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clostridium difficile 027

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641091/increasing-rates-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-mexican-hospitals
#1
Laura Palau Dávila, Elvira Garza-González, Patricia Rodríguez-Zulueta, Rayo Morfín-Otero, Eduardo Rodríguez-Noriega, Diana Villar-Compte, Juan C Rodríguez-Aldama, Adrián Camacho-Ortiz
INTRODUCTION: The epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has changed in the last two decades. There is a lack of information regarding incidence and severity of CDI, especially in the developing world. METHODS: This was a retrospective and observational study from four hospitals of three Mexican cities. Patients were diagnosed with CDI when presented with loose stools and had at least one of the following tests positive: toxins assay, real-time PCR, or an endoscopic image compatible with pseudomembranous colitis...
June 19, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625250/-fulminant-clostridium-difficile-colitis-new-challenges-in-critical-care-medicine
#2
Bin Liu
Fulminant Clostridium difficile colitis (FCDC) means severe Clostridium difficile colitis (CDC), which often manifested with severe diarrhea, fever, abdominal distention, electrolyte disorder, hypoalbuminemia, and it can lead to pseudo membrane colonitis, toxic megacolon, bowel perforation, septic shock, and multiple organ dysfunction. Now Clostridium difficile (CD) becomes one of the most important medical institutions related infectious pathogens. In particular, the recently discovered mutant CD strain NAP1/BI/ribotype 027 has high pathogenicity in the global epidemic and its outbreak...
June 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615471/clostridium-difficile-pcr-cycle-threshold-predicts-free-toxin
#3
Fiona Senchyna, Rajiv L Gaur, Saurabh Gombar, Cynthia Y Truong, Lee F Schroeder, Niaz Banaei
Background. There is no stand-alone Clostridium difficile diagnostic that can sensitively and rapidly detect fecal free toxins. We investigated the performance of C. difficile PCR cycle threshold (CT) for predicting free toxin status.Method. Consecutive stool samples (n=312) positive for toxigenic C. difficile with the GeneXpert C.diff Epi tcdB PCR assay were tested with the rapid membrane C. DIFF QUIK CHEK COMPLETE immunoassay (RMEIA). RMEIA toxin-negative samples were tested with the cell cytotoxicity neutralization assay (CCNA) and tgcBIOMICS ELISA...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592343/external-validation-of-three-prediction-tools-for-patients-at-risk-of-a-complicated-course-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-disappointing-in-an-outbreak-setting
#4
Yvette H van Beurden, Marjolein P M Hensgens, Olaf M Dekkers, Saskia Le Cessie, Chris J J Mulder, Christina M J E Vandenbroucke-Grauls
OBJECTIVE Estimating the risk of a complicated course of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) might help doctors guide treatment. We aimed to validate 3 published prediction models: Hensgens (2014), Na (2015), and Welfare (2011). METHODS The validation cohort comprised 148 patients diagnosed with CDI between May 2013 and March 2014. During this period, 70 endemic cases of CDI occurred as well as 78 cases of CDI related to an outbreak of C. difficile ribotype 027. Model calibration and discrimination were assessed for the 3 prediction rules...
