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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527090/stroke-like-attack-first-episode-of-sporadic-hemiplegic-migraine
#1
Enrico Ferrante, Valentina Prone, Marco Longoni, Elio Clemente Agostoni
Hemiplegic migraine (HM) is a rare migraine with aura; it can be familiar or sporadic. A 46-years-old man presented left migraine followed by right hemiparesis with bilateral plantar flexion of cutaneous plantar reflex (CPR). Brain CT and CT-angiography were normal. The next day patient got worse. The EEG showed left fronto-temporal cuspidate delta waves and brain MRI showed a minimal hyperintensity at T2-sequences in the left frontal cortex with a minor representation of the cortical veins at susceptibility weighted imaging sequences...
May 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526782/acute-impact-of-drinking-coffee-on-the-cerebral-and-systemic-vasculature
#2
Takuro Washio, Hiroyuki Sasaki, Shigehiko Ogoh
Previous studies have suggested that the risk of ischemic stroke increases immediately after drinking coffee. Indeed, drinking coffee, that is, caffeine, acutely increases arterial stiffness as well as blood pressure and peripheral vascular resistance. On the other hand, it has been reported that arterial stiffening is associated with elevation in the pulsatility index (PI) of cerebral blood flow (CBF), which increases the risk of brain disease. However, the effect of drinking coffee on the PI of the CBF and its interaction with arterial stiffness remain unknown...
May 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525544/bistability-causality-and-complexity-in-cortical-networks-an-in-vitro-perturbational-study
#3
Mattia D'Andola, Beatriz Rebollo, Adenauer G Casali, Julia F Weinert, Andrea Pigorini, Rosa Villa, Marcello Massimini, Maria V Sanchez-Vives
Measuring the spatiotemporal complexity of cortical responses to direct perturbations provides a reliable index of the brain's capacity for consciousness in humans under both physiological and pathological conditions. Upon loss of consciousness, the complex pattern of causal interactions observed during wakefulness collapses into a stereotypical slow wave, suggesting that cortical bistability may play a role. Bistability is mainly expressed in the form of slow oscillations, a default pattern of activity that emerges from cortical networks in conditions of functional or anatomical disconnection...
May 19, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524074/neurotrauma-the-crosstalk-between-neurotrophins-and-inflammation-in-the-acutely-injured-brain
#4
REVIEW
Lindolfo da Silva Meirelles, Daniel Simon, Andrea Regner
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among young individuals worldwide. Understanding the pathophysiology of neurotrauma is crucial for the development of more effective therapeutic strategies. After the trauma occurs, immediate neurologic damage is produced by the traumatic forces; this primary injury triggers a secondary wave of biochemical cascades together with metabolic and cellular changes, called secondary neural injury. In the scenario of the acutely injured brain, the ongoing secondary injury results in ischemia and edema culminating in an uncontrollable increase in intracranial pressure...
May 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523549/dna-methylation-in-schizophrenia
#5
Lotta-Katrin Pries, Sinan Gülöksüz, Gunter Kenis
Schizophrenia is a highly heritable psychiatric condition that displays a complex phenotype. A multitude of genetic susceptibility loci have now been identified, but these fail to explain the high heritability estimates of schizophrenia. In addition, epidemiologically relevant environmental risk factors for schizophrenia may lead to permanent changes in brain function. In conjunction with genetic liability, these environmental risk factors-likely through epigenetic mechanisms-may give rise to schizophrenia, a clinical syndrome characterized by florid psychotic symptoms and moderate to severe cognitive impairment...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522734/voluntary-control-of-epileptiform-spike-wave-discharges-in-awake-rats
#6
Jeremy A Taylor, Krista M Rodgers, Florencia M Bercum, Carmen J Booth, F Edward Dudek, Daniel S Barth
Genetically inherited absence epilepsy in humans is typically characterized by brief (seconds) spontaneous seizures, which involve spike-wave discharges (SWDs) in the EEG and interruption of consciousness and ongoing behavior. Genetic (inbred) models of this disorder in rats have been used to examine mechanisms, comorbidities and anti-absence drugs. SWDs have also been proposed as models of complex partial seizures (CPSs) following traumatic brain injury (post-traumatic epilepsy; PTE). However, the ictal characteristics of these rat models, including SWDs and associated immobility, are also prevalent in healthy outbred laboratory rats...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520661/traumatic-brain-injury-and-depression-in-a-community-based-sample-a-cohort-study-across-the-adult-life-span
#7
A J Osborn, J L Mathias, A K Fairweather-Schmidt, K J Anstey
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether self-reported traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) are associated with "cases" of clinically significant depression in the general community. To examine interactions between variables previously linked to depression after a TBI. SETTING: Population-based community study (Canberra and Queanbeyan, Australia). PARTICIPANTS AND DESIGN: Three age cohorts: young, middle-aged, and older adults (aged 20-24, 40-44, and 60-64 years at baseline) randomly selected from the electoral roll and followed across 3 waves (4 years apart)...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518101/using-wavelet-entropy-to-demonstrate-how-mindfulness-practice-increases-coordination-between-irregular-cerebral-and-cardiac-activities
