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clostridium difficile 027

Maja Rupnik, Arjana Tambic Andrasevic, Elena Trajkovska Dokic, Ivanka Matas, Milica Jovanovic, Selma Pasic, Aleksander Kocuvan, Sandra Janezic
While Clostridium difficile epidemiology is well documented in many European countries, data are largely missing for South Eastern European region. Here we report the PCR ribotype distribution of 249 C. difficile isolates received for typing from six hospital settings from Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Republic of Macedonia and Serbia in time period from 2008 to 2015. Twenty-four PCR ribotypes were detected. The majority of strains from Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia belonged to PCR ribotype 027 (65...
October 15, 2016: Anaerobe
Abrar K Thabit, M Jahangir Alam, Carey-Ann D Burnham, David P Nicolau
Molecular typing of Clostridium difficile is performed to assess strain relatedness or place strains within an epidemiological context. Different C. difficile ribotyping systems are available. However, a common strain library does not exist. We aimed to compare ribotyping results of 29 clinical C. difficile isolates by two methods: semiautomated PCR-ribotyping and fluorescent PCR-ribotyping. For certain ribotypes (n = 16/29; 55.2 %), the inter-laboratory reproducibility was consistent among multiple samples from individual subjects, while 54...
October 11, 2016: Archives of Microbiology
Fabrizio Barbanti, Patrizia Spigaglia
Recent surveys indicate that the majority of toxigenic Clostridium difficile strains isolated in European hospitals belonged to PCR-ribotypes (RTs) different from RT 027 or RT 078. Among these types, RT 018 has been reported in Italy and, more recently, in Korea and Japan. In Italy, strains RT 018 have become predominant in the early 2000s, whereas the majority of strains isolated before were RT 126, a type belonging to the same lineage as the RT 078. In this study, we have found that Italian strains RT 018 are resistant to erythromycin, clindamycin, moxifloxacin and rifampicin...
October 7, 2016: Anaerobe
Cristina Rodriguez, Bernard Taminiau, Nicolas Korsak, Véronique Avesani, Johan Van Broeck, Philippe Brach, Michel Delmée, Georges Daube
BACKGROUND: Increasing age, several co-morbidities, environmental contamination, antibiotic exposure and other intestinal perturbations appear to be the greatest risk factors for C. difficile infection (CDI). Therefore, elderly care home residents are considered particularly vulnerable to the infection. The main objective of this study was to evaluate and follow the prevalence of C. difficile in 23 elderly care home residents weekly during a 4-month period. A C. difficile microbiological detection scheme was performed along with an overall microbial biodiversity study of the faeces content by 16S rRNA gene analysis...
October 1, 2016: BMC Microbiology
Esmeralda Valiente, Laura Bouché, Paul Hitchen, Alexandra Faulds-Pain, Mario Songane, Lisa F Dawson, Elizabeth Donahue, Richard A Stabler, Maria Panico, Howard R Morris, Mona Bajaj-Elliott, Susan M Logan, Anne Dell, Brendan W Wren
Clostridium difficile is the principal cause of nosocomial infectious diarrhoea worldwide. The pathogen modifies its flagellin with either a type A or type B O-linked glycosylation system, which has a contributory role in pathogenesis. We study the functional role of glycosyltransferases modifying type B flagellin in the 023 and 027 hypervirulent C. difficile lineages by mutagenesis of five putative glycosyltransferases and biosynthetic genes. We reveal their roles in the biosynthesis of the flagellin glycan chain and demonstrate that flagellar post-translational modification affects motility and adhesion-related bacterial properties of these strains...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Saara M Kotila, Silja Mentula, Jukka Ollgren, Anni Virolainen-Julkunen, Outi Lyytikäinen
We evaluated incidence, case-fatality rate, and trends of community-associated (CA) and healthcare-associated (HA) Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs) in Finland during 2008-2013. CDIs were identified in the National Infectious Disease Register, deaths in the National Population Information System, hospitalizations to classify infections as CA or HA in the National Hospital Discharge Register, and genotypes in a reference laboratory. A total of 32,991 CDIs were identified: 10,643 (32.3%) were CA (32.9 cases/100,000 population) and 22,348 (67...
October 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Tamar Miller-Roll, Wasef Na'amnih, Dani Cohen, Yehuda Carmeli, Amos Adler
The aims of this prospective study were to examine the correlation between the molecular types and the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Clostridium difficile isolates with the source of acquisition and the occurrence of C. difficile infections (CDI) in a tertiary center in Israel. All available isolates from community-acquired (CA) CDI episodes (n=43) and matching numbers of isolates from community-onset, hospital acquired (CO-HA, n=67) and HA-CDI (n=56) and 32 cases of recurrent CDI were typed and tested for susceptibility to vancomycin and metronidazole...