June 8, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588767/effectiveness-of-various-cleaning-and-disinfectant-products-on-clostridium-difficile-spores-of-pcr-ribotypes-010-014-and-027
#5
N Kenters, E G W Huijskens, S C J de Wit, I G J M Sanders, J van Rosmalen, E J Kuijper, A Voss
BACKGROUND: In healthcare facilities, Clostridium difficile infections spread by transmission of bacterial spores. Appropriate sporicidal disinfectants are needed to prevent development of clusters and outbreaks. In this study different cleaning/disinfecting wipes and sprays were tested for their efficacy against spores of distinctive C. difficile PCR ribotypes. METHODS: Four different products were tested; 1) hydrogen peroxide 1.5%; 2) glucoprotamin 1.5%; 3) a mixture of ethanol, propane and N-alkyl amino propyl glycine; and 4) a mixture of didecyldimonium chloride, benzalkonium chloride, polyaminopropyl, biguanide and dimenthicone as active ingredients...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583353/the-recognition-and-characterisation-of-finnish-clostridium-difficile-isolates-resembling-pcr-ribotype-027
#6
Marcela Krutova, Otakar Nyc, Jana Matejkova, Ed J Kuijper, Jari Jalava, Silja Mentula
PURPOSE: To characterise and compare twenty-eight Finnish Clostridiumdifficile RT027-like isolates, selected based on the presence of 18 bp deletion in the tcdC gene and toxin gene profile (A, B, binary), with eleven RT027 isolates from different Finnish geographical areas and time periods. METHODS: Twenty-eight C. difficile RT027-like isolates and 11 RT027 comparative strains were characterised by capillary-electrophoresis (CE) ribotyping, multi-locus variable tandem-repeats analysis (MLVA), multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), and sequencing of tcdC and gyrA gene fragments...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575285/comparison-of-control-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-six-english-hospitals-using-whole-genome-sequencing
#7
David W Eyre, Warren N Fawley, Anu Rajgopal, Christopher Settle, Kalani Mortimer, Simon D Goldenberg, Susan Dawson, Derrick W Crook, Tim E A Peto, A Sarah Walker, Mark H Wilcox
Background.: Variation in Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) rates between healthcare institutions suggests overall incidence could be reduced if the lowest rates could be achieved more widely. Methods.: We used whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of consecutive C. difficile isolates from 6 English hospitals over 1 year (2013-14) to compare infection control performance. Fecal samples with a positive initial screen for C. difficile were sequenced. Within each hospital, we estimated the proportion of cases plausibly acquired from previous cases...
May 29, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555402/clostridium-difficile-infections-in-finland-2008-2015-trends-diagnostics-and-ribotypes
#8
S Mentula, S M Kotila, O Lyytikäinen, S Ibrahem, J Ollgren, A Virolainen
We evaluated Clostridium difficile (CD) diagnostics in Finnish clinical microbiology laboratories during 2006-2011, with an update in 2015, in relation to CD surveillance data of the National Infectious Disease Register (NIDR) and ribotyping data from the national reference laboratory during the years 2008-2015. In 2011, diagnostic activity varied regionally more than three-fold and the positivity rate ranged between 7 and 21%. Nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) was implemented in the regions with high activity and NAAT users tested 30% more patients and found 15% more cases per population than those not using it...
May 30, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511200/enteric-infection-in-relapse-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-the-utility-of-stool-microbial-pcr-testing
#9
Jordan E Axelrad, Andrew Joelson, Yael R Nobel, Garrett Lawlor, Peter H R Green, Simon Lichtiger, Benjamin Lebwohl
BACKGROUND: The similar presentations in relapse of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and enteric infection pose substantial barriers to diagnosis and treatment. The objective of this study was to investigate the incidence, etiology, predictors, and treatment of enteric infection in patients with IBD. METHODS: We reviewed the records of 214 patients with IBD who underwent 295 gastrointestinal pathogen panel and Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) stool tests during an exacerbation of symptoms...
June 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501926/an-outbreak-of-clostridium-difficile-pcr-ribotype-027-in-spain-risk-factors-for-recurrence-and-a-novel-treatment-strategy
#10
E Bouza, L Alcalá, M Marín, M Valerio, E Reigadas, P Muñoz, M González-Del Vecchio, V de Egea
An outbreak of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) caused by ribotype 027 (B1/NAP1) began in our hospital in November 2014, and produced 141 episodes in the following months. The aim of this study is to describe this outbreak, assess risk factors for recurrence of CDI-027 and to analyze the implementation of a novel treatment strategy. This is a prospective study of all patients with CDI-027, from November 2014 to November 2015. The epidemiological data were collected daily for each patient. We compared clinical characteristics and treatment between patients with and without recurrence of CDI-027...
