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mathematical modeling

Vicente Pastor-Poquet, Stefano Papirio, Jean-Philippe Steyer, Eric Trably, Renaud Escudié, Giovanni Esposito
During high-solids anaerobic digestion (HS-AD) of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), an important total solid (TS) removal occurs, leading to the modification of the reactor content mass/volume, in contrast to 'wet' anaerobic digestion (AD). Therefore, HS-AD mathematical simulations need to be approached differently than 'wet' AD simulations. This study aimed to develop a modelling tool based on the anaerobic digestion model 1 (ADM1) capable of simulating the TS and the reactor mass/volume dynamics in HS-AD of OFMSW...
June 14, 2018: Water Research
Nikhil Pillai, Morgan Craig, Aristeidis Dokoumetzidis, Sorell L Schwartz, Robert Bies, Immanuel Freedman
In mathematical pharmacology, models are constructed to confer a robust method for optimizing treatment. The predictive capability of pharmacological models depends heavily on the ability to track the system and to accurately determine parameters with reference to the sensitivity in projected outcomes. To closely track chaotic systems, one may choose to apply chaos synchronization. An advantageous byproduct of this methodology is the ability to quantify model parameters. In this paper, we illustrate the use of chaos synchronization combined with Nelder-Mead search to estimate parameters of the well-known Kirschner-Panetta model of IL-2 immunotherapy from noisy data...
June 18, 2018: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
Mirjam Kretzschmar, Janneke C M Heijne
For modelling sexually transmitted infections, duration of partnerships can strongly influence the transmission dynamics of the infection. If partnerships are monogamous, pairs of susceptible individuals are protected from becoming infected, while pairs of infected individuals delay onward transmission of the infection as long as they persist. In addition, for curable infections re-infection from an infected partner may occur. Furthermore, interventions based on contact tracing rely on the possibility of identifying and treating partners of infected individuals...
August 2017: Infectious Disease Modelling
Patrick Saunders-Hastings, Bryson Quinn Hayes, Robert Smith, Daniel Krewski
Background: Influenza pandemics emerge at irregular and unpredictable intervals to cause substantial health, economic and social burdens. Optimizing health-system response is vital to mitigating the consequences of future pandemics. Methods: We developed a mathematical model to assess the preparedness of Canadian health systems to accommodate pandemic-related increases in patient demand. We identify vulnerable areas, assess the potential of inter-wave vaccination to mitigate impacts and evaluate the association between demographic and health-system characteristics in order to identify predictors of pandemic consequences...
August 2017: Infectious Disease Modelling
Shigui Ruan
Rabies is a serious concern to public health and wildlife management worldwide. Over the last three decades, various mathematical models have been proposed to study the transmission dynamics of rabies. In this paper we provide a mini-review on some reaction-diffusion models describing the spatial spread of rabies among animals. More specifically, we introduce the susceptible-exposed-infectious models for the spatial transmission of rabies among foxes (Murray et al., 1986), the spatiotemporal epidemic model for rabies among raccoons (Neilan and Lenhart, 2011), the diffusive rabies model for skunk and bat interactions (Bonchering et al...
August 2017: Infectious Disease Modelling
Michael B McCullough, Michael D Martin, Mollika A Sajady
Numerous studies in applied pedagogical design have shown that, at all educational levels, direct exposure to the natural environment can enhance learning by improving student attention and behaviors. Implementing green walls-a "vertical garden," or "living wall" interior wall that typically includes greenery, a growing medium (soil or substrate) and a water delivery system-provides environmental health benefits, but also provides a practical application within classrooms for minimizing directed attention fatigue in students by connecting them to "outdoor nature" within the indoor environment...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Michael J Puchowicz, Eliran Mizelman, Assaf Yogev, Michael S Koehle, Nathan E Townsend, David C Clarke
Existing doping detection strategies rely on direct and indirect biochemical measurement methods focused on detecting banned substances, their metabolites, or biomarkers related to their use. However, the goal of doping is to improve performance, and yet evidence from performance data is not considered by these strategies. The emergence of portable sensors for measuring exercise intensities and of player tracking technologies may enable the widespread collection of performance data. How these data should be used for doping detection is an open question...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Lubna Danish, Dirke Imig, Frank Allgöwer, Peter Scheurich, Nadine Pollak
Dysregulation of the mitochondrial signaling pathway of apoptosis induction represents a major hurdle in tumor therapy. The objective of the presented work was to investigate the role of the intrinsic (mitochondrial) apoptotic pathway in the non-small lung cancer cell line NCI-H460 upon induction of apoptosis using the highly bioactive TRAIL derivative Db-scTRAIL. NCI-H460 cells were TRAIL sensitive but an only about 3 fold overexpression of Bcl-2 was sufficient to induce a highly TRAIL resistant phenotype, confirming that the mitochondrial pathway is crucial for TRAIL-induced apoptosis induction...
