audiometry, tinnitus matching (pitch & loudness), DPOAE (SNR & Amplitude) and ABR results of absolute latency of wave I, III and V, with IPL difference of I-III, III-V & I-V, and ILD-V were investigated...
December 1, 2017: International Tinnitus Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333461/extracorporeal-shock-wave-therapy-for-coronary-artery-disease-relationship-of-symptom-amelioration-and-ischemia-improvement
#7
Youko Takakuwa, Masayoshi Sarai, Hideki Kawai, Akira Yamada, Kenji Shiino, Kayoko Takada, Yasuomi Nagahara, Meiko Miyagi, Sadako Motoyama, Hiroshi Toyama, Yukio Ozaki
Objectives: The current management of coronary artery disease (CAD) relies on three major therapeutic options, namely medication, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). However, severe CAD that is not indicated for PCI or CABG still bears a poor prognosis due to the lack of effective treatments. In 2006, extracorporeal cardiac shock wave (SW) therapy reported on human for the first time. This treatment resulted in better myocardial perfusion as evaluated by dipyridamole stress thallium scintigraphy, angina symptoms, and exercise tolerance...
2018: Asia Oceania Journal of Nuclear Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331091/terminal-spreading-depolarization-and-electric-silence-in-death-of-human-cortex
#8
Jens P Dreier, Sebastian Major, Brandon Foreman, Maren K L Winkler, Eun-Jeung Kang, Denny Milakara, Coline L Lemale, Vince DiNapoli, Jason M Hinzman, Johannes Woitzik, Norberto Andaluz, Andrew Carlson, Jed A Hartings
OBJECTIVE: Restoring the circulation is the primary goal in emergency treatment of cerebral ischemia. However, better understanding of how the brain responds to energy depletion could inform the time available for resuscitation until irreversible damage and advance development of interventions that prolong this span. Experimentally, injury to central neurons begins only with anoxic depolarization. This potentially reversible, spreading wave typically starts 2-5 min after the onset of severe ischemia, marking the onset of a toxic intraneuronal change that eventually results in irreversible injury...
January 13, 2018: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326057/antidepressant-effects-of-focused-ultrasound-induced-blood-brain-barrier-opening
#9
Skyler J Mooney, José N Nobrega, Anthony J Levitt, Kullervo Hynynen
In many cases, hippocampal neurogenesis appears to be a hallmark of antidepressant treatments. One novel technique for inducing this type of neurogenesis is using focused ultrasound waves, in conjunction with circulating microbubbles, to open the blood-brain-barrier. The present experiment aimed to test whether this technique has antidepressant effects in a rodent model. Rats were subjected to 1, 2 or 3 weekly treatments of magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound in order to open the blood-brain-barrier in the hippocampal region...
January 8, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325701/developmental-cognitive-neuroscience-using-latent-change-score-models-a-tutorial-and-applications
#10
REVIEW
Rogier A Kievit, Andreas M Brandmaier, Gabriel Ziegler, Anne-Laura van Harmelen, Susanne M M de Mooij, Michael Moutoussis, Ian M Goodyer, Ed Bullmore, Peter B Jones, Peter Fonagy, Ulman Lindenberger, Raymond J Dolan
Assessing and analysing individual differences in change over time is of central scientific importance to developmental neuroscience. However, the literature is based largely on cross-sectional comparisons, which reflect a variety of influences and cannot directly represent change. We advocate using latent change score (LCS) models in longitudinal samples as a statistical framework to tease apart the complex processes underlying lifespan development in brain and behaviour using longitudinal data. LCS models provide a flexible framework that naturally accommodates key developmental questions as model parameters and can even be used, with some limitations, in cases with only two measurement occasions...
November 22, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317073/micro-calibration-of-space-and-motion-by-photoreceptors-synchronized-in-parallel-with-cortical-oscillations-a-unified-theory-of-visual-perception
#11
Ravinder Jerath, Shannon M Cearley, Vernon A Barnes, Mike Jensen
A fundamental function of the visual system is detecting motion, yet visual perception is poorly understood. Current research has determined that the retina and ganglion cells elicit responses for motion detection; however, the underlying mechanism for this is incompletely understood. Previously we proposed that retinogeniculo-cortical oscillations and photoreceptors work in parallel to process vision. Here we propose that motion could also be processed within the retina, and not in the brain as current theory suggests...
January 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310661/temperature-elevation-in-the-human-brain-and-skin-with-thermoregulation-during-exposure-to-rf-energy
#12
Sachiko Kodera, Jose Gomez-Tames, Akimasa Hirata
BACKGROUND: Two international guidelines/standards for human protection from electromagnetic fields define the specific absorption rate (SAR) averaged over 10 g of tissue as a metric for protection against localized radio frequency field exposure due to portable devices operating below 3-10 GHz. Temperature elevation is suggested to be a dominant effect for exposure at frequencies higher than 100 kHz. No previous studies have evaluated temperature elevation in the human head for local exposure considering thermoregulation...