#8
Hin Hung Sik, Junling Gao, Jicong Fan, Bonnie Wai Yan Wu, Hang Kin Leung, Yeung Sam Hung
In both the East and West, traditional teachings say that the mind and heart are somehow closely correlated, especially during spiritual practice. One difficulty in proving this objectively is that the natures of brain and heart activities are quite different. In this paper, we propose a methodology that uses wavelet entropy to measure the chaotic levels of both electroencephalogram (EEG) and electrocardiogram (ECG) data and show how this may be used to explore the potential coordination between the mind and heart under different experimental conditions...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513589/decoding-material-specific-memory-reprocessing-during-sleep-in-humans
#9
M Schönauer, S Alizadeh, H Jamalabadi, A Abraham, A Pawlizki, S Gais
Neuronal learning activity is reactivated during sleep but the dynamics of this reactivation in humans are still poorly understood. Here we use multivariate pattern classification to decode electrical brain activity during sleep and determine what type of images participants had viewed in a preceding learning session. We find significant patterns of learning-related processing during rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep, which are generalizable across subjects. This processing occurs in a cyclic fashion during time windows congruous to critical periods of synaptic plasticity...
May 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506629/hippocampal-information-processing-across-sleep-wake-cycles
#10
REVIEW
Kenji Mizuseki, Hiroyuki Miyawaki
According to a two-stage memory consolidation model, during waking theta states, afferent activity from the neocortex to the hippocampus induces transient synaptic modification in the hippocampus, where the information is deposited as a labile form of memory trace. During subsequent sharp-wave ripples (SPW-Rs), the newly acquired hippocampal information is transferred to the neocortex and stored as a long-lasting memory trace. Consistent with this hypothesis, waking theta states and SPW-Rs distinctly control information flow in the hippocampal-entorhinal loop...
May 12, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498887/sex-differences-in-risk-for-alzheimer-s-disease-related-to-neurotrophin-gene-polymorphisms-the-cache-county-memory-study
#11
Joshua Matyi, JoAnn T Tschanz, Gail B Rattinger, Chelsea Sanders, E K Vernon, Chris Corcoran, John S K Kauwe, Mona Buhusi
Neurotrophins, including nerve-growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), have been implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Associations between AD and neurotrophin signaling genes have been inconsistent, with few studies examining sex differences in risk. We examined four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) involved in neurotrophin signaling (rs6265, rs56164415, rs2289656, rs2072446) and risk for AD by sex in a population-based sample of older adults. 3499 individuals without dementia at baseline [Mean (SD) age = 74...
May 12, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493346/no-effect-of-targeted-memory-reactivation-during-slow-wave-sleep-on-emotional-recognition-memory
#12
Jennifer E Ashton, Scott A Cairney, M Gareth Gaskell
Recent work has suggested that the benefits of sleep for memory consolidation are enhanced for highly salient (versus non-salient) memories. Using a technique known as targeted memory reactivation, it is possible to selectively strengthen newly learned memories by re-exposing the sleeping brain to auditory cues. The aim of the current study was to examine whether emotionally salient memories are also more responsive to targeted memory reactivation in slow-wave sleep than neutral memories. In an initial training phase, participants memorised emotionally negative and neutral pictures, which were each paired with a semantically related sound...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490551/selective-impact-of-disease-on-short-term-and-long-term-components-of-self-reported-memory-a-population-based-hunt-study
#13
Ove Almkvist, Ole Bosnes, Ingunn Bosnes, Eystein Stordal
BACKGROUND: Subjective memory is commonly considered to be a unidimensional measure. However, theories of performance-based memory suggest that subjective memory could be divided into more than one dimension. OBJECTIVE: To divide subjective memory into theoretically related components of memory and explore the relationship to disease. METHODS: In this study, various aspects of self-reported memory were studied with respect to demographics and diseases in the third wave of the HUNT epidemiological study in middle Norway...
May 9, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486926/5-ht3-receptors-a-potential-therapeutic-target-for-epilepsy
#14
Hongyan Zhao, Pu Wang, Shurui Chen, Xin Li, Hongliang Huo
Epilepsy is a syndrome of brain dysfunction caused by spontaneous, abnormal discharge. Many anti-epileptic drugs have developed in past decades. 5-HT is an important neurotransmitter in the central and peripheral nervous system of the human body which is involved in a number of physiological activities, such as sensation, movement, and behavior. 5-HT subtype have been divided into seven sub-groups from 5-HT1 to 5HT7. An increasing number of studies have shown that the activation of the 5-HT3 receptor can inhibit epileptic seizures, while inhibition of the 5HT3 receptor can promote spike waves...
