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clostridium difficile 027

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216085/occurrence-of-clostridium-difficile-ribotype-027-in-hospitals-of-silesia-poland
#1
Małgorzata Aptekorz, Anna Szczegielniak, Barbara Wiechuła, Celine Harmanus, Ed Kuijper, Gayane Martirosian
Clostridium difficile is an important healthcare-associated pathogen, responsible for a broad spectrum of diarrheal diseases. The aim of this prospective study was to determine the occurrence of C. difficile infection (CDI), to characterize cultured C. difficile strains and to investigate the association of fecal lactoferrin with CDI. Between January 2013 and June 2014, 148 stool samples were obtained from adult diarrheal patients (C. difficile as a suspected pathogen) hospitalized in different healthcare facilities of 15 Silesian hospitals...
February 12, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209199/making-life-difficult-for-clostridium-difficile-augmenting-the-pathogen-s-metabolic-model-with-transcriptomic-and-codon-usage-data-for-better-therapeutic-target-characterization
#2
Sara Saheb Kashaf, Claudio Angione, Pietro Lió
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile is a bacterium which can infect various animal species, including humans. Infection with this bacterium is a leading healthcare-associated illness. A better understanding of this organism and the relationship between its genotype and phenotype is essential to the search for an effective treatment. Genome-scale metabolic models contain all known biochemical reactions of a microorganism and can be used to investigate this relationship. RESULTS: We present icdf834, an updated metabolic network of C...
February 16, 2017: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169013/cost-analysis-of-an-outbreak-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-ribotype-027-in-a-dutch-tertiary-care-centre
#3
Y H van Beurden, M K Bomers, S D van der Werff, E A P M Pompe, S Spiering, C M J E Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C J J Mulder
BACKGROUND: The economic impact of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) on the healthcare system is significant. From May 2013 to May 2014, an outbreak of C. difficile ribotype 027 occurred in a Dutch tertiary care hospital, involving 72 patients. The primary aim of this study was to provide insight into the financial burden that this CDI outbreak brought upon this hospital. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed to estimate the costs of a one-year-long C...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155914/evolutionary-clade-affects-resistance-of-clostridium-difficile-spores-to-cold-atmospheric-plasma
#4
Mairéad Connor, Padrig B Flynn, Derek J Fairley, Nikki Marks, Panagiotis Manesiotis, William G Graham, Brendan F Gilmore, John W McGrath
Clostridium difficile is a spore forming bacterium and the leading cause of colitis and antibiotic associated diarrhoea in the developed world. Spores produced by C. difficile are robust and can remain viable for months, leading to prolonged healthcare-associated outbreaks with high mortality. Exposure of C. difficile spores to a novel, non-thermal atmospheric pressure gas plasma was assessed. Factors affecting sporicidal efficacy, including percentage of oxygen in the helium carrier gas admixture, and the effect on spores from different strains representing the five evolutionary C...
February 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125650/development-of-a-novel-vaccine-containing-binary-toxin-for-the-prevention-of-clostridium-difficile-disease-with-enhanced-efficacy-against-nap1-strains
#5
Susan Secore, Su Wang, Julie Doughtry, Jinfu Xie, Matt Miezeiewski, Richard R Rustandi, Melanie Horton, Rachel Xoconostle, Bei Wang, Catherine Lancaster, Adam Kristopeit, Sheng-Ching Wang, Sianny Christanti, Salvatore Vitelli, Marie-Pierre Gentile, Aaron Goerke, Julie Skinner, Erica Strable, David S Thiriot, Jean-Luc Bodmer, Jon H Heinrichs
Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) are a leading cause of nosocomial diarrhea in the developed world. The main virulence factors of the bacterium are the large clostridial toxins (LCTs), TcdA and TcdB, which are largely responsible for the symptoms of the disease. Recent outbreaks of CDI have been associated with the emergence of hypervirulent strains, such as NAP1/BI/027, many strains of which also produce a third toxin, binary toxin (CDTa and CDTb). These hypervirulent strains have been associated with increased morbidity and higher mortality...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008840/-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-indications-and-perspectives
#6
Jean-Christophe Lagier, Didier Raoult
Fecal transplantation demonstrated in a randomized trial its superiority compared to antibiotics in recurrent Clostridium difficile (CD) infections. Used in first-line treatment, it has reduced the mortality of patients suffering of CD infections caused by ribotype 027 and made it possible to cure patients with severe manifestations of CD infections caused by other ribotypes. The use of frozen microbiota, now validated, facilitates fecal microbiota transplantation. In addition, the frozen microbiota capsules have proven their efficiency...
