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clostridium difficile 027

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329918/trends-in-incidence-of-long-term-care-facility-onset-clostridium-difficile-infections-in-10-us-geographic-locations-during-2011-2015
#1
Alice Y Guh, Yi Mu, James Baggs, Lisa G Winston, Wendy Bamberg, Carol Lyons, Monica M Farley, Lucy E Wilson, Stacy M Holzbauer, Erin C Phipps, Zintars G Beldavs, Marion A Kainer, Maria Karlsson, Dale N Gerding, Ghinwa Dumyati
During 2011-2015, the adjusted long-term-care facility onset Clostridium difficile infection incidence rate in persons aged ≥65 years decreased annually by 17.45% (95% confidence interval, 14.53%-20.43%) across 10 US sites. A concomitant decline in inpatient fluoroquinolone use and the C difficile epidemic strain NAP1/027 among persons aged ≥65 years may have contributed to the decrease in long-term-care facility-onset C difficile infection incidence rate.
January 9, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273940/investigation-of-clostridium-difficile-ribotypes-in-symptomatic-patients-of-a-german-pediatric-oncology-center
#2
Arne Simon, Markus Mock, Norbert Graf, Lutz von Müller
In a German pediatric oncology unit, the attending physicians diagnosed 27 cases of Clostridium difficile-associated disease (CDI) from January 01, 2010 to October 31, 2013. This refers to a CDI incidence density of 2.0/1000 inpatient days. According to the hospital hygiene standard, symptomatic patients with CDI were kept in contact isolation. Most patients (median age 8.2 years) suffered from acute lymphoblastic leukemia; 88.9% were treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics during the preceding 4 weeks. 29...
December 22, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213333/comparative-genomic-analysis-of-clostridium-difficile-ribotype-027-strains-including-the-newly-sequenced-strain-nckuh-21-isolated-from-a-patient-in-taiwan
#3
Haruo Suzuki, Masaru Tomita, Pei-Jane Tsai, Wen-Chien Ko, Yuan-Pin Hung, I-Hsiu Huang, Jenn-Wei Chen
Background: Clostridium difficile is a Gram-positive anaerobe and the leading cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea worldwide. The emergence of ribotype 027 (RT027) strains is associated with increased incidence of infection and mortality. To further understand the relationship between C. difficile NCKUH-21, a RT027 strain isolated from a patient in Taiwan, and other RT027 strains, we performed whole-genome shotgun sequencing on NCKUH-21 and comparative genomic analyses. Results: The genome size, G+C content, and gene number for the NCKUH-21 strain were determined to be similar to those for other C...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193949/-case-series-of-clostridium-difficile-nap1-027-bi-with-novels-treatments
#4
Silvia Esmeralda Pérez-Topete, Tomás Miranda-Aquino, Juan Jacobo Ayala-Gaytan
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile is a spore-forming bacterium, producing exotoxins, causing potentially fatal nosocomial diarrhea. They have recently reported outbreaks of C. difficile ribotype 027, which is characterized by a hypervirulent strain and high resistance to standard therapy. CLINICAL CASE: We present three cases of Clostridium difficile NAP1/027/BI associated infection, they were presented with different clinical manifestations. Two of the patients were successfully treated with the combination of vancomycin plus tigecycline...
September 2017: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188783/the-recent-emergence-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-romanian-hospitals-is-associated-with-a-high-prevalence-of-polymerase-chain-reaction-ribotype-027
#5
Gabriel Adrian Popescu, Roxana Serban, Adriana Pistol, Andreea Niculcea, Andreea Preda, Daniela Lemeni, Ioana Sabina Macovei, Daniela Tălăpan, Alexandru Rafila, Dragoş Florea
AIMS: To evaluate the epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection in several Romanian hospitals. METHODS: A survey was conducted from November 2013 to February 2014 in 9 hospitals selected from different Romanian regions. RESULT: The survey identified 393 patients with C. difficile infection. The median age was 67 years (range: 2-94 years) with 56% of patients older than 65 years. The mean C. difficile infection prevalence was 5.2 per 10...
