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plant genetics

Alexandra Asaro, Gregory Ziegler, Cathrine Ziyomo, Owen Hoekenga, Brian Dilkes, Ivan Baxter
Plants obtain soil-resident elements that support growth and metabolism from the water- flow facilitated by transpiration and active transport processes. The availability of elements in the environment interacts with the genetic capacity of organisms to modulate element uptake through plastic adaptive responses, such as homeostasis. These interactions should cause the elemental contents of plants to vary such that the effects of genetic polymorphisms will be dramatically dependent on the environment in which the plant is grown...
October 21, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Masayuki Onishi, John R Pringle
The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a model organism that provides an opportunity to understand the evolution and functional biology of the lineage that includes the land plants, as well as aspects of the fundamental core biology conserved throughout the eukaryotic phylogeny. Although many tools are available to facilitate genetic, molecular biological, biochemical, and cell biological studies in Chlamydomonas, expression of unselected transgenes of interest (GOIs) has been challenging. In most methods used previously, the GOI and a selectable marker are expressed from two separate mRNAs, so that their concomitant expression is not guaranteed...
October 21, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
(no author information available yet)
Many disciplines, from human genetics and oncology to plant breeding, microbiology and virology, commonly face the challenge of analyzing rapidly increasing numbers of genomes. In case of Homo sapiens, the number of sequenced genomes will approach hundreds of thousands in the next few years. Simply scaling up established bioinformatics pipelines will not be sufficient for leveraging the full potential of such rich genomic data sets. Instead, novel, qualitatively different computational methods and paradigms are needed...
October 21, 2016: Briefings in Bioinformatics
Marwa A A Ibrahim, Ebtsam F Okasha
Genetically modified (GM) plants expressing insecticidal traits offer a new strategy for crop protection. GM-corn contains Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes producing delta endotoxins in the whole plant. Diet can influence the characteristics of the gastrointestinal tract altering its function and structure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of GM-corn on the histological structure of jejunal mucosa of adult male albino rat using different histological, immunohistochemical and morphometrical methods...
October 18, 2016: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology: Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Für Toxikologische Pathologie
Francesca De Filippis, Nicoletta Pellegrini, Luca Laghi, Marco Gobbetti, Danilo Ercolini
BACKGROUND: Diet has a recognized effect in shaping gut microbiota. Many studies link an increase in Prevotella to high-fibre diet, while Bacteroides abundance is usually associated with the consumption of animal fat and protein-rich diets. Nevertheless, closely related species and strains may harbour different genetic pools; therefore, further studies should aim to understand whether species of the same genus are consistently linked to dietary patterns or equally responsive to diet variations...
October 21, 2016: Microbiome
Hongwu Wang, Kun Li, Xiaojiao Hu, Zhifang Liu, Yujin Wu, Changling Huang
BACKGROUND: Plant digestibility of silage maize (Zea mays L.) has a large influence on nutrition intake for animal feeding. Improving forage quality will enhance the utilization efficiency and feeding value of forage maize. Dissecting the genetic basis of forage quality will improve our understanding of the complex nature of cell wall biosynthesis and degradation, which is also helpful for breeding good quality silage maize. RESULTS: Acid detergent fiber (ADF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) of stalk were evaluated in a diverse maize population, which is comprised of 368 inbred lines and planted across seven environments...
October 21, 2016: BMC Plant Biology
Chaoyun Hao, Zhiqiang Xia, Rui Fan, Lehe Tan, Lisong Hu, Baoduo Wu, Huasong Wu
BACKGROUND: Piper nigrum L., or "black pepper", is an economically important spice crop in tropical regions. Black pepper production is markedly affected by foot rot disease caused by Phytophthora capsici, and genetic improvement of black pepper is essential for combating foot rot diseases. However, little is known about the mechanism of anti- P. capsici in black pepper. The molecular mechanisms underlying foot rot susceptibility were studied by comparing transcriptome analysis between resistant (Piper flaviflorum) and susceptible (Piper nigrum cv...
October 21, 2016: BMC Genomics
Ana Lúcia Anversa Segatto, Claudia Elizabeth Thompson, Loreta Brandão Freitas
Developmental genes are believed to contribute to major changes during plant evolution, from infrageneric to higher levels. Due to their putative high sequence conservation, developmental genes are rarely used as molecular markers, and few studies including these sequences at low taxonomic levels exist. WUSCHEL-related homeobox genes (WOX) are transcription factors exclusively present in plants and are involved in developmental processes. In this study, we characterized the infrageneric genetic variation of Petunia WOX genes...