May 8, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484371/state-dependent-modulation-of-slow-wave-motifs-towards-awakening
#15
Daisuke Shimaoka, Chenchen Song, Thomas Knöpfel
Slow cortical waves that propagate across the cerebral cortex forming large-scale spatiotemporal propagation patterns are a hallmark of non-REM sleep and anesthesia, but also occur during resting wakefulness. To investigate how the spatial temporal properties of slow waves change with the depth of anesthetic, we optically imaged population voltage transients generated by mouse layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons across one or two cortical hemispheres dorsally with a genetically encoded voltage indicator (GEVI). From deep barbiturate anesthesia to light barbiturate sedation, depolarizing wave events recruiting at least 50% of the imaged cortical area consistently appeared as a conserved repertoire of distinct wave motifs...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479338/effects-of-experimental-traumatic-brain-injury-and-impaired-glutamate-transport-on-cortical-spreading-depression
#16
Mahshid Sadat Hosseini-Zare, Feng Gu, Ahmad Abdulla, Simon Powell, Jokūbas Žiburkus
Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI), stroke, migraines, and seizures. Typically, following TBIs and other insults, neuronal excitability in and around the area of the injury is affected, with reported increases in local glutamate signaling. Astrocytic glutamate transporters are critical for precise regulation of the extracellular glutamate availability. However, it remains unclear how impaired astrocytic glutamate transport or an acute TBI affect characteristics of the CSD...
May 4, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476311/transcranial-functional-ultrasound-imaging-in-freely-moving-awake-mice-and-anesthetized-young-rats-without-contrast-agent
#17
Elodie Tiran, Jérémy Ferrier, Thomas Deffieux, Jean-Luc Gennisson, Sophie Pezet, Zsolt Lenkei, Mickaël Tanter
Functional ultrasound (fUS) imaging by ultrasensitive Doppler detection of blood volume was previously reported to measure adult rat brain activation and functional connectivity with unmatched spatiotemporal sampling (100 μm, 1 ms), but skull-induced attenuation of ultrasonic waves imposed skull surgery or contrast agent use. Also, fUS feasibility remains to be validated in mice, a major pre-clinical model organism. In the study described here, we performed full-depth ultrasensitive Doppler imaging and 3-D Doppler tomography of the entire mouse brain under anesthesia, non-invasively through the intact skull and skin, without contrast agents...
May 2, 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474150/association-of-arterial-stiffness-with-cognition-in-patients-with-lewy-body-disorder
#18
Dong-Woo Ryu, Joong-Seok Kim, Jee-Eun Lee, Jeong-Wook Park, Yoon-Sang Oh, Jae-Young An, Kwang-Soo Lee
The brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) is a marker for arterial stiffness, which is associated with cardiovascular diseases. Arterial stiffness is associated with cognitive function in the elderly and patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). We aimed to investigate the association between arterial stiffness and cognitive function in patients with Lewy body disorder (LBD), including Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). We consecutively included 123 patients with PD, 10 patients with DLB, and 27 AD controls...
May 5, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473633/aortic-stiffness-increased-white-matter-free-water-and-altered-microstructural-integrity-a-continuum-of-injury
#19
Pauline Maillard, Gary F Mitchell, Jayandra J Himali, Alexa Beiser, Evan Fletcher, Connie W Tsao, Matthew P Pase, Claudia L Satizabal, Ramachandran S Vasan, Sudha Seshadri, Charles DeCarli
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Previous reports from the Framingham Heart Study have identified cross-sectional associations of arterial stiffness, as reflected by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (CFPWV) and systolic blood pressure with vascular brain injury. The purpose of this study is to examine free water (FW), fractional anisotropy (FA), and white matter hyperintensities (WMH) in relation to arterial stiffness among subjects of the Framingham Offspring and Third-Generation cohorts. METHODS: In 2422 participants aged 51...
May 4, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469806/radial-extracorporeal-shock-wave-therapy-improves-cerebral-blood-flow-and-neurological-function-in-a-rat-model-of-cerebral-ischemia
#20
Nan Kang, Jing Zhang, Xiaotong Yu, Yuewen Ma
We performed middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats to investigate the effect and some of the underlying mechanisms of radial extracorporeal shock wave therapy (rESWT) in cerebral ischemia rats. We measured neurological function and cerebral blood flow (CBF) using a full-field laser perfusion imager and brain infarct volume on days 3, 12, and 30. Immunofluorescence, western blot, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques were used to detect the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), neuron-specific enolase (NSE), nestin, Wnt3a, and β-catenin in the ischemic hemisphere...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
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