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clostridium difficile 027

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929960/-antimicrobial-susceptibilities-and-molecular-characterization-of-toxin-positive-clostridium-difficile-isolates-the-first-report-on-the-presence-of-hypervirulent-strains-from-turkey
#1
Emrah Salman, Belkıs Levent, Zeynep Ceren Karahan
Clostridium difficile infection is one of the most important hospital-acquired infections. Infections caused by hypervirulent C.difficile strains which produce toxins at high levels, have higher morbidity and mortality rates, more complications and relapses. They are characterized by higher sporulation ratios and resistance rates for fluoroquinolones. In order to prevent serious morbidities, mortalities and remarkable increase in health costs, highly pathogenic C.difficile strains must be identified before causing severe outbreaks...
July 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902923/molecular-microbiological-and-clinical-characterization-of-clostridium-difficile-isolates-from-tertiary-care-hospitals-in-colombia
#2
Clara Lina Salazar, Catalina Reyes, Santiago Atehortua, Patricia Sierra, Margarita María Correa, Daniel Paredes-Sabja, Emma Best, Warren N Fawley, Mark Wilcox, Ángel González
In Colombia, the epidemiology and circulating genotypes of Clostridium difficile have not yet been described. Therefore, we molecularly characterized clinical isolates of C.difficile from patients with suspicion of C.difficile infection (CDI) in three tertiary care hospitals. C.difficile was isolated from stool samples by culture, the presence of A/B toxins were detected by enzyme immunoassay, cytotoxicity was tested by cell culture and the antimicrobial susceptibility determined. After DNA extraction, tcdA, tcdB and binary toxin (CDTa/CDTb) genes were detected by PCR, and PCR-ribotyping performed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893366/fidaxomicin-reduces-early-toxin-a-and-b-production-and-sporulation-in-clostridium-difficilein-vitro
#3
Michael J Aldape, Aaron E Packham, Dustin D Heeney, Savannah N Rice, Amy E Bryant, Dennis L Stevens
PURPOSE: Fidaxomicin, a macrocyclic antibiotic, has been approved for the treatment of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Previous work by our group has demonstrated that some antibiotics at sub-inhibitory concentrations stimulate early toxin production and sporulation by C. difficile. Prior studies revealed that fidaxomicin, when added to late stationary-phase organisms, reduced exotoxin production and spore formation by C. difficile. However, the ability of fidaxomicin to trigger early virulence factor production and spore formation has never been investigated...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871718/clostridium-difficile-infection-a-current-therapeutic-and-epidemiological-problem
#4
Aleksandra Mirecka
Clostridium difficile (CD) is the most common etiologic agent of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. The number of infections has increased dramatically in the last decade. Although the diseases caused by CD are mostly related to health care and antibiotic therapy, some are community-acquired cases. This article explains the pathogenesis of this microorganism, pointing to depletion of intestinal microflora diversity and the inadequate response of the immune system as an important factor predisposing the development of CD infection...