October 20, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Biology
Kristin Bösch, Lamprinos Frantzeskakis, Miroslav Vraneš, Jörg Kämper, Kerstin Schipper, Vera Göhre
Gene deletion plays an important role in the analysis of gene function. One of the most efficient methods to disrupt genes in a targeted manner is the replacement of the entire gene with a selectable marker via homologous recombination. During homologous recombination, exchange of DNA takes place between sequences with high similarity. Therefore, linear genomic sequences flanking a target gene can be used to specifically direct a selectable marker to the desired integration site. Blunt ends of the deletion construct activate the cell's DNA repair systems and thereby promote integration of the construct either via homologous recombination or by non-homologous-end-joining...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Natália Helen Ferreira, Kelly Jacqueline Barbosa de Andrade, Luís Fernando Leandro, Nathália Oliveira Acésio, Suzana Amorim Mendes, Lucas Silva Cintra, Ana Helena Januário, Denise Crispim Tavares
The aim of this study was to examine the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of a hydroethanolic extract of Schefflera vinosa (SV), a plant with schistosomicidal activity, as well as its influence on DNA damage induced by different mutagens, methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), in V79 cells and Swiss mice. Schefflera vinosa extract produced cytotoxicity at concentrations of 312.5 µg/ml or higher using the XTT cell proliferation assay kit. Treatment of V79 cell cultures with the highest SV concentration tested (150 µg/ml) significantly increased the frequency of micronuclei (MN) compared to controls...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Razia S Shaik, Xiaocheng Zhu, David R Clements, Leslie A Weston
Part of the challenge in dealing with invasive plant species is that they seldom represent a uniform, static entity. Often, an accurate understanding of the history of plant introduction and knowledge of the real levels of genetic diversity present in species and populations of importance is lacking. Currently, the role of genetic diversity in promoting the successful establishment of invasive plants is not well defined. Genetic profiling of invasive plants should enhance our understanding of the dynamics of colonization in the invaded range...
2016: Conservation Physiology
Giulio Binetti, Laura Del Coco, Rosa Ragone, Samanta Zelasco, Enzo Perri, Cinzia Montemurro, Raffaele Valentini, David Naso, Francesco Paolo Fanizzi, Francesco Paolo Schena
The development of an efficient and accurate method for extra-virgin olive oils cultivar and origin authentication is complicated by the broad range of variables (e.g., multiplicity of varieties, pedo-climatic aspects, production and storage conditions) influencing their properties. In this study, artificial neural networks (ANNs) were applied on several analytical datasets, namely standard merceological parameters, near-infra red data and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) fingerprints, obtained on mono-cultivar olive oils of four representative Apulian varieties (Coratina, Ogliarola, Cima di Mola, Peranzana)...
March 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Ruijie Zhang, Nana Zhang, Hai Zhang, Chunxiao Liu, Xiaoqing Dong, Xiaoxue Wang, Yu Zhu, Chong Xu, Lei Liu, Sijun Yang, Shile Huang, Long Chen
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Increasing evidence has suggested cadmium (Cd), as an inducer of reactive oxygen species (ROS), is a potential pathogenic factor in human neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, it is important to find effective interventions for Cd-induced oxidative stress in the central nervous system. The purpose of this study was to determine whether and how celastrol, a plant-derived triterpene, could mitigate Cd-induced ROS and cell death in neuronal cells. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: PC12, SH-SY5Y cells and primary murine neurons were chosen as a model to study celastrol neuroprotection against Cd-poisoning...
October 20, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
Luis Figueroa-Yañez, Alejandro Pereira-Santana, Ana Arroyo-Herrera, Ulises Rodriguez-Corona, Felipe Sanchez-Teyer, Jorge Espadas-Alcocer, Francisco Espadas-Gil, Felipe Barredo-Pool, Enrique Castaño, Luis Carlos Rodriguez-Zapata
Plants respond to stress through metabolic and morphological changes that increase their ability to survive and grow. To this end, several transcription factor families are responsible for transmitting the signals that are required for these changes. Here, we studied the transcription factor superfamily AP2/ERF, particularly, RAP2.4 from Carica papaya cv. Maradol. We isolated four genes (CpRap2.4a, CpRAap2.4b, CpRap2.1 and CpRap2.10), and an in silico analysis showed that the four genes encode proteins that contain a conserved APETALA2 (AP2) domain located within group I and II transcription factors of the AP2/ERF superfamily...