May 13, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480289/community-environmental-contamination-of-toxigenic-clostridium-difficile
#11
M Jahangir Alam, Seth T Walk, Bradley T Endres, Eugenie Basseres, Mohammed Khaleduzzaman, Jonathan Amadio, William L Musick, Jennifer L Christensen, Julie Kuo, Robert L Atmar, Kevin W Garey
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infection is often considered to result from recent acquisition of a C difficile isolate in a healthcare setting. However, C difficile spores can persist for long periods of time, suggesting a potentially large community environmental reservoir. The objectives of this study were to assess community environmental contamination of toxigenic C difficile and to assess strain distribution in environmental versus clinical isolates. METHODS: From 2013 to 2015, we collected community environmental swabs from homes and public areas in Houston, Texas to assess C difficile contamination...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435086/toxigenic-clostridium-difficile-colonization-among-hospitalised-adults-risk-factors-and-impact-on-survival
#12
Laura Behar, David Chadwick, Angela Dunne, Christopher I Jones, Claire Proctor, Chakravarthi Rajkumar, Paula Sharratt, Philip Stanley, Angela Whiley, Mark Wilks, Martin J Llewelyn
OBJECTIVES: To establish risk factors for Clostridium difficile colonization among hospitalized patients in England. METHODS: Patients admitted to elderly medicine wards at three acute hospitals in England were recruited to a prospective observational study. Participants were asked to provide a stool sample as soon as possible after enrolment and then weekly during their hospital stay. Samples were cultured for C. difficile before ribotyping and toxin detection by PCR...
July 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396132/clostridium-difficile-infection
#13
REVIEW
Luis Alcalá Hernández, Elena Reigadas Ramírez, Emilio Bouza Santiago
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the main cause of nosocomial diarrhea in industrialized countries and the source of a growing number of cases of diarrhea in the community. The outbreak of the hypervirulent strain belonging to ribotype 027 has increased the incidence and severity of CDI in some countries. Although CDI usually courses as a mild diarrhea it can lead to severe forms such as toxic megacolon or septic shock. One of every 2 episodes of CDI is not diagnosed in Spanish hospitals due to a lack of clinical suspicion or the use of insensitive diagnostic methods...
April 8, 2017: Medicina Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353450/predominance-of-clostridium-difficile-027-during-a-five-year-period-in-bolzano-northern-italy
#14
Richard Aschbacher, Alexander Indra, Christian J Wiedermann, Albert March, Bruno Giacon, Peter Mian, Mirella Bombonato, Angelika Kaneppele, Stefano Sansone, Johanna Burth, Alessandro Felici, Franziska Ebner, Werner Passler, Renelda M Lerchner, Claudio Vedovelli, Greta Spoladore, Raffaella Binazzi, Leonardo Pagani, Ludwig Moroder, Clara Larcher, Elisabetta Pagani
Toxigenic Clostridium difficile is responsible for antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and other diseases. The increasing frequency and severity is attributed to highly-virulent ribotypes such as 027. The aim of the study was to collect epidemiological and molecular data for C. difficile isolates during 2009-2013 in the Central Hospital of Bolzano, Northern Italy. Stool samples from inpatients of the Bolzano Central Hospital were screened for toxins A and B, and C. difficile was cultured and tested for antibiotic susceptibility...
March 1, 2017: Le Infezioni in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335725/surface-layer-proteins-from-virulent-clostridium-difficile-ribotypes-exhibit-signatures-of-positive-selection-with-consequences-for-innate-immune-response
#15
Mark Lynch, Thomas A Walsh, Izabela Marszalowska, Andrew E Webb, Micheál MacAogain, Thomas R Rogers, Henry Windle, Dermot Kelleher, Mary J O'Connell, Christine E Loscher
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile is a nosocomial pathogen prevalent in hospitals worldwide and increasingly common in the community. Sequence differences have been shown to be present in the Surface Layer Proteins (SLPs) from different C. difficile ribotypes (RT) however whether these differences influence severity of infection is still not clear. RESULTS: We used a molecular evolutionary approach to analyse SLPs from twenty-six C. difficile RTs representing different slpA sequences...