2017: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814976/analysis-of-proteomes-released-from-in-vitro-cultured-eight-clostridium-difficile-pcr-ribotypes-revealed-specific-expression-in-pcr-ribotypes-027-and-176-confirming-their-genetic-relatedness-and-clinical-importance-at-the-proteomic-level
#5
Jiri Dresler, Marcela Krutova, Alena Fucikova, Jana Klimentova, Veronika Hruzova, Miloslava Duracova, Katerina Houdkova, Barbora Salovska, Jana Matejkova, Martin Hubalek, Petr Pajer, Libor Pisa, Otakar Nyc
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile is the causative agent of C. difficile infection (CDI) that could be manifested by diarrhea, pseudomembranous colitis or life-threatening toxic megacolon. The spread of certain strains represents a significant economic burden for health-care. The epidemic successful strains are also associated with severe clinical features of CDI. Therefore, a proteomic study has been conducted that comprises proteomes released from in vitro cultured panel of eight different PCR ribotypes (RTs) and employs the combination of shotgun proteomics and label-free quantification (LFQ) approach...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813461/epidemiology-of-clostridium-difficile-in-infants-in-oxfordshire-uk-risk-factors-for-colonization-and-carriage-and-genetic-overlap-with-regional-c-difficile-infection-strains
#6
Nicole Stoesser, David W Eyre, T Phuong Quan, Heather Godwin, Gemma Pill, Emily Mbuvi, Alison Vaughan, David Griffiths, Jessica Martin, Warren Fawley, Kate E Dingle, Sarah Oakley, Kazimierz Wanelik, John M Finney, Melina Kachrimanidou, Catrin E Moore, Sherwood Gorbach, Thomas V Riley, Derrick W Crook, Tim E A Peto, Mark H Wilcox, A Sarah Walker
BACKGROUND: Approximately 30-40% of children <1 year of age are Clostridium difficile colonized, and may represent a reservoir for adult C. difficile infections (CDI). Risk factors for colonization with toxigenic versus non-toxigenic C. difficile strains and longitudinal acquisition dynamics in infants remain incompletely characterized. METHODS: Predominantly healthy infants (≤2 years) were recruited in Oxfordshire, UK, and provided ≥1 fecal samples. Independent risk factors for toxigenic/non-toxigenic C...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807623/spatio-temporal-variability-of-the-epidemic-027-clostridium-difficile-strains-in-france-based-on-mlva-typing
#7
Jeanne Couturier, Catherine Eckert, Frédéric Barbut
MLVA analysis of 103 PCR ribotype 027 strains showed a regional specificity and the persistence of the same clone within a hospital several years apart. Capillary electrophoresis PCR ribotyping led to the identification of seven 027 variant strains and five 176 strains, four of them being implicated in an outbreak.
August 12, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794800/genome-characterization-of-a-novel-binary-toxin-positive-strain-of-clostridium-difficile-and-comparison-with-the-epidemic-027-and-078-strains
#8
Zhong Peng, Sidi Liu, Xiujuan Meng, Wan Liang, Zhuofei Xu, Biao Tang, Yuanguo Wang, Juping Duan, Chenchao Fu, Bin Wu, Anhua Wu, Chunhui Li
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic Gram-positive spore-forming gut pathogen that causes antibiotic-associated diarrhea worldwide. A small number of C. difficile strains express the binary toxin (CDT), which is generally found in C. difficile 027 (ST1) and/or 078 (ST11) in clinic. However, we isolated a binary toxin-positive non-027, non-078 C. difficile LC693 that is associated with severe diarrhea in China. The genotype of this strain was determined as ST201. To understand the pathogenesis-basis of C...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790208/pathogenicity-locus-core-genome-and-accessory-gene-contributions-to-clostridium-difficile-virulence
#9
Brittany B Lewis, Rebecca A Carter, Lilan Ling, Ingrid Leiner, Ying Taur, Mini Kamboj, Erik R Dubberke, Joao Xavier, Eric G Pamer
Clostridium difficile is a spore-forming anaerobic bacterium that causes colitis in patients with disrupted colonic microbiota. While some individuals are asymptomatic C. difficile carriers, symptomatic disease ranges from mild diarrhea to potentially lethal toxic megacolon. The wide disease spectrum has been attributed to the infected host's age, underlying diseases, immune status, and microbiome composition. However, strain-specific differences in C. difficile virulence have also been implicated in determining colitis severity...
August 8, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782647/host-factors-are-more-important-in-predicting-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection-than-ribotype-and-use-of-antibiotics
#10
Yvette H van Beurden, Shabir Nezami, Chris J J Mulder, Christina M J E Vandenbroucke-Grauls
OBJECTIVE: A frequent complication of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is recurrent disease. The aim of this study was to determine whether early recurrence risk was higher after infection with ribotype 027 (outbreak strain) compared to infection with endemic strain types of C. difficile METHODS: Consecutive patients diagnosed with CDI between May 2013 and March 2014 were included (outbreak strain, and non-outbreak strains). Patients who developed recurrent CDI within 30 days after completion of CDI treatment, were compared to patients without a recurrence...