2016: PloS One
Qingsong Liu, Eric Hallerman, Yufa Peng, Yunhe Li
Rice and maize are important cereal crops that serve as staple foods, feed, and industrial material in China. Multiple factors constrain the production of both crops, among which insect pests are an important one. Lepidopteran pests cause enormous yield losses for the crops annually. In order to control these pests, China plays an active role in development and application of genetic engineering (GE) to crops, and dozens of GE rice and GE maize lines expressing insecticidal proteins from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been developed...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Kohtaro Watanabe, Hirokazu Takahashi, Saori Sato, Shunsaku Nishiuchi, Fumie Omori, Al Imran Malik, Timothy David Colmer, Yoshiro Mano, Mikio Nakazono
A radial oxygen loss (ROL) barrier in roots of waterlogging-tolerant plants promotes oxygen movement via aerenchyma to the root tip, and impedes soil phytotoxin entry. The molecular mechanism and genetic regulation of ROL barrier formation are largely unknown. Zea nicaraguensis, a waterlogging-tolerant wild relative of maize (Z. mays ssp. mays), forms a tight ROL barrier in its roots when waterlogged. We used Z. nicaraguensis chromosome segment introgression lines (ILs) in maize (inbred line Mi29) to elucidate the chromosomal region involved in regulating root ROL barrier formation...
October 20, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
Caiyun He, Guori Gao, Jianguo Zhang, Aiguo Duan, Hongmei Luo
BACKGROUND: Low temperature is one of the crucial environmental factors limiting the productivity and distribution of plants. Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.), a well recognized multipurpose plant species, live successfully in in cold desert regions. But their molecular mechanisms underlying cold tolerance are not well understood. METHODS: Physiological and biochemical responses to low-temperature stress were studied in seedlings of sea buckthorn. Differentially expressed protein spots were analyzed using multiplexing fluorescent two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight/time-of-flight (TOF/TOF) mass spectrometry (MS), the concentration of phytohormone was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and a spectrophotometric assay was used to measure enzymatic reactions...
2016: Proteome Science
Ashutosh Kumar Verma, Sunita Singh Dhawan, Seema Singh, Kumar Avinash Bharati, Jyotsana
BACKGROUND: Gymnema sylvestre, a vulnerable plant species, is mentioned in Indian Pharmacopeia as an antidiabetic drug. OBJECTIVE: Study of genetic and chemical diversity and its implications in accessions of G. sylvestre. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fourteen accessions of G. sylvestre collected from Central India and assessment of their genetic and chemical diversity were carried out using ISSR (inter simple sequence repeat) and HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) fingerprinting methods...
July 2016: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Magda Silva Carneiro, Caroline Cambraia Furtado Campos, Luiz Alberto Beijo, Flavio Nunes Ramos
Species homogenization or floristic differentiation are two possible consequences of the fragmentation process in plant communities. Despite the few studies, it seems clear that fragments with low forest cover inserted in anthropogenic matrices are more likely to experience floristic homogenization. However, the homogenization process has two other components, genetic and functional, which have not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to verify whether there was homogenization of tree reproductive functions in a fragmented landscape and, if found, to determine how the process was influenced by landscape composition...
2016: PloS One
Si Wu, Saleh Alseekh, Álvaro Cuadros-Inostroza, Corina M Fusari, Marek Mutwil, Rik Kooke, Joost B Keurentjes, Alisdair R Fernie, Lothar Willmitzer, Yariv Brotman
Plant primary metabolism is a highly coordinated, central, and complex network of biochemical processes regulated at both the genetic and post-translational levels. The genetic basis of this network can be explored by analyzing the metabolic composition of genetically diverse genotypes in a given plant species. Here, we report an integrative strategy combining quantitative genetic mapping and metabolite‒transcript correlation networks to identify functional associations between genes and primary metabolites in Arabidopsis thaliana...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
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