August 26, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Major Gooyit, Kim D Janda
Prolonged use of broad-spectrum antibiotics disrupts the indigenous gut microbiota, which consequently enables toxigenic Clostridium difficile species to proliferate and cause infection. The burden of C. difficile infections was exacerbated with the outbreak of hypervirulent strains that produce copious amounts of enterotoxins and spores. In recent past, membrane-active agents have generated a surge of interest due to their bactericidal property with a low propensity for resistance. In this study, we capitalized on the antimicrobial property and low oral bioavailability of salicylanilide anthelmintics (closantel, rafoxanide, niclosamide, oxyclozanide) to target the gut pathogen...
2016: Scientific Reports
Eric M Fountain, Maggie C Moses, Lawrence P Park, Christopher W Woods, Gowthami M Arepally
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a common cause of nosocomial diarrhea and colitis. The incidence and prognostic significance of thrombocytopenia as related to mode of acquisition (hospital vs. community), NAP1/027 strain, and disease severity has not been examined. We performed a single-institution retrospective analysis of all adult inpatients from 2013 to 2014 diagnosed with CDI during their hospitalization to document the incidence/prevalence of thrombocytopenia and associated outcomes. Severe disease was defined by a composite endpoint of inpatient death, death within 30 days of discharge, presence of septic shock, or need for colectomy during hospitalization...
September 10, 2016: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
Carrie A Cowardin, Erica L Buonomo, Mahmoud M Saleh, Madeline G Wilson, Stacey L Burgess, Sarah A Kuehne, Carsten Schwan, Anna M Eichhoff, Friedrich Koch-Nolte, Dena Lyras, Klaus Aktories, Nigel P Minton, William A Petri
Clostridium difficile is the most common hospital acquired pathogen in the USA, and infection is, in many cases, fatal. Toxins A and B are its major virulence factors, but expression of a third toxin, known as C. difficile transferase (CDT), is increasingly common. An adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribosyltransferase that causes actin cytoskeletal disruption, CDT is typically produced by the major, hypervirulent strains and has been associated with more severe disease. Here, we show that CDT enhances the virulence of two PCR-ribotype 027 strains in mice...
2016: Nature Microbiology
Judith Tóth, Edith Urbán, Hilda Osztie, Márta Benczik, Alexander Indra, Elisabeth Nagy, Franz Allerberger
Following the first description of a Clostridium difficile case caused by ribotype 027 in Hungary in 2007, the rapid spread of C. difficile infection in different hospitals within the country was observed. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the distribution of different PCR-ribotypes among inpatient and outpatient isolates obtained in two geographically different parts of Hungary. One hundred and ninety-two toxigenic C. difficile isolates collected between 1st October and 1st December, 2014 were PCR-ribotyped using capillary gel electrophoresis and the database of WEBRIBO (http://webribo...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Yvette H van Beurden, Olaf M Dekkers, Marije K Bomers, Annie M Kaiser, Robin van Houdt, Cornelis W Knetsch, Armand R J Girbes, Chris J J Mulder, Christina M J E Vandenbroucke-Grauls
BACKGROUND: An outbreak of Clostridium difficile ribotype 027 infection (CDI) occurred at an university hospital, involving 19 departments. To determine what hospital-associated factors drove the outbreak of this particular strain we performed a case-control study. METHODS: Cases (n = 79), diagnosed with CDI due to C. difficile ribotype 027 were matched for age and treating medical specialty to four control patients (n = 316). Patients diagnosed with CDI due to other ribotypes were included as a second control group...
2016: PloS One
M Krutova, O Nyc, J Matejkova, F Allerberger, M H Wilcox, E J Kuijper
Clostridium difficile is a leading nosocomial pathogen and molecular typing is a crucial part of monitoring its occurrence and spread. Over a three-year period (2013-2015), clinical C. difficile isolates from 32 Czech hospitals were collected for molecular characterisation. Of 2201 C. difficile isolates, 177 (8%) were non-toxigenic, 2024 (92%) were toxigenic (tcdA and tcdB) and of these, 677 (33.5%) carried genes for binary toxin production (cdtA, cdtB). Capillary-electrophoresis (CE) ribotyping of the 2201 isolates yielded 166 different CE-ribotyping profiles, of which 53 were represented by at least two isolates for each profile...
