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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334321/biosynthesis-of-galactomannans-found-in-filamentous-fungi-belonging-to-pezizomycotina
#1
Takuji Oka
The galactomannans (GMs) that are produced by filamentous fungi belonging to Pezizomycotina, many of which are pathogenic for animals and plants, are polysaccharides consisting of α-(1→2)-/α-(1→6)-mannosyl and β-(1→5)-/β-(1→6)-galactofuranosyl residues. GMs are located at the outermost layer of the cell wall. When a pathogenic fungus infects a host, its cell surface must be in contact with the host. The GMs on the cell surface may be involved in the infection mechanism of a pathogenic fungus or the defense mechanism of a host...
January 15, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333607/arabidopsis-mlo2-is-a-negative-regulator-of-sensitivity-to-extracellular-ros
#2
Fuqiang Cui, Hongpo Wu, Omid Safronov, Panpan Zhang, Rajeev Kumar, Hannes Kollist, Jarkko Salojärvi, Ralph Panstruga, Kirk Overmyer
The atmospheric pollutant ozone (O3 ) is a strong oxidant that causes extracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, has significant ecological relevance, and is used here as a non-invasive ROS inducer to study plant signalling. Previous genetic screens identified several mutants exhibiting enhanced O3- sensitivity, but few with enhanced tolerance. We found that loss-of-function mutants in Arabidopsis MLO2, a gene implicated in susceptibility to powdery mildew disease, exhibit enhanced dose-dependent tolerance to O3 and extracellular ROS, but a normal response to intracellular ROS...
January 15, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332309/how-have-leaves-of-mycoheterotrophic-plants-evolved-from-the-view-point-of-a-developmental-biologist
#3
Hirokazu Tsukaya
How mycoheterotrophs have evolved and how they are sustained are an enigma. Structural analyses of the plastid genome and phylogenetic analyses of mycoheterotrophs have been used to identify mycorrhizal fungi. Molecular genetic studies have also revealed the mechanism for plant-fungi interactions. However, the evolution of the small, scale-like vegetative leaves of mycoheterotrophs is unknown. As almost all genes determining leaf size affect the floral organ sizes, it is highly implausible that loss-of-function mutations in leaf size regulators caused the evolution of smaller foliage leaves in mycoheterotrophs...
January 14, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332296/plant-cell-cultures-as-model-systems-to-study-programmed-cell-death
#4
Sara Cimini, Maria Beatrice Ronci, Elisabetta Barizza, Maria Concetta de Pinto, Vittoria Locato, Fiorella Lo Schiavo, Laura De Gara
The study of programmed cell death (PCD) activated in a certain group of cells is complex when analyzed in the whole plant. Plant cell suspension cultures are useful when investigating PCD triggered by environmental and developmental stimuli. Due to their homogeneity and the possibility to synchronize their responses induced by external stimuli, these cultures are used for studying the signaling pathways leading to PCD. The first problem in the analysis of PCD in cell cultures is the quantification of cell viability/death over time...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332292/in-vivo-analysis-of-calcium-levels-and-glutathione-redox-status-in-arabidopsis-epidermal-leaf-cells-infected-with-the-hypersensitive-response-inducing-bacteria-pseudomonas-syringae-pv-tomato-avrb-pstavrb
#5
Fabrizio Gandolfo Doccula, Laura Luoni, Smrutisanjita Behera, Maria Cristina Bonza, Alex Costa
Plants react to the attack of pathogen microorganisms by mounting appropriate and efficient downstream defense responses often involving a form of localized cell death called hypersensitive response (HR).Here we describe an innovative and noninvasive protocol based on in vivo bioimaging technique coupled with utilization of genetically encoded fluorescent sensors that allows to monitor and analyze intracellular calcium (Ca2+) dynamics and changes of the glutathione redox status taking place in plant organs during plant interaction with the HR-inducing bacteria Pseudomonas syringae (PstAvrB)...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332284/measurement-of-hypersensitive-cell-death-triggered-by-avirulent-bacterial-pathogens-in-arabidopsis
#6
Zahra Imanifard, Elodie Vandelle, Diana Bellin
The hypersensitive response is one of the most powerful and complex defense reactions to survive to pathogen attacks during an incompatible plant-pathogen interaction. Local programmed cell death accompanies the hypersensitive response at the site of infection to prevent pathogen growth and spread. A precise quantitative assessment of this form of programmed cell death is essential to unravel the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying the process. Here, we first describe the optimization of a Trypan Blue staining protocol for quantitatively measuring the HR-cell death in Arabidopsis...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332191/genome-wide-characterization-of-differentially-expressed-genes-provides-insights-into-regulatory-network-of-heat-stress-response-in-radish-raphanus-sativus-l
#7
Ronghua Wang, Yi Mei, Liang Xu, Xianwen Zhu, Yan Wang, Jun Guo, Liwang Liu
Heat stress (HS) causes detrimental effects on plant morphology, physiology, and biochemistry that lead to drastic reduction in plant biomass production and economic yield worldwide. To date, little is known about HS-responsive genes involved in thermotolerance mechanism in radish. In this study, a total of 6600 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) from the control and Heat24 cDNA libraries of radish were isolated by high-throughput sequencing. With Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis, some genes including MAPK, DREB, ERF, AP2, GST, Hsf, and Hsp were predominantly assigned in signal transductions, metabolic pathways, and biosynthesis and abiotic stress-responsive pathways...
January 13, 2018: Functional & Integrative Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332167/non-coding-rnas-and-plant-male-sterility-current-knowledge-and-future-prospects
#8
REVIEW
Ankita Mishra, Abhishek Bohra
Latest outcomes assign functional role to non-coding (nc) RNA molecules in regulatory networks that confer male sterility to plants. Male sterility in plants offers great opportunity for improving crop performance through application of hybrid technology. In this respect, cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) and sterility induced by photoperiod (PGMS)/temperature (TGMS) have greatly facilitated development of high-yielding hybrids in crops. Participation of non-coding (nc) RNA molecules in plant reproductive development is increasingly becoming evident...
January 13, 2018: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331077/optimized-paired-sgrna-cas9-cloning-and-expression-cassette-triggers-high-efficiency-multiplex-genome-editing-in-kiwifruit
#9
Zupeng Wang, Shuaibin Wang, Dawei Li, Qiong Zhang