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clostridium difficile 027

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760687/molecular-characterization-of-clostridium-difficil-e-isolates-in-china-from-2010-to-2015
#1
Xiao-Shu Liu, Wen-Ge Li, Wen-Zhu Zhang, Yuan Wu, Jin-Xing Lu
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has become a worldwide public health problem causing high mortality and a large disease burden. Molecular typing and analysis is important for surveillance and infection control of CDI. However, molecular characterization of C . difficile across China is extremely rare. Here, we report on the toxin profiles, molecular subtyping with multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and PCR ribotyping, and epidemiological characteristics of 199 C. difficile isolates collected between 2010 through 2015 from 13 participating centers across China...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718329/antimicrobial-susceptibility-and-ribotypes-of-clostridium-difficile-isolates-from-a-phase-2-clinical-trial-of-ridinilazole-smt19969-and-vancomycin
#2
David R Snydman, Laura A McDermott, Cheleste M Thorpe, Justin Chang, Jenna Wick, Seth T Walk, Richard J Vickers
Objectives: We evaluated the antimicrobial susceptibility and ribotypes of Clostridium difficile isolates from participants in a Phase 2 study of ridinilazole, a novel targeted-spectrum agent for treatment of C. difficile infection. Methods: Participants received ridinilazole (200 mg twice daily) or vancomycin (125 mg four times daily) for 10 days (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02092935). The MICs of ridinilazole and comparators for C. difficile isolates from stool samples were determined by agar dilution...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698754/hmw-profiling-using-maldi-tof-ms-a-screening-method-for-outbreaks-of-clostridioides-difficile
#3
Lucía Ortega, Anna Ryberg, Åsa Johansson
Clostridioides difficile (CD), previously known as Clostridium difficile, is an anaerobic Gram-positive rod-shaped bacterium that causes mild to severe diarrhea mainly in hospitalized patients. The bacteria are easily spread between patients and can persist in hospital wards due to its ability to form spores. An outbreak of CD causes great sufferings for patients and is in many aspects very expensive for the health care organization. Continuously monitoring circulating CD isolates in the hospital as well as being able to detect possible spread between patients at an early phase would be of great benefit...
April 23, 2018: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665558/prevalence-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-hospitalized-patients-with-diarrhoea-results-of-a-polish-multicenter-prospective-biannual-point-prevalence-study
#4
Hanna Pituch, Piotr Obuch-Woszczatyński, Dominika Lachowicz, Robert Kuthan, Katarzyna Dzierżanowska-Fangrat, Agnieszka Mikucka, Katarzyna Jermakow, Aleksandra Pituch-Zdanowska, Kerrie Davies
PURPOSE: We aimed to measure the underdiagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection across Poland and the distribution of PCR-ribotypes of C. difficile. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty seven Polish healthcare facilities (HCFs) participated in this prospective study. Each HCF systematically sent all diarrhoeal stools received from inpatients at their laboratories on two days (one in January 2013 and one in July 2013), independently of CDI test request, to the National Coordinating Laboratory (NCL) for standardized testing of CDI...
April 13, 2018: Advances in Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659753/patient-and-strain-characteristics-associated-with-clostridium-difficile-transmission-and-adverse-outcomes
#5
Jessica S H Martin, David W Eyre, Warren N Fawley, David Griffiths, Kerrie Davies, Damian P C Mawer, Timothy E A Peto, Derrick W Crook, A Sarah Walker, Mark H Wilcox
Background: No previous study has used whole-genome sequencing (WGS) to investigate risk factors for C. difficile(CD) transmission between symptomatic cases, or assessed the impact of recent acquisition on patient outcome. Methods: This retrospective cohort study included consecutive diarrhoeal samples positive by cytotoxin assay in Leeds, UK(Aug10-Apr12). All samples underwent culture, ribotyping and WGS(Illumina). Sequenced isolates were compared using single nucleotide variants(SNVs)...