August 5, 2016: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Hon Wai Koon, Bowei Su, Chunlan Xu, Caroline C Mussatto, Diana Hoang-Ngoc Tran, Elaine C Lee, Christina Ortiz, Jiani Wang, Jung Eun Lee, Samantha Ho, Xinhua Chen, Ciaran P Kelly, Charalabos Pothoulakis
C. difficile infection (CDI) is a common debilitating nosocomial infection associated with high mortality. Several CDI outbreaks have been attributed to ribotypes 027, 017, and 078. Clinical and experimental evidence indicates that the nonpathogenic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 (S.b) is effective for the prevention of CDI. However, there is no current evidence suggesting this probiotic can protect from CDI caused by outbreak-associated strains. We used established hamster models infected with outbreak-associated C...
October 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Warren N Fawley, Kerrie A Davies, Trefor Morris, Peter Parnell, Robin Howe, Mark H Wilcox
There are limited national epidemiological data for community-associated (CA)-Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs). Between March 2011 and March 2013, laboratories in England submitted to the Clostridium difficile Ribotyping Network (CDRN) up to 10 diarrhoeal faecal samples from successive patients with CA-CDI, defined here as C. difficile toxin-positive diarrhoea commencing outside hospital (or less than 48 hours after hospital admission), including those cases associated with community-based residential care, with no discharge from hospital within the previous 12 weeks...
July 21, 2016: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
Nadim Cassir, Jean-Christophe Delarozière, Gregory Dubourg, Marion Delord, Jean-Christophe Lagier, Phillipe Brouqui, Florence Fenollar, Didier Raoult, Pierre Edouard Fournier
OBJECTIVE To describe and analyze a large outbreak of Clostridium difficile 027 (CD-027) infections. METHODS Confirmed CD-027 cases were defined as CD infection plus real-time polymerase chain reaction assay (PCR) positive for CD-027. Clinical and microbiological data on patients with CD-027 infection were collected from January 2013 to December 2015 in the Provence-Alpes-Côte-d'Azur region (southeastern France). RESULTS In total, 19 healthcare facilities reported 144 CD-027 infections (112 confirmed and 32 probable CD-027 infections) during a 22-month period outbreak...
November 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Sofie M van Dorp, Pete Kinross, Petra Gastmeier, Michael Behnke, Axel Kola, Michel Delmée, Anastasia Pavelkovich, Silja Mentula, Frédéric Barbut, Agnes Hajdu, André Ingebretsen, Hanna Pituch, Ioana S Macovei, Milica Jovanović, Camilla Wiuff, Daniela Schmid, Katharina Ep Olsen, Mark H Wilcox, Carl Suetens, Ed J Kuijper
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) remains poorly controlled in many European countries, of which several have not yet implemented national CDI surveillance. In 2013, experts from the European CDI Surveillance Network project and from the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control developed a protocol with three options of CDI surveillance for acute care hospitals: a 'minimal' option (aggregated hospital data), a 'light' option (including patient data for CDI cases) and an 'enhanced' option (including microbiological data on the first 10 CDI episodes per hospital)...
July 21, 2016: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
Kerrie A Davies, Helen Ashwin, Christopher M Longshaw, David A Burns, Georgina L Davis, Mark H Wilcox
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the major cause of infective diarrhoea in healthcare environments. As part of the European, multicentre, prospective, biannual, point-prevalence study of Clostridium difficile infection in hospitalised patients with diarrhoea (EUCLID), the largest C. difficile epidemiological study of its type, PCR ribotype distribution of C. difficile isolates in Europe was investigated. PCR ribotyping was performed on 1,196 C. difficile isolates from diarrhoeal samples sent to the European coordinating laboratory in 2012-13 and 2013 (from two sampling days) by 482 participating hospitals from 19 European countries...
July 21, 2016: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
Miklos Fuzi
Fitness cost associated with resistance to fluoroquinolones was recently shown to vary across clones of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae. The resulting dissimilar fitness should have influenced the clonal dynamics and thereby the rates of resistance for these pathogens. Moreover, a similar mechanism was recently proposed for the emergence of the H30 and H30R lineages of ESBL-producing E. coli and the major international clone (ribotype 027) of Clostridium difficile...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Alice von Eichel-Streiber, Wonbeom Paik, Katherine Knight, Karina Gisch, Karolina Nadjafi, Christine Decker, Oliver Bosnjak, Adam Cheknis, Stuart Johnson, Christoph von Eichel-Streiber
According to the literature Clostridium difficile antitoxins are present in up to 66% of humans. In a survey of ∼400 plasma samples from healthy blood donors we found that less than 6% were positive for anti-TcdA or anti-TcdB antitoxins. Using the same standard immunoassay protocol, we looked for IgG and IgA antitoxins in the blood and stool samples from 25 patients with C. difficile infection (CDI). Some patients with CDI had no antitoxin detected at all, while others had high levels of specific IgG- and IgA-antitoxins against both TcdA and TcdB in blood and IgA-anti-TcdA and -anti-TcdB antibodies in stool...
July 14, 2016: Anaerobe
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