November 30, 2017: Balkan Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180685/evaluating-the-effect-of-clostridium-difficile-conditioned-medium-on-fecal-microbiota-community-structure
#6
Sabina Horvat, Aleksander Mahnic, Martin Breskvar, Saso Dzeroski, Maja Rupnik
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is typically associated with disturbed gut microbiota and changes related to decreased colonization resistance against C. difficile are well described. However, nothing is known about possible effects of C. difficile on gut microbiota restoration during or after CDI. In this study, we have mimicked such a situation by using C. difficile conditioned medium of six different C. difficile strains belonging to PCR ribotypes 027 and 014/020 for cultivation of fecal microbiota...
November 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174729/prevalence-of-the-clostridium-difficile-bi-nap1-027-strain-across-the-united-states-veterans-health-administration
#7
S E Giancola, R J Williams, C A Gentry
OBJECTIVES: The increased incidence and severity of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) are thought to result partly from the emergence of the hypervirulent BI/NAP1/027 strain. Limited recent data are available on the prevalence of BI/NAP1/027 in the United States (US). The objective of this study was to assess the recent prevalence of BI/NAP1/027 within the US Veterans Health Administration (VHA). METHODS: Patients with CDI at any Veterans Affairs Medical Center found to routinely test for the presence of BI/NAP1/027 during the study period were included between 1 June 2011 and 30 June 2016 in this retrospective, observational, nationwide study...
November 22, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161712/clostridium-difficile-infection-in-the-nephrology-ward
#8
Sylwia Dudzicz, Marcin Adamczak, Andrzej Więcek
Clostridium difficile is currently the most frequently identified pathogen causing antibiotic-associated diarrhea and the main cause of nosocomial diarrhea. In recent years, increases incidence of infection, severe infection, recurrent infection and mortality from Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) have been observed. This may be a consequence of excessive antibiotic use and spread of the hypervirulent epidemic BI/NAP1/027 strain of Clostridium difficile. The main risk factors for CDI are: antibiotic therapy, previous hospitalizations and number of comorbid conditions...
November 21, 2017: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151897/community-acquired-infection-with-hypervirulent-clostridium-difficile-isolates-that-carry-different-toxin-and-antibiotic-resistance-loci-a-case-report
#9
Marina Muñoz, Milena Camargo, Dora Inés Ríos-Chaparro, Paula Gómez, Manuel Alfonso Patarroyo, Juan David Ramírez
Background: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) leads to the onset of antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) and a wide range of gastrointestinal pathologies. Currently, CDI is one of the most important opportunistic infections at the intrahospital level and an exponential increase in community-acquired infections has been reported. Herein, we evaluated the relationships (at phylogenetic and genetic population structure levels), as well as the molecular toxigenic and antibiotic resistance profiles of a set of isolates established from a case of community acquired-CDI...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118745/biofilm-structures-in-a-mono-associated-mouse-model-of-clostridium-difficile-infection
#10
Anna P Soavelomandroso, Françoise Gaudin, Sandra Hoys, Valérie Nicolas, Gayatri Vedantam, Claire Janoir, Sylvie Bouttier
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a major healthcare-associated disease with high recurrence rates. Host colonization is critical for the infectious process, both in first episodes and in recurrent disease, with biofilm formation playing a key role. The ability of C. difficile to form a biofilm on abiotic surfaces is established, but has not yet been confirmed in the intestinal tract. Here, four different isolates of C. difficile, which are in vitro biofilm producers, were studied for their ability to colonize germ-free mice...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117204/prevalence-of-binary-toxin-positive-clostridium-difficile-in-diarrhoeal-humans-in-the-absence-of-epidemic-ribotype-027
#11
Alan M McGovern, Grace O Androga, Daniel R Knight, Mark W Watson, Briony Elliott, Niki F Foster, Barbara J Chang, Thomas V Riley
Virulence of Clostridium difficile is primarily attributed to the large clostridial toxins A and B while the role of binary toxin (CDT) remains unclear. The prevalence of human strains of C. difficile possessing only CDT genes (A-B-CDT+) is generally low (< 5%), however, this genotype is commonly found in neonatal livestock both in Australia and elsewhere. Zoonotic transmission of C. difficile has been suggested previously. Most human diagnostic tests will not detect A-B-CDT+ strains of C. difficile because they focus on detection of toxin A and/or B...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074149/detection-and-molecular-characterization-of-clostridium-difficile-st-1-in-buenos-aires-argentina
#12
Daniela Cejas, Néstor Raúl Ríos Osorio, Rodolfo Quirós, Roxana Sadorin, María Alejandra Berger, Gabriel Gutkind, Liliana Fernández Canigia, Marcela Radice
Thirty one C. difficile isolates recovered in 2015 were characterized. Nineteen/31 were positive for tcdA/B, among them, 4 isolates were also positive for CDT coding genes. Two/4 cdtA/B positives isolates corresponded to ST 1 resembling BI/NAP1/027/ST 1 strain, while the others corresponded to ST 226 and ST 377.