April 12, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659747/two-distinct-patterns-of-clostridium-difficile-diversity-across-europe-indicates-contrasting-routes-of-spread
#6
David W Eyre, Kerrie A Davies, Georgina Davis, Warren N Fawley, Kate E Dingle, Nicola De Maio, Andreas Karas, Derrick W Crook, Tim E A Peto, A Sarah Walker, Mark H Wilcox
Background: Rates of Clostridium difficile infection vary widely across Europe, as do prevalent ribotypes. The extent of Europe-wide diversity within each ribotype is however unknown. Methods: Inpatient diarrhoeal faecal samples submitted on one day in summer and winter (2012-2013) to laboratories in 482 European hospitals were cultured for C. difficile, and isolates ribotyped; those from the 10 most prevalent ribotypes were Illumina whole-genome sequenced. Pairwise single nucleotide differences (SNPs) were obtained from recombination-corrected maximum-likelihood phylogenies...
April 6, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627510/occurrence-of-clostridium-difficile-infections-in-serbia-and-high-proportion-of-pcr-ribotype-027-strains-in-two-hospitals-in-belgrade
#7
Milica Jovanović, Tanja Tošić, Mitra Drakulović, Rajica Stošović, Snežana Jovanović
BACKGROUND: The incidence of Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) in the Clinical Center of Serbia (CCS) and the entire Serbia has been constantly rising in the previous 5 years. We aimed to study C. difficile PCR-ribotypes isolated from patients hospitalized at two healthcare institutions: CCS and Specialized Hospital for Cerebrovascular Diseases "Sveti Sava" (SS), both of them from Belgrade, and to investigate the incidence rates of CDI in hospital settings in Serbia, from 2009 to 2013...
April 5, 2018: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567127/poor-yield-of-clostridium-difficile-testing-algorithms-using-glutamate-dehydrogenase-antigen-and-c-difficile-toxin-enzyme-immunoassays-in-a-pediatric-population-with-declining-prevalence-of-clostridium-difficile-strain-bi-nap1-027
#8
Emily J Gomez, Sandra Montgomery, Kevin Alby, Diana P Robinson, Sylvester S Roundtree, Deborah Blecker-Shelly, Kaede V Sullivan
We compared the performance of algorithmic Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) diagnosis with four molecular tests in children. Stool samples in patients 1-18 years old were tested with an algorithm (C. Diff Quik Chek Complete (QCC) reflexed to illumigene C. difficile); AmpliVue C. difficile (ACD); Lyra Direct C. difficile (Lyra); BD MAX C diff (BDM); and Xpert C. difficile (XCD). The gold standard was positivity by two tests. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 85%, 99%, 93%, 97% for the algorithm; 21%, 99%, 78%, 87% for QCC's toxin component; 94%, 99%, 94%, 99% for ACD; 88%, 99%, 94%, 98% for Lyra; 94%, 100%, 100%, 99% for BDM, and 94%, 99%, 94% and 99% for XCD...
February 25, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562266/clinical-practice-guidelines-for-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-adults-and-children-2017-update-by-the-infectious-diseases-society-of-america-idsa-and-society-for-healthcare-epidemiology-of-america-shea
#9
L Clifford McDonald, Dale N Gerding, Stuart Johnson, Johan S Bakken, Karen C Carroll, Susan E Coffin, Erik R Dubberke, Kevin W Garey, Carolyn V Gould, Ciaran Kelly, Vivian Loo, Julia Shaklee Sammons, Thomas J Sandora, Mark H Wilcox
A panel of experts was convened by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) to update the 2010 clinical practice guideline on Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in adults. The update, which has incorporated recommendations for children (following the adult recommendations for epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment), includes significant changes in the management of this infection and reflects the evolving controversy over best methods for diagnosis...
March 19, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533173/clostridium-difficile-shows-no-trade-off-between-toxin-and-spore-production-within-the-human-host
#10
Natalia Blanco, Seth Walk, Anurag N Malani, Alexander Rickard, Michele Benn, Marisa Eisenberg, Min Zhang, Betsy Foxman
PURPOSE: This study aimed to describe the correlation between Clostridium difficile spore and toxin levels within the human host. In addition, we assessed whether overgrowth of Candida albicans modified this association. METHODOLOGY: We measured toxin, spore and Candida albicans levels among 200 successively collected stool samples that tested positive for C. difficile, and PCR ribotyped these C. difficile isolates. Analysis of variance and linear regression were used to test the association between spore and toxin levels...