2018: PloS One
S N Nekhlopochin, A S Nekhlopochin, A I Shvets
OBJECTIVE: The study objective was to classify implants for anterior interbody fusion, depending on their design features and functional capabilities, to optimize the choice of endoprosthesis designs for reconstructive surgery of the spin. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We analyzed information provided in advertising brochures, annotations, and communications describing the designs of vertebral body endoprostheses. To study the design features of various implants, we selected 25 implant types with the structural designs of major units typical of vertebral body replacement systems...
2018: Zhurnal Voprosy Neĭrokhirurgii Imeni N. N. Burdenko
A N Simonov, T P Klyushnik, L V Androsova, N M Mikhaylova
AIM: To quantify the relationship of Alzheimer's disease with the inflammatory markers: enzymatic activity of leukocyte elastase (LE) and functional activity of α1-proteinase inhibitor (α1-PI) on the basis of the logistic regression model and to build a model to predict the probability of AD in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The object of the mathematical analysis was the database, which included the results of assays of LE activity and functional α1-PI activity in blood plasma of 91 patients with a verified diagnosis of AD in inpatient or outpatient treatment and 37 age-matched healthy people...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Marije Wijnberge, Daniko P Sindhunata, Michael R Pinsky, Alexander P Vlaar, Else Ouweneel, Jos R Jansen, Denise P Veelo, Bart F Geerts
The bedside hemodynamic assessment of the critically ill remains challenging since blood volume, arterial-venous interaction and compliance are not measured directly. Mean circulatory filling pressure (Pmcf ) is the blood pressure throughout the vascular system at zero flow. Animal studies have shown Pmcf provides information on vascular compliance, volume responsiveness and enables the calculation of stressed volume. It is now possible to measure Pmcf at the bedside. We performed a systematic review of the current Pmcf measurement techniques and compared their clinical applicability, precision, accuracy and limitations...
June 20, 2018: Annals of Intensive Care
Manjulata Singh, Katsuhiko Warita, Tomoko Warita, James R Faeder, Robin E C Lee, Shilpa Sant, Zoltán N Oltvai
Cell-to-cell differences in protein expression in normal tissues and tumors are a common phenomenon, but the underlying principles that govern this heterogeneity are largely unknown. Here, we show that in monolayer cancer cell-line cultures, the expression of the five metabolic enzymes of serine-glycine synthesis (SGS), including its rate-limiting enzyme, phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PHGDH), displays stochastic cell-to-cell variation. By contrast, in cancer cell line-derived three-dimensional (3D) microtumors PHGDH expression is restricted to the outermost part of the microtumors' outer proliferative cell layer, while the four other SGS enzymes display near uniform expression throughout the microtumor...
June 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Guowei Shu, Xiaoyu Shi, Li Chen, Jianbo Kou, Jiangpeng Meng, He Chen
Antioxidant peptides are currently the focus of many studies, since they eliminate free radicals in the human body without harmful effects. In the present study, Lactobacillus casei L61 was used as a starter culture to ferment goat milk because of its high capacity to produce antioxidant peptides. An optimal nutrients formula (casein, casein peptone, glucose, soybean peptone, inulin, calcium lactate, and cysteine) was investigated by Plackett⁻Burman (P⁻B) and Box⁻Behnken (B⁻B) designs for response surface methodology (RSM)...