October 23, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066403/the-closer-study-results-from-a-three-year-pan-european-longitudinal-surveillance-of-antibiotic-resistance-among-prevalent-clostridium-difficile-ribotypes-2011-2014
#13
Jane Freeman, Jonathan Vernon, Sally Pilling, Kirsti Morris, Scott Nicholson, Sharie Shearman, Chris Longshaw, Mark H Wilcox
OBJECTIVES: Until the introduction of fidaxomicin, antimicrobial treatment for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) was limited to metronidazole and vancomycin. The changing epidemiology of CDI and emergence of epidemic C. difficile PCR ribotype 027 necessitates continued surveillance to identify shifts in antibiotic susceptibility. ClosER, currently the largest pan-European epidemiological study of C. difficile ribotype distribution and antibiotic susceptibility, aimed to undertake antimicrobial resistance surveillance pre- and post-introduction of fidaxomicin...
October 21, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058256/simultaneous-detection-and-characterization-of-toxigenic-clostridium-difficile-directly-from-clinical-stool-specimens
#14
Hanjiang Lai, Chen Huang, Jian Cai, Julian Ye, Jun She, Yi Zheng, Liqian Wang, Yelin Wei, Weijia Fang, Xianjun Wang, Yi-Wei Tang, Yun Luo, Dazhi Jin
We employed a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) coupled with capillary electrophoresis (mPCR-CE) targeting six Clostridium difficile genes, including tpi, tcdA, tcdB, cdtA, cdtB, and a deletion in tcdC for simultaneous detection and characterization of toxigenic C. difficile directly from fecal specimens. The mPCR-CE had a limit of detection of 10 colony-forming units per reaction with no cross-reactions with other related bacterial genes. Clinical validation was performed on 354 consecutively collected stool specimens from patients with suspected C...
October 17, 2017: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031928/the-role-of-purified-clostridium-difficile-glucosylating-toxins-in-disease-pathogenesis-utilizing-a-murine-cecum-injection-model
#15
Yongrong Zhang, Zhiyong Yang, Si Gao, Therwa Hamza, Harris G Yfantis, Michael Lipsky, Hanping Feng
Most pathogenic Clostridium difficile produce two major exotoxins TcdA and TcdB, in the absence of which the bacterium is non-pathogenic. While it is important to investigate the role of each toxin in the pathogenesis of C. difficile infection (CDI) using isogenic strains, it is impossible to precisely control the expression levels of individual toxins and exclude bacterial factors that may contribute to the toxins' effects during infection. In this study, we utilized an acute intestinal disease model by injecting purified toxins directly into mouse cecum after a midline laparotomy...