May 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485939/circulation-of-highly-drug-resistant-clostridium-difficile-ribotypes-027-and-001-in-two-tertiary-care-hospitals-in-mexico
#11
Adrián Martínez-Meléndez, Laura Tijerina-Rodríguez, Rayo Morfin-Otero, Adrián Camacho-Ortíz, Licet Villarreal-Treviño, Hugo Sánchez-Alanís, Eduardo Rodríguez-Noriega, Simon D Baines, Samantha Flores-Treviño, Héctor Jesús Maldonado-Garza, Elvira Garza-González
OBJECTIVE: To assess drug susceptibility and characterize Clostridium difficile ribotypes in isolates from two tertiary-care hospitals in Mexico. METHODS: Isolates were evaluated for genotyping, antimicrobial susceptibility testing and detection of mutations associated with drug resistance. PCR ribotyping was performed using a combination of gel-based and capillary electrophoresis-based approaches. RESULTS: MIC50 and MIC90 were ≥128 mg/L for ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, clindamycin, and rifampicin...
May 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474439/the-zoonotic-potential-of-clostridium-difficile-from-small-companion-animals-and-their-owners
#12
Denise Rabold, Werner Espelage, Muna Abu Sin, Tim Eckmanns, Alexander Schneeberg, Heinrich Neubauer, Nadine Möbius, Katja Hille, Lothar H Wieler, Christian Seyboldt, Antina Lübke-Becker
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) in humans range from asymptomatic carriage to life-threatening intestinal disease. Findings on C. difficile in various animal species and an overlap in ribotypes (RTs) suggest potential zoonotic transmission. However, the impact of animals for human CDI remains unclear. METHODS: In a large-scale survey we collected 1,447 fecal samples to determine the occurrence of C. difficile in small companion animals (dogs and cats) and their owners and to assess potential epidemiological links within the community...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462280/clinical-practice-guidelines-for-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-adults-and-children-2017-update-by-the-infectious-diseases-society-of-america-idsa-and-society-for-healthcare-epidemiology-of-america-shea
#13
L Clifford McDonald, Dale N Gerding, Stuart Johnson, Johan S Bakken, Karen C Carroll, Susan E Coffin, Erik R Dubberke, Kevin W Garey, Carolyn V Gould, Ciaran Kelly, Vivian Loo, Julia Shaklee Sammons, Thomas J Sandora, Mark H Wilcox
A panel of experts was convened by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) to update the 2010 clinical practice guideline on Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in adults. The update, which has incorporated recommendations for children (following the adult recommendations for epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment), includes significant changes in the management of this infection and reflects the evolving controversy over best methods for diagnosis...
March 19, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456070/pcr-ribotyping-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing-of-isolates-of-clostridium-difficile-cultured-from-toxin-positive-diarrheal-stools-of-patients-receiving-medical-care-in-canadian-hospitals-the-canadian-clostridium-difficile-surveillance-study-can-diff
#14
James A Karlowsky, Heather J Adam, Tyler Kosowan, Melanie R Baxter, Kim A Nichol, Nancy M Laing, George Golding, George G Zhanel
Clostridium difficile toxin-positive diarrheal stool specimens submitted to eight Canadian hospital laboratories from 2013 to 2015 were cultured. Polymerase chain reaction ribotyping of isolates was performed using an internationally standardized, high-resolution capillary gel-based electrophoresis protocol and antimicrobial susceptibility testing conducted by CLSI-defined agar dilution (M11-A8, 2012). Among the 1310 isolates of C. difficile cultured, 141 different ribotypes were identified; the most common ribotypes were 027 (24...
January 31, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443839/how-common-and-how-serious-is-clostridium-difficile-colitis-after-geriatric-hip-fracture-findings-from-the-nsqip-dataset
#15
Patawut Bovonratwet, Daniel D Bohl, Glenn S Russo, Nathaniel T Ondeck, Denis Nam, Craig J Della Valle, Jonathan N Grauer
BACKGROUND: Patients with geriatric hip fractures may be at increased risk for postoperative Clostridium difficile colitis, which can cause severe morbidity and can influence hospital quality metrics. However, to our knowledge, no large database study has calculated the incidence of, factors associated with, and effect of C. difficile colitis on geriatric patients undergoing hip fracture surgery. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: To use a large national database with in-hospital and postdischarge data (National Surgical Quality Improvement Program [NSQIP®]) to (1) determine the incidence and timing of C...