June 20, 2018: Nutrients
Abdennasser Chekroun, Laurent Pujo-Menjouet, Jean-Philippe Berteau
Bone is an engineering marvel that achieves a unique combination of stiffness and toughness exceeding that of synthesized materials. In orthopedics, we are currently challenged for the child population that needs a less stiff but a tougher bone substitute than adults. Recent evidence suggests that the relationship between inter-molecular connections that involve the two main bone building blocks, TropoCollagen molecules (TC) and carbonated Hydroxyapatite (cAp), and bone macroscopic mechanical properties, stiffness and toughness, are key to building bone substitute materials for children...
June 20, 2018: Materials
Pat Barclay, Sandeep Mishra, Adam Maxwell Sparks
Who takes risks, and when? The relative state model proposes two non-independent selection pressures governing risk-taking: need-based and ability-based. The need-based account suggests that actors take risks when they cannot reach target states with low-risk options (consistent with risk-sensitivity theory). The ability-based account suggests that actors engage in risk-taking when they possess traits or abilities that increase the expected value of risk-taking (by increasing the probability of success, enhancing payoffs for success or buffering against failure)...
June 27, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Thies H Büscher, Mikhail Kryuchkov, Vladimir L Katanaev, Stanislav N Gorb
In its evolution, the diverse group of stick and leaf insects (Phasmatodea) has undergone a rapid radiation. These insects evolved specialized structures to adhere to different surfaces typical for their specific ecological environments. The cuticle of their tarsal attachment pads (euplantulae) is known to possess a high diversity of attachment microstructures (AMS) which are suggested to reflect ecological specializations of different groups within phasmids. However, the origin of these microstructures and their developmental background remain largely unknown...
June 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Christina L Mouser, Eliana S Antoniou, Evros K Vassiliou
BACKGROUND: The process by which blood cells are formed is referred to as hematopoiesis. This process involves a complex sequence of phases that blood cells must complete. During hematopoiesis, a small fraction of cells undergo cell death. Causes of cell death are dependent upon various factors; one such factor being growth factor deprivation. METHODS: In this paper, a mathematical model of hematopoiesis during growth factor deprivation is presented. The model consists of a set of three coupled differential delay equations...
June 21, 2018: Theoretical Biology & Medical Modelling
Haicen Yue, Brian A Camley, Wouter-Jan Rappel
Cell-cell communication plays an important role in collective cell migration. However, it remains unclear how cells in a group cooperatively process external signals to determine the group's direction of motion. Although the topology of signaling pathways is vitally important in single-cell chemotaxis, the signaling topology for collective chemotaxis has not been systematically studied. Here, we combine mathematical analysis and simulations to find minimal network topologies for multicellular signal processing in collective chemotaxis...
June 19, 2018: Biophysical Journal
Kenji Matsuzawa, Takuya Himoto, Yuki Mochizuki, Junichi Ikenouchi
Adherens junctions (AJs) control epithelial cell behavior, such as collective movement and morphological changes, during development and in disease. However, the molecular mechanism of AJ remodeling remains incompletely understood. Here, we report that the conformational activation of α-catenin is the key event in the dynamic regulation of AJ remodeling. α-catenin activates RhoA to increase actomyosin contractility at cell-cell junctions. This leads to the stabilization of activated α-catenin, in part through the recruitment of the actin-binding proteins, vinculin and afadin...
June 19, 2018: Cell Reports
Baoyin Yuan, Hiroshi Nishiura
BACKGROUND: Frequent international travel facilitates the global spread of dengue fever. Japan has experienced an increasing number of imported case notifications of dengue virus (DENV) infection, mostly arising from Japanese travelers visiting South and Southeast Asian countries. This has led an autochthonous dengue outbreak in 2014 in Japan. The present study aimed to infer the risk of DENV infection among Japanese travelers to Asian countries, thereby obtaining an actual estimate of the number of DENV infections among travelers...
2018: PloS One
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