March 23, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279860/inhibition-of-spore-germination-growth-and-toxin-activity-of-clinically-relevant-c-%C3%A2-difficile-strains-by-gut-microbiota-derived-secondary-bile-acids
#16
Rajani Thanissery, Jenessa A Winston, Casey M Theriot
The changing epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection over the past decades presents a significant challenge in the management of C. difficile associated diseases. The gastrointestinal tract microbiota provides colonization resistance against C. difficile, and growing evidence suggests that gut microbial derived secondary bile acids (SBAs) play a role. We hypothesized that the C. difficile life cycle; spore germination and outgrowth, growth, and toxin production, of strains that vary by age and ribotype will differ in their sensitivity to SBAs...
June 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239451/management-of-a-cluster-of-clostridium-difficile-infections-among-patients-with-osteoarticular-infections
#17
Jacqueline Färber, Sebastian Illiger, Fabian Berger, Barbara Gärtner, Lutz von Müller, Christoph H Lohmann, Katja Bauer, Christina Grabau, Stefanie Zibolka, Dirk Schlüter, Gernot Geginat
BACKGROUND: Here we describe a cluster of hospital-acquired Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) among 26 patients with osteoarticular infections. The aim of the study was to define the source of C. difficile and to evaluate the impact of general infection control measures and antibiotic stewardship on the incidence of CDI. METHODS: Epidemiological analysis included typing of C. difficile strains and analysis of possible patient to patient transmission. Infection control measures comprised strict isolation of CDI patients, additional hand washings, and intensified environmental cleaning with sporicidal disinfection...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216085/occurrence-of-clostridium-difficile-ribotype-027-in-hospitals-of-silesia-poland
#18
Małgorzata Aptekorz, Anna Szczegielniak, Barbara Wiechuła, Celine Harmanus, Ed Kuijper, Gayane Martirosian
Clostridium difficile is an important healthcare-associated pathogen, responsible for a broad spectrum of diarrheal diseases. The aim of this prospective study was to determine the occurrence of C. difficile infection (CDI), to characterize cultured C. difficile strains and to investigate the association of fecal lactoferrin with CDI. Between January 2013 and June 2014, 148 stool samples were obtained from adult diarrheal patients (C. difficile as a suspected pathogen) hospitalized in different healthcare facilities of 15 Silesian hospitals...
June 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209199/making-life-difficult-for-clostridium-difficile-augmenting-the-pathogen-s-metabolic-model-with-transcriptomic-and-codon-usage-data-for-better-therapeutic-target-characterization
#19
Sara Saheb Kashaf, Claudio Angione, Pietro Lió
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile is a bacterium which can infect various animal species, including humans. Infection with this bacterium is a leading healthcare-associated illness. A better understanding of this organism and the relationship between its genotype and phenotype is essential to the search for an effective treatment. Genome-scale metabolic models contain all known biochemical reactions of a microorganism and can be used to investigate this relationship. RESULTS: We present icdf834, an updated metabolic network of C...
February 16, 2017: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169013/cost-analysis-of-an-outbreak-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-ribotype-027-in-a-dutch-tertiary-care-centre
#20
Y H van Beurden, M K Bomers, S D van der Werff, E A P M Pompe, S Spiering, C M J E Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C J J Mulder
BACKGROUND: The economic impact of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) on the healthcare system is significant. From May 2013 to May 2014, an outbreak of C. difficile ribotype 027 occurred in a Dutch tertiary care hospital, involving 72 patients. The primary aim of this study was to provide insight into the financial burden that this CDI outbreak brought upon this hospital. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed to estimate the costs of a one-year-long C...
April 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
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