November 2016: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977555/recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-children-patient-risk-factors-and-markers-of-intestinal-inflammation
#7
Maribeth R Nicholson, Jonathan D Crews, Jeffrey R Starke, Zhi-Dong Jiang, Herbert DuPont, Kathryn Edwards
BACKGROUND: The management of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in children is complicated by recurrence rates of 20-30%. The identification of risk factors associated with recurrent disease might allow early recognition of those children at highest risk. METHODS: Pediatric patients with CDI were identified through clinical laboratory records at two tertiary care children's hospitals from March 2013 through May 2014. Subjects were enrolled and followed for 60 days to assess for recurrent CDI (rCDI)...
December 12, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897206/the-incidence-and-drug-resistance-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-mainland-china-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
Chenjie Tang, Lunbiao Cui, Yuqiao Xu, Le Xie, Pengfei Sun, Chengcheng Liu, Wenying Xia, Genyan Liu
It has been widely reported that the incidence and severity of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) have increased dramatically in North America and Europe. However, little is known about CDI in Mainland China. In this study, we aimed to investigate the incidence of CDI and the main epidemic and drug-resistant strains of C. difficile in Mainland China through meta-analysis of related studies published after the year 2010. A total of 51 eligible studies were included. The pooled incidence of toxigenic C. difficile among patients with diarrhoea was 14% (95% CI = 12-16%)...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833595/chemical-and-stress-resistances-of-clostridium-difficile-spores-and-vegetative-cells
#9
Adrianne N Edwards, Samiha T Karim, Ricardo A Pascual, Lina M Jowhar, Sarah E Anderson, Shonna M McBride
Clostridium difficile is a Gram-positive, sporogenic and anaerobic bacterium that causes a potentially fatal colitis. C. difficile enters the body as dormant spores that germinate in the colon to form vegetative cells that secrete toxins and cause the symptoms of infection. During transit through the intestine, some vegetative cells transform into spores, which are more resistant to killing by environmental insults than the vegetative cells. Understanding the inherent resistance properties of the vegetative and spore forms of C...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793509/toxin-profiles-pcr-ribotypes-and-resistance-patterns-of-clostridium-difficile-a-multicentre-study-in-china-2012-2013
#10
Qiong Gao, Shi Wu, Haihui Huang, Yuxing Ni, Ye Chen, Yunjian Hu, Yunsong Yu
A total of 178 clinical isolates of Clostridium difficile were collected from five major teaching hospitals representing northern, eastern and southern China from August 2012 to July 2013. Among the 178 isolates, 162 (91.0%) were toxigenic, including 66 (40.7%) toxin A-negative, toxin B-positive, 95 (58.6%) toxin A-positive, toxin B-positive and only 1 (0.6%) toxin A-, toxin B- and binary toxin-positive. Twenty-nine different PCR ribotypes were identified, of which 017 (21.0%), 012 (17.3%) and novel type H (16...
