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mathematical modeling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531864/determination-of-volumetric-gas-liquid-mass-transfer-coefficient-of-carbon-monoxide-in-a-batch-cultivation-system-using-kinetic-simulations
#1
Nulee Jang, Muhammad Yasin, Shinyoung Park, Robert W Lovitt, In Seop Chang
A mathematical model of microbial kinetics was introduced to predict the overall volumetric gas-liquid mass transfer coefficient (kLa) of carbon monoxide (CO) in a batch cultivation system. The cell concentration (X), acetate concentration (Cace), headspace gas (Nco and [Formula: see text] ), dissolved CO concentration in the fermentation medium (Cco), and mass transfer rate (R) were simulated using a variety of kLa values. The simulated results showed excellent agreement with the experimental data for a kLa of 13/hr...
May 6, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531861/greenhouse-gases-from-membrane-bioreactors-mathematical-modelling-sensitivity-and-uncertainty-analysis
#2
Giorgio Mannina, Alida Cosenza, George A Ekama
In this study a new mathematical model to quantify greenhouse gas emissions (namely, carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide) from membrane bioreactors (MBRs) is presented. The model has been adopted to predict the key processes of a pilot plant with pre-denitrification MBR scheme, filled with domestic and saline wastewater. The model was calibrated by adopting an advanced protocol based on an extensive dataset. In terms of nitrous oxide, the results show that an important role is played by the half saturation coefficients related to nitrogen removal processes and the model factors affecting the oxygen transfer rate in the aerobic and MBR tanks...
May 6, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531261/age-of-acquiring-causal-human-papillomavirus-hpv-infections-leveraging-simulation-models-to-explore-the-natural-history-of-hpv-induced-cervical-cancer
#3
Emily A Burger, Jane J Kim, Stephen Sy, Philip E Castle
Background.: Although new human papillomavirus (HPV) infections can occur at all ages, the age at which women acquire their "causal" HPV infection that develops into cervical cancer is poorly understood and practically unobservable. We aimed to estimate the age distribution at which individuals acquired their causal HPV infection in the absence of HPV vaccination or screening to help guide the optimal use of both. Methods.: Using an empirically calibrated mathematical model that simulates the natural history of cervical cancer, we estimated the cumulative number of causal HPV infections by age, stratified by HPV genotype (HPV16 vs...
May 20, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530438/adolescent-perceived-parent-and-teacher-overestimation-of-mathematics-ability-developmental-implications-for-students-mathematics-task-values
#4
Burkhard Gniewosz, Helen M G Watt
This study examines whether and how student-perceived parents' and teachers' overestimation of students' own perceived mathematical ability can explain trajectories for adolescents' mathematical task values (intrinsic and utility) controlling for measured achievement, following expectancy-value and self-determination theories. Longitudinal data come from a 3-cohort (mean ages 13.25, 12.36, and 14.41 years; Grades 7-10), 4-wave data set of 1,271 Australian secondary school students. Longitudinal structural equation models revealed positive effects of student-perceived overestimation of math ability by parents and teachers on students' intrinsic and utility math task values development...
May 22, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530257/mathematical-model-for-preoperative-identification-of-obstructed-nasal-subsites
#5
M Gamerra, E Cantone, G Sorrentino, R De Luca, M B Russo, E De Corso, F Bossa, A De Vivo, M Iengo
The planning of experimental studies for evaluation of nasal airflow is particularly challenging given the difficulty in obtaining objective measurements in vivo. Although standard rhinomanometry and acoustic rhinometry are the most widely used diagnostic tools for evaluation of nasal airflow, they provide only a global measurement of nasal dynamics, without temporal or spatial details. Furthermore, the numerical simulation of nasal airflow as computational fluid dynamics technology is not validated. Unfortunately, to date, there are no available diagnostic tools to objectively evaluate the geometry of the nasal cavities and to measure nasal resistance and the degree of nasal obstruction, which is of utmost importance for surgical planning...
May 22, 2017: Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530198/improved-bioavailability-and-pharmacokinetics-of-tea-polyphenols-by-encapsulation-into-gelatin-nanoparticles
#6
Karikalan Kulandaivelu, Abul Kalam Azad Mandal
The authors prepared surface modified (with polyelectrolyte layers), tea polyphenols (TPP) encapsulated, gelatin nanoparticles (TPP-GNP) and characterised them. The size of the spherical nanoparticles was ∼50 nm. Number of polyelectrolyte layers and incubation time influenced the encapsulation efficiency (EE); highest EE was noted in nanoparticles with six polyelectrolyte layers (TPP-GNP-6L) incubated for 4 h. TPP released from TPP-GNP-6L in simulated biological fluids indicated protection and controlled release of TPP due to encapsulation...