August 3, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747822/beneficial-effect-of-bifidobacterium-longum-atcc-15707-on-survival-rate-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-mice
#11
Bohyun Yun, Minyu Song, Dong-June Park, Sejong Oh
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the main cause of hospital-acquired diarrhea that can cause colitis or even death. The medical-treatment cost and deaths caused by CDI are increasing annually worldwide. New approaches for prevention and treatment of these infections are needed, such as the use of probiotics. Probiotics, including Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus, are microorganisms that confer a health benefit to the host when administered in adequate amounts. The effect of Bifidobacterium longum ATCC 15707 on infectious disease caused by C...
2017: Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729205/antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-clostridium-difficile-isolates-in-israel
#12
Linda Tkhawkho, Orna Nitzan, Nina Pastukh, Diana Brodsky, Karen Jackson, Avi Peretz
OBJECTIVES: An increase of Clostridium difficile isolates with reduced susceptibility to various antimicrobial agents has been observed, including isolates that are non-susceptible to antibiotics that are routinely used for treatment of C. difficile, such as vancomycin and metronidazole. We determined the susceptibility rates of C. difficile isolates from hospitals in northern Israel to various antibiotics including tigecycline, which was not previously reported from Israel. METHODS: A total of 81 stool samples were collected from three hospitals in northern Israel from patients with C...
September 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708379/chemical-genomics-structure-elucidation-and-in-vivo-studies-of-the-marine-derived-anticlostridial-ecteinamycin
#13
Thomas P Wyche, René F Ramos Alvarenga, Jeff S Piotrowski, Megan N Duster, Simone R Warrack, Gabriel Cornilescu, Travis J De Wolfe, Yanpeng Hou, Doug R Braun, Gregory A Ellis, Scott W Simpkins, Justin Nelson, Chad L Myers, James Steele, Hirotada Mori, Nasia Safdar, John L Markley, Scott R Rajski, Tim S Bugni
A polyether antibiotic, ecteinamycin (1), was isolated from a marine Actinomadura sp., cultivated from the ascidian Ecteinascidia turbinata. (13)C enrichment, high resolution NMR spectroscopy, and molecular modeling enabled elucidation of the structure of 1, which was validated on the basis of comparisons with its recently reported crystal structure. Importantly, ecteinamycin demonstrated potent activity against the toxigenic strain of Clostridium difficile NAP1/B1/027 (MIC = 59 ng/μL), as well as other toxigenic and nontoxigenic C...
September 15, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669616/clostridium-difficile-chimeric-toxin-receptor-binding-domain-vaccine-induced-protection-against-different-strains-in-active-and-passive-challenge-models
#14
Jing-Hui Tian, Gregory Glenn, David Flyer, Bin Zhou, Ye Liu, Eddie Sullivan, Hua Wu, James F Cummings, Larry Elllingsworth, Gale Smith
Clostridium difficile is the number one cause of nosocomial antibiotic-associated diarrhea in developed countries. Historically, pathogenesis was attributed two homologous glucosylating toxins, toxin-A (TcdA) and toxin-B (TcdB). Over the past decade, however, highly virulent epidemic strains of C. difficile (B1/NAP1/027) have emerged and are linked to an increase in morbidity and mortality. Increased virulence is attributed to multiple factors including: increased production of A- and B-toxins; production of binary toxin (CDT); and the emergence of more toxic TcdB variants (TcdB(027))...
July 24, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641091/increasing-rates-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-mexican-hospitals
#15
Laura Palau Dávila, Elvira Garza-González, Patricia Rodríguez-Zulueta, Rayo Morfín-Otero, Eduardo Rodríguez-Noriega, Diana Villar-Compte, Juan C Rodríguez-Aldama, Adrián Camacho-Ortiz
INTRODUCTION: The epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has changed in the last two decades. There is a lack of information regarding incidence and severity of CDI, especially in the developing world. METHODS: This was a retrospective and observational study from four hospitals of three Mexican cities. Patients were diagnosed with CDI when presented with loose stools and had at least one of the following tests positive: toxins assay, real-time PCR, or an endoscopic image compatible with pseudomembranous colitis...