December 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790736/body-mass-index-greater-than-35-is-associated-with-severe-clostridium-difficile-infection
#11
R Mulki, A J Baumann, T Alnabelsi, N Sandhu, Y Alhamshari, D S Wheeler, S Perloff, P O Katz
BACKGROUND: Obesity has been implicated in the acquisition of Clostridium difficile infections (CDI), however, no study has investigated whether there is a correlation between body mass index (BMI) and CDI severity. AIM: To determine whether obesity, as measured by BMI correlates with severe hospital-onset or community-onset CDI. METHODS: Patients admitted with CDI at a tertiary-care center from January 2013 to June 2015 were identified. The cohort was stratified by onset of disease using the National Healthcare Safety Network criteria, and by severity using the 2013 American College of Gastroenterology guidelines...
January 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751937/distribution-of-clostridium-difficile-pcr-ribotypes-and-high-proportion-of-027-and-176-in-some-hospitals-in-four-south-eastern-european-countries
#12
Maja Rupnik, Arjana Tambic Andrasevic, Elena Trajkovska Dokic, Ivanka Matas, Milica Jovanovic, Selma Pasic, Aleksander Kocuvan, Sandra Janezic
While Clostridium difficile epidemiology is well documented in many European countries, data are largely missing for South Eastern European region. Here we report the PCR ribotype distribution of 249 C. difficile isolates received for typing from six hospital settings from Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Republic of Macedonia and Serbia in time period from 2008 to 2015. Twenty-four PCR ribotypes were detected. The majority of strains from Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia belonged to PCR ribotype 027 (65...
December 2016: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730251/clinical-use-comparison-of-a-semiautomated-pcr-with-fluorescent-ribotyping-for-typing-of-clostridium-difficile
#13
Abrar K Thabit, M Jahangir Alam, Carey-Ann D Burnham, David P Nicolau
Molecular typing of Clostridium difficile is performed to assess strain relatedness or place strains within an epidemiological context. Different C. difficile ribotyping systems are available. However, a common strain library does not exist. We aimed to compare ribotyping results of 29 clinical C. difficile isolates by two methods: semiautomated PCR-ribotyping and fluorescent PCR-ribotyping. For certain ribotypes (n = 16/29; 55.2 %), the inter-laboratory reproducibility was consistent among multiple samples from individual subjects, while 54...
October 11, 2016: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725230/characterization-of-clostridium-difficile-pcr-ribotype-018-a-problematic-emerging-type
#14
Fabrizio Barbanti, Patrizia Spigaglia
Recent surveys indicate that the majority of toxigenic Clostridium difficile strains isolated in European hospitals belonged to PCR-ribotypes (RTs) different from RT 027 or RT 078. Among these types, RT 018 has been reported in Italy and, more recently, in Korea and Japan. In Italy, strains RT 018 have become predominant in the early 2000s, whereas the majority of strains isolated before were RT 126, a type belonging to the same lineage as the RT 078. In this study, we have found that Italian strains RT 018 are resistant to erythromycin, clindamycin, moxifloxacin and rifampicin...
December 2016: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716140/longitudinal-survey-of-clostridium-difficile-presence-and-gut-microbiota-composition-in-a-belgian-nursing-home
#15
Cristina Rodriguez, Bernard Taminiau, Nicolas Korsak, Véronique Avesani, Johan Van Broeck, Philippe Brach, Michel Delmée, Georges Daube
BACKGROUND: Increasing age, several co-morbidities, environmental contamination, antibiotic exposure and other intestinal perturbations appear to be the greatest risk factors for C. difficile infection (CDI). Therefore, elderly care home residents are considered particularly vulnerable to the infection. The main objective of this study was to evaluate and follow the prevalence of C. difficile in 23 elderly care home residents weekly during a 4-month period. A C. difficile microbiological detection scheme was performed along with an overall microbial biodiversity study of the faeces content by 16S rRNA gene analysis...