October 12, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994447/prevalence-of-clostridium-difficile-and-ribotype-027-infection-in-patients-with-nosocomial-diarrhoea-in-southern-italy
#16
Raffaele Del Prete, Luigi Ronga, Grazia Addati, Raffaella Magrone, Giuseppe Miragliotta
Clostridium difficile is an emerging cause of healthcare-associated infections. The increasing frequency and severity is attributed to highly virulent ribotypes such as 027. The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyze the prevalence of CDI and ribotype 027 in 481 clinical samples collected from hospitalized patients and sent to the laboratory of molecular biology, UOC Microbiology and Virology, Azienda Ospedaliera-Universitaria, Policlinico of Bari, Italy. Toxins A+B and DNA C. difficile detections were performed using immunochromatographic test and a multiplex real-time PCR assay, respectively...
October 10, 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986313/impact-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-caused-by-the-nap1-rt027-strain-on-severity-and-recurrence-during-an-outbreak-and-transition-to-endemicity-in-a-mexican-tertiary-care-center
#17
Karla María Tamez-Torres, Pedro Torres-González, Francisco Leal-Vega, Ariana García-Alderete, Norma Irene López García, Raquel Mendoza-Aguilar, Arturo Galindo-Fraga, Miriam Bobadilla-Del Valle, Alfredo Ponce de León, José Sifuentes-Osornio
OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical characteristics, outcomes, and factors associated with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) due to ribotype 027 (RT027) and recurrence, including an outbreak period, with transition to endemicity. METHODS: A case-control study was performed. Clinical and demographic data were collected for patients with CDI during the period January 2008 to December 2015. Ribotyping of the isolates and PCR for toxin A, B, and binary were performed...
October 3, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929960/-antimicrobial-susceptibilities-and-molecular-characterization-of-toxin-positive-clostridium-difficile-isolates-the-first-report-on-the-presence-of-hypervirulent-strains-from-turkey
#18
Emrah Salman, Belkıs Levent, Zeynep Ceren Karahan
Clostridium difficile infection is one of the most important hospital-acquired infections. Infections caused by hypervirulent C.difficile strains which produce toxins at high levels, have higher morbidity and mortality rates, more complications and relapses. They are characterized by higher sporulation ratios and resistance rates for fluoroquinolones. In order to prevent serious morbidities, mortalities and remarkable increase in health costs, highly pathogenic C.difficile strains must be identified before causing severe outbreaks...
July 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902923/molecular-microbiological-and-clinical-characterization-of-clostridium-difficile-isolates-from-tertiary-care-hospitals-in-colombia
#19
Clara Lina Salazar, Catalina Reyes, Santiago Atehortua, Patricia Sierra, Margarita María Correa, Daniel Paredes-Sabja, Emma Best, Warren N Fawley, Mark Wilcox, Ángel González
In Colombia, the epidemiology and circulating genotypes of Clostridium difficile have not yet been described. Therefore, we molecularly characterized clinical isolates of C.difficile from patients with suspicion of C.difficile infection (CDI) in three tertiary care hospitals. C.difficile was isolated from stool samples by culture, the presence of A/B toxins were detected by enzyme immunoassay, cytotoxicity was tested by cell culture and the antimicrobial susceptibility determined. After DNA extraction, tcdA, tcdB and binary toxin (CDTa/CDTb) genes were detected by PCR, and PCR-ribotyping performed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893366/fidaxomicin-reduces-early-toxin-a-and-b-production-and-sporulation-in-clostridium-difficilein-vitro
#20
Michael J Aldape, Aaron E Packham, Dustin D Heeney, Savannah N Rice, Amy E Bryant, Dennis L Stevens
PURPOSE: Fidaxomicin, a macrocyclic antibiotic, has been approved for the treatment of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Previous work by our group has demonstrated that some antibiotics at sub-inhibitory concentrations stimulate early toxin production and sporulation by C. difficile. Prior studies revealed that fidaxomicin, when added to late stationary-phase organisms, reduced exotoxin production and spore formation by C. difficile. However, the ability of fidaxomicin to trigger early virulence factor production and spore formation has never been investigated...
October 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
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