June 19, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625250/-fulminant-clostridium-difficile-colitis-new-challenges-in-critical-care-medicine
#16
Bin Liu
Fulminant Clostridium difficile colitis (FCDC) means severe Clostridium difficile colitis (CDC), which often manifested with severe diarrhea, fever, abdominal distention, electrolyte disorder, hypoalbuminemia, and it can lead to pseudo membrane colonitis, toxic megacolon, bowel perforation, septic shock, and multiple organ dysfunction. Now Clostridium difficile (CD) becomes one of the most important medical institutions related infectious pathogens. In particular, the recently discovered mutant CD strain NAP1/BI/ribotype 027 has high pathogenicity in the global epidemic and its outbreak...
June 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615471/clostridium-difficile-pcr-cycle-threshold-predicts-free-toxin
#17
Fiona Senchyna, Rajiv L Gaur, Saurabh Gombar, Cynthia Y Truong, Lee F Schroeder, Niaz Banaei
There is no stand-alone Clostridium difficile diagnostic that can sensitively and rapidly detect fecal free toxins. We investigated the performance of the C. difficile PCR cycle threshold (CT ) for predicting free toxin status. Consecutive stool samples (n = 312) positive for toxigenic C. difficile by the GeneXpert C. difficile/Epi tcdB PCR assay were tested with the rapid membrane C. Diff Quik Chek Complete immunoassay (RMEIA). RMEIA toxin-negative samples were tested with the cell cytotoxicity neutralization assay (CCNA) and tgcBIOMICS enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592343/external-validation-of-three-prediction-tools-for-patients-at-risk-of-a-complicated-course-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-disappointing-in-an-outbreak-setting
#18
Yvette H van Beurden, Marjolein P M Hensgens, Olaf M Dekkers, Saskia Le Cessie, Chris J J Mulder, Christina M J E Vandenbroucke-Grauls
OBJECTIVE Estimating the risk of a complicated course of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) might help doctors guide treatment. We aimed to validate 3 published prediction models: Hensgens (2014), Na (2015), and Welfare (2011). METHODS The validation cohort comprised 148 patients diagnosed with CDI between May 2013 and March 2014. During this period, 70 endemic cases of CDI occurred as well as 78 cases of CDI related to an outbreak of C. difficile ribotype 027. Model calibration and discrimination were assessed for the 3 prediction rules...
June 8, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588767/effectiveness-of-various-cleaning-and-disinfectant-products-on-clostridium-difficile-spores-of-pcr-ribotypes-010-014-and-027
#19
N Kenters, E G W Huijskens, S C J de Wit, I G J M Sanders, J van Rosmalen, E J Kuijper, A Voss
BACKGROUND: In healthcare facilities, Clostridium difficile infections spread by transmission of bacterial spores. Appropriate sporicidal disinfectants are needed to prevent development of clusters and outbreaks. In this study different cleaning/disinfecting wipes and sprays were tested for their efficacy against spores of distinctive C. difficile PCR ribotypes. METHODS: Four different products were tested; 1) hydrogen peroxide 1.5%; 2) glucoprotamin 1.5%; 3) a mixture of ethanol, propane and N-alkyl amino propyl glycine; and 4) a mixture of didecyldimonium chloride, benzalkonium chloride, polyaminopropyl, biguanide and dimenthicone as active ingredients...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583353/the-recognition-and-characterisation-of-finnish-clostridium-difficile-isolates-resembling-pcr-ribotype-027
#20
Marcela Krutova, Otakar Nyc, Jana Matejkova, Ed J Kuijper, Jari Jalava, Silja Mentula
PURPOSE: To characterise and compare twenty-eight Finnish Clostridiumdifficile RT027-like isolates, selected based on the presence of 18 bp deletion in the tcdC gene and toxin gene profile (A, B, binary), with eleven RT027 isolates from different Finnish geographical areas and time periods. METHODS: Twenty-eight C. difficile RT027-like isolates and 11 RT027 comparative strains were characterised by capillary-electrophoresis (CE) ribotyping, multi-locus variable tandem-repeats analysis (MLVA), multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), and sequencing of tcdC and gyrA gene fragments...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
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