March 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422805/rapid-and-accurate-diagnosis-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-by-real-time-polymerase-chain-reaction
#16
Pil Hun Song, Jung Hwa Min, You Sun Kim, Soo Yeon Jo, Eun Jin Kim, Kyung Jin Lee, Jeonghun Lee, Hyun Sung, Jeong Seop Moon, Dong Hee Whang
Background/Aims: The incidence and severity of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) have increased worldwide, resulting in a need for rapid and accurate diagnostic methods. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted to compare CDI diagnosis methods between January 2014 and December 2014. The stool samples, which were obtained in presumptive CDI patients, were compared for their diagnostic accuracy and rapidity, including real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of toxin genes, C...
January 2018: Intestinal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417331/risk-factors-for-clostridium-difficile-isolation-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-prospective-study
#17
Dejan Micic, Andres Yarur, Alex Gonsalves, Vijaya L Rao, Susan Broadaway, Russell Cohen, Sushila Dalal, John N Gaetano, Laura R Glick, Ayal Hirsch, Joel Pekow, Atsushi Sakuraba, Seth T Walk, David T Rubin
INTRODUCTION: Clostridium difficile is the most commonly isolated stool pathogen in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Traditional risk factors for C. difficile may not exist in patients with IBD, and no prior studies have assessed the risk factors for the isolation of C. difficile in both symptomatic and asymptomatic IBD outpatients. METHODS: We prospectively recruited consecutive IBD patients presenting to our outpatient clinic between April 2015 and February 2016...
April 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413671/the-prevalence-of-clostridium-difficile-in-cattle-and-sheep-carcasses-and-the-antibiotic-susceptibility-of-isolates
#18
Hamparsun Hampikyan, Enver Baris Bingol, Karlo Muratoglu, Esra Akkaya, Omer Cetin, Hilal Colak
Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic, spore forming, rod shaped bacterium frequently isolated from butchery animals in recent years. The aim of this study is to evaluate the presence of C. difficile (especially ribotype 027 and 078) in cattle and sheep carcasses and to investigate the antibiotic susceptibility of isolates. The bacterium was isolated in 83 out of 247 (33.6%) cattle and 78 out of 308 (25.3%) sheep carcass samples. 15/83 (18.1%) cattle and 6/78 (7.7%) sheep isolates were identified as ribotype 027, whereas the other hypervirulent isolate ribotype 078 could not be detected among the analysed samples...
May 2018: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410012/community-acquired-clostridium-difficile-epidemiology-ribotype-risk-factors-hospital-and-intensive-care-unit-outcomes-and-current-and-emerging-therapies
#19
REVIEW
E Ofori, D Ramai, M Dhawan, F Mustafa, J Gasperino, M Reddy
BACKGROUND: The epidemiological landscape of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has changed over the past 30 years. AIM: To review studies of CDI in the community setting. METHODS: Electronic databases including PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, Google Scholar, Scopus, ClinicalTrials.gov and Cochrane Databases were searched for human studies performed between 2000 and 2017 that assessed the epidemiology, risk factors, ribotypes, hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) outcomes, and management of community-acquired CDI...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408598/investigating-the-effect-of-supplementation-on-clostridioides-clostridium-difficile-spore-recovery-in-two-solid-agars
#20
D S Pickering, J J Vernon, J Freeman, M H Wilcox, C H Chilton
BACKGROUND: A variety of supplemented solid media are used within Clostridium difficile research to optimally recover spores. Our study sought to investigate different media and additives, providing a method of optimised C. difficile spore recovery. Additionally, due to the results observed in the initial experiments, the inhibitory effects of three amino acids (glycine, l-histidine &l-phenylalanine) on C. difficile spore outgrowth were investigated. METHODS: Spores of five C...
April 2018: Anaerobe
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