January 8, 2018: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310343/cerebrospinal-fluid-real-time-quaking-induced-conversion-test-for-sporadic-creutzfeldt-jakob-disease-in-an-18-year-old-woman-a-case-report
#13
Yuan Yao, Xiaoping Dong, Hongzhi Guan, Qiang Lu
RATIONALE: Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) mainly occurs in the elderly, with the peak age of onset ranging from 55 to 75 years. The symptoms of sCJD are not unique, and laboratory tests such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), electroencephalogram (EEG) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)14-3-3 protein have low sensitivity or specificity. Therefore, excluding treatable diseases and establishing a diagnosis could be difficult in young patients with suspected sCJD. Recently, real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) has been used in the diagnosis of sCJD, with more than 95% sensitivity and 100% specificity...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304420/local-changes-in-computational-non-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-depth-in-infants
#14
Anna-Liisa Satomaa, Outi Saarenpää-Heikkilä, Eero Huupponen, Turkka Kirjavainen, Juhani Heinonen, Sari-Leena Himanen
OBJECTIVE: Deep NREM sleep and its hallmark EEG phenomenon slow wave activity (SWA) are under homeostatic control in adults. SWA is also locally regulated as it increases in the brain areas that have been used intensively. Moreover, in children, SWA is a marker of cortical maturation. In the present study the local properties of NREM sleep depth were evaluated using the quantitative mean frequency method. We aimed to study if age is related to NREM sleep depth in young infants. In addition, we studied if young infants have local differences in their NREM sleep...
October 16, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298904/multiple-lines-of-evidence-indicate-that-gliotransmission-does-not-occur-under-physiological-conditions
#15
Todd A Fiacco, Ken D McCarthy
A major controversy persists within the field of glial biology concerning whether or not, under physiological conditions, neuronal activity leads to Ca2+-dependent release of neurotransmitters from astrocytes, a phenomenon known as gliotransmission. Our perspective is that, while we and others can apply techniques to cause gliotransmission, there is considerable evidence gathered using astrocyte-specific and more physiological approaches which suggests that gliotransmission is a pharmacological phenomenon rather than a physiological process...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296630/high-speed-spatial-frequency-domain-imaging-of-rat-cortex-detects-dynamic-optical-and-physiological-properties-following-cardiac-arrest-and-resuscitation
#16
Robert H Wilson, Christian Crouzet, Mohammad Torabzadeh, Afsheen Bazrafkan, Maryam H Farahabadi, Babak Jamasian, Dishant Donga, Juan Alcocer, Shuhab M Zaher, Bernard Choi, Yama Akbari, Bruce J Tromberg
Quantifying rapidly varying perturbations in cerebral tissue absorption and scattering can potentially help to characterize changes in brain function caused by ischemic trauma. We have developed a platform for rapid intrinsic signal brain optical imaging using macroscopically structured light. The device performs fast, multispectral, spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI), detecting backscattered light from three-phase binary square-wave projected patterns, which have a much higher refresh rate than sinusoidal patterns used in conventional SFDI...
October 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288994/detecting-sub-second-changes-in-brain-activation-patterns-during-interictal-epileptic-spike-using-simultaneous-eeg-fmri
#17
Epifanio Bagarinao, Satoshi Maesawa, Yuji Ito, Naotaka Usui, Jun Natsume, Hirohisa Watanabe, Minoru Hoshiyama, Toshihiko Wakabayashi, Gen Sobue, Shinji Naganawa, Haruo Isoda
OBJECTIVE: Epileptic spikes are associated with rapidly changing brain activation involving the epileptic foci and other brain regions in the "epileptic network". We aim to resolve these activation changes using simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) recordings. METHODS: Simultaneous EEG-fMRI recordings from 9 patients with epilepsy were used in the analysis. Our method employed the whole scalp EEG data to generate regressors for the analysis of fMRI data using the general linear model...
November 27, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288874/modeling-spike-wave-discharges-by-a-complex-network-of-neuronal-oscillators
#18
Tatiana M Medvedeva, Marina V Sysoeva, Gilles van Luijtelaar, Ilya V Sysoev
PURPOSE: The organization of neural networks and the mechanisms, which generate the highly stereotypical for absence epilepsy spike-wave discharges (SWDs) is heavily debated. Here we describe such a model which can both reproduce the characteristics of SWDs and dynamics of coupling between brain regions, relying mainly on properties of hierarchically organized networks of a large number of neuronal oscillators. MODEL: We used a two level mesoscale model. The first level consists of three structures: the nervus trigeminus serving as an input, the thalamus and the somatosensory cortex; the second level of a group of nearby situated neurons belonging to one of three modeled structures...
December 13, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287884/effects-of-transient-auditory-deprivation-during-critical-periods-on-the-development-of-auditory-temporal-processing
#19
Bong Jik Kim, Jungyoon Kim, Il-Yong Park, Jae Yun Jung, Myung-Whan Suh, Seung-Ha Oh
OBJECTIVES: The central auditory pathway matures through sensory experiences and it is known that sensory experiences during periods called critical periods exert an important influence on brain development. The present study aimed to investigate whether temporary auditory deprivation during critical periods (CPs) could have a detrimental effect on the development of auditory temporal processing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twelve neonatal rats were randomly assigned to control and study groups; Study group experienced temporary (18-20 days) auditory deprivation during CPs (Early deprivation study group)...
January 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287136/cerebrovascular-hemodynamics-in-fetuses-with-congenital-heart-disease
#20
Tingting Man, Yihua He, Ying Zhao, Lin Sun, Xiaowei Liu, Shuping Ge
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: It is hypothesized that diminished cerebral vascular resistance or the "brain sparing effect" is associated with fetuses with complex congenital heart defects (CHD) and may affect their neurodevelopmental outcome. An alternative explanation is that it is related to the location, cardiac output, pressure, and resistance in left heart obstructive CHDs. We sought to determine the effects of various left and right heart obstructive defects on the cerebral and placental hemodynamics and to evaluate the utility of these variables for the assessment and prognosis of CHDs...
December 2017: Echocardiography
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