October 1, 2016: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703012/role-of-glycosyltransferases-modifying-type-b-flagellin-of-emerging-hypervirulent-clostridium-difficile-lineages-and-their-impact-on-motility-and-biofilm-formation
#16
Esmeralda Valiente, Laura Bouché, Paul Hitchen, Alexandra Faulds-Pain, Mario Songane, Lisa F Dawson, Elizabeth Donahue, Richard A Stabler, Maria Panico, Howard R Morris, Mona Bajaj-Elliott, Susan M Logan, Anne Dell, Brendan W Wren
Clostridium difficile is the principal cause of nosocomial infectious diarrhea worldwide. The pathogen modifies its flagellin with either a type A or type B O-linked glycosylation system, which has a contributory role in pathogenesis. We study the functional role of glycosyltransferases modifying type B flagellin in the 023 and 027 hypervirulent C. difficile lineages by mutagenesis of five putative glycosyltransferases and biosynthetic genes. We reveal their roles in the biosynthesis of the flagellin glycan chain and demonstrate that flagellar post-translational modification affects motility and adhesion-related bacterial properties of these strains...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648884/community-and-healthcare-associated-clostridium-difficile-infections-finland-2008-2013-1
#17
Saara M Kotila, Silja Mentula, Jukka Ollgren, Anni Virolainen-Julkunen, Outi Lyytikäinen
We evaluated incidence, case-fatality rate, and trends of community-associated (CA) and healthcare-associated (HA) Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs) in Finland during 2008-2013. CDIs were identified in the National Infectious Disease Register, deaths in the National Population Information System, hospitalizations to classify infections as CA or HA in the National Hospital Discharge Register, and genotypes in a reference laboratory. A total of 32,991 CDIs were identified: 10,643 (32.3%) were CA (32.9 cases/100,000 population) and 22,348 (67...
October 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638350/molecular-types-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-patterns-of-clostridium-difficile-isolates-in-different-epidemiological-settings-in-a-tertiary-care-center-in-israel
#18
Tamar Miller-Roll, Wasef Na'amnih, Dani Cohen, Yehuda Carmeli, Amos Adler
The aims of this prospective study were to examine the correlation between the molecular types and the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Clostridium difficile isolates with the source of acquisition and the occurrence of C. difficile infections (CDI) in a tertiary center in Israel. All available isolates from community-acquired (CA) CDI episodes (n=43) and matching numbers of isolates from community-onset, hospital acquired (CO-HA, n=67) and HA-CDI (n=56) and 32 cases of recurrent CDI were typed and tested for susceptibility to vancomycin and metronidazole...
December 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633064/reprofiled-anthelmintics-abate-hypervirulent-stationary-phase-clostridium-difficile
#19
Major Gooyit, Kim D Janda
Prolonged use of broad-spectrum antibiotics disrupts the indigenous gut microbiota, which consequently enables toxigenic Clostridium difficile species to proliferate and cause infection. The burden of C. difficile infections was exacerbated with the outbreak of hypervirulent strains that produce copious amounts of enterotoxins and spores. In recent past, membrane-active agents have generated a surge of interest due to their bactericidal property with a low propensity for resistance. In this study, we capitalized on the antimicrobial property and low oral bioavailability of salicylanilide anthelmintics (closantel, rafoxanide, niclosamide, oxyclozanide) to target the gut pathogen...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614757/thrombocytopenia-in-hospitalized-patients-with-severe-clostridium-difficile-infection
#20
Eric M Fountain, Maggie C Moses, Lawrence P Park, Christopher W Woods, Gowthami M Arepally
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a common cause of nosocomial diarrhea and colitis. The incidence and prognostic significance of thrombocytopenia as related to mode of acquisition (hospital vs. community), NAP1/027 strain, and disease severity has not been examined. We performed a single-institution retrospective analysis of all adult inpatients from 2013 to 2014 diagnosed with CDI during their hospitalization to document the incidence/prevalence of thrombocytopenia and associated outcomes. Severe disease was defined by a composite endpoint of inpatient death, death within 30 days of discharge, presence of septic shock, or need for colectomy during hospitalization...
September 10, 2016: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
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