June 2017: IET Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530167/biofilm-community-succession-a-neutral-perspective
#7
Stephen Woodcock, William T Sloan
Although biofilms represent one of the dominant forms of life in aqueous environments, our understanding of the assembly and development of their microbial communities remains relatively poor. In recent years, several studies have addressed this and have extended the concepts of succession theory in classical ecology into microbial systems. From these datasets, niche-based conceptual models have been developed explaining observed biodiversity patterns and their dynamics. These models have not, however, been formulated mathematically and so remain untested...
May 22, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529525/melatonin-in-tuberous-sclerosis-complex-analysis-using-modern-mathematical-modeling-methods
#8
Justyna Paprocka, Marek Kijonka, Łukasz Boguszewicz, Maria Sokół
Purpose. The aim of the study was to assess melatonin secretion pattern in children with TSC and to compare it with the secretion patterns in children with and without epilepsy. Material and Methods. Melatonin secretion was measured every three hours using the RIA method in four children with recognized TSC. The parameters of the melatonin secretion models were interpreted and compared with those obtained for the patients with epilepsy (n = 76) and the children from the control, nonepileptic group (n = 36)...
2017: International Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529430/mechanical-behavior-and-wall-remodeling-of-blood-vessels-under-axial-twist
#9
Han Hai-Chao, Liu Qin, Jiang Zong-Lai
Blood vessels are often subjected to axial torsion (or twist) due to body movement or surgery. However, there are few studies on blood vessel under twist. This review first summarizes the clinical observation on the twist of blood vessels and then presents what we know about the mechanical behaviors of blood vessel under twist, including the constitutive models. The state of art researches on the remodeling of blood vessels under twist via ex vivo organ culture, in vivo animal experiments, and mathematical model simulations are further discussed...
August 2016: Yi Yong Sheng Wu Li Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528909/melanopsin-contributions-to-the-representation-of-images-in-the-early-visual-system
#10
Annette E Allen, Riccardo Storchi, Franck P Martial, Robert A Bedford, Robert J Lucas
Melanopsin photoreception enhances retinal responses to variations in ambient light (irradiance) and drives non-image-forming visual reflexes such as circadian entrainment [1-6]. Melanopsin signals also reach brain regions responsible for form vision [7-9], but melanopsin's contribution, if any, to encoding visual images remains unclear. We addressed this deficit using principles of receptor silent substitution to present images in which visibility for melanopsin versus rods+cones was independently modulated, and we recorded evoked responses in the mouse dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN; thalamic relay for cortical vision)...
May 17, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528284/biomarkers-in-epilepsy-a-modelling-perspective
#11
Sven C van Dijkman, Rob A Voskuyl, Elizabeth C de Lange
Biomarkers can be categorised from type 0 (genotype or phenotype), through 6 (clinical scales), each level representing a part of the processes involved in the biological system and drug treatment. This classification facilitates the identification and connection of information required to fully (mathematically) model a disease and its treatment using integrated information from biomarkers. Two recent reviews thoroughly discussed the current status and development of biomarkers for epilepsy, but a path towards the integration of such biomarkers for the personalisation of anti-epileptic drug treatment is lacking...
May 17, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528232/a-mathematical-and-biological-plausible-model-of-decision-execution-regulation-in-go-no-go-tasks-focusing-on-the-fronto-striatal-thalamic-pathway
#12
Golnaz Baghdadi, Farzad Towhidkhah, Reza Rostami
Discovering factors influencing the speed and accuracy of responses in tasks such as "Go/No-Go" is one of issues which have been raised in neurocognitive studies. Mathematical models are considered as tools to identify and to study decision making procedure from different aspects. In this paper, a mathematical model has been presented to show several factors can alter the output of decision making procedure before execution in a "Go/No-Go" task. The dynamic of this model has two stable fixed points, each of them corresponds to the "Press" and "Not-press" responses...
May 13, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526219/cardiorespiratory-fitness-and-muscular-strength-as-mediators-of-the-influence-of-fatness-on-academic-achievement
#13
Antonio García-Hermoso, Irene Esteban-Cornejo, Jordi Olloquequi, Robinson Ramírez-Vélez
OBJECTIVE: To examine the combined association of fatness and physical fitness components (cardiorespiratory fitness [CRF] and muscular strength) with academic achievement, and to determine whether CRF and muscular strength are mediators of the association between fatness and academic achievement in a nationally representative sample of adolescents from Chile. STUDY DESIGN: Data were obtained for a sample of 36 870 adolescents (mean age, 13.8 years; 55.2% boys) from the Chilean System for the Assessment of Educational Quality test for eighth grade in 2011, 2013, and 2014...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525672/testing-of-a-novel-percutaneous-temporary-aortic-valve-in-a-rabbit-model-of-acute-severe-aortic-regurgitation-an-experimental-study
#14
Paul C Ho
PURPOSE: Device management of hemodynamic instability due to acute aortic regurgitation is not available. A novel, catheter-based, temporary aortic valve (TAV) has been in development. Early prototypes (balloon-based TAV) have undergone proof-of-concept studies in mathematical, bench and animal models. The redesigned membrane-based TAV prototype is evaluated in a rabbit model of acute severe aortic regurgitation. METHODS: Acute aortic regurgitation was simulated by deploying a self-expanding endovascular stent across the aortic annulus...
May 18, 2017: International Journal of Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525370/mathematical-modelling-for-phase-i-cancer-trials-a-study-of-metronomic-vinorelbine-for-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-nsclc-and-mesothelioma-patients
#15
Fabrice Barlesi, Diane-Charlotte Imbs, Pascale Tomasini, Laurent Greillier, Melissa Galloux, Albane Testot-Ferry, Mélanie Garcia, Xavier Elharrar, Annick Pelletier, Nicolas André, Céline Mascaux, Bruno Lacarelle, Raouf El Cheikh, Raphaël Serre, Joseph Ciccolini, Dominique Barbolosi
INTRODUCTION: Using mathematical modelling allows to select a treatment's regimen across infinite possibilities. Here, we report the phase I assessment of a new schedule for metronomic vinorelbine in treating refractory advanced NSCLC and mesothelioma patients. RESULTS: Overall, 13 patients were screened and 12 were treated (50% male, median age: 68yrs), including 9 NSCLC patients. All patients received at least one week (3 doses) of treatment. At data cut-off, the median length of treatment was 6...
May 2, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524110/infrared-thermography-sensor-for-temperature-and-speed-measurement-of-moving-material
#16
Rubén Usamentiaga, Daniel Fernando García
Infrared thermography offers significant advantages in monitoring the temperature of objects over time, but crucial aspects need to be addressed. Movements between the infrared camera and the inspected material seriously affect the accuracy of the calculated temperature. These movements can be the consequence of solid objects that are moved, molten metal poured, material on a conveyor belt, or just vibrations. This work proposes a solution for monitoring the temperature of material in these scenarios. In this work both real movements and vibrations are treated equally, proposing a unified solution for both problems...
May 18, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524109/unexpected-infection-spikes-in-a-model-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-vaccination
#17
Robert J Smith, Alexandra B Hogan, Geoffry N Mercer
Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is an acute respiratory infection that infects millions of children and infants worldwide. Recent research has shown promise for the development of a vaccine, with a range of vaccine types now in clinical trials or preclinical development. We extend an existing mathematical model with seasonal transmission to include vaccination. We model vaccination both as a continuous process, applying the vaccine during pregnancy, and as a discrete one, using impulsive differential equations, applying pulse vaccination...
May 18, 2017: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524068/detection-of-magnetic-field-properties-using-distributed-sensing-a-computational-neuroscience-approach
#18
Brian K Taylor, Sönke Johnsen, Kenneth J Lohmann
Diverse taxa use Earth's magnetic field to aid both short- and long-distance navigation. Study of these behaviors has led to a variety of postulated sensory and processing mechanisms that remain unconfirmed. Although several models have been proposed to explain and understand these mechanisms' underpinnings, they have not necessarily connected a putative sensory signal to the nervous system. Using mathematical software simulation, hardware testing and the computational neuroscience tool of dynamic neural fields, the present work implements a previously developed conceptual model for processing magnetite-based magnetosensory data...
May 19, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524023/the-mycelium-as-a-network
#19
Mark D Fricker, Luke L M Heaton, Nick S Jones, Lynne Boddy
The characteristic growth pattern of fungal mycelia as an interconnected network has a major impact on how cellular events operating on a micron scale affect colony behavior at an ecological scale. Network structure is intimately linked to flows of resources across the network that in turn modify the network architecture itself. This complex interplay shapes the incredibly plastic behavior of fungi and allows them to cope with patchy, ephemeral resources, competition, damage, and predation in a manner completely different from multicellular plants or animals...
May 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524012/towards-practical-application-of-sensors-for-monitoring-animal-health-design-and-validation-of-a-model-to-detect-ketosis
#20
Machteld Steensels, Ephraim Maltz, Claudia Bahr, Daniel Berckmans, Aharon Antler, Ilan Halachmi
The objective of this study was to design and validate a mathematical model to detect post-calving ketosis. The validation was conducted in four commercial dairy farms in Israel, on a total of 706 multiparous Holstein dairy cows: 203 cows clinically diagnosed with ketosis and 503 healthy cows. A logistic binary regression model was developed, where the dependent variable is categorical (healthy/diseased) and a set of explanatory variables were measured with existing commercial sensors: rumination duration, activity and milk yield of each individual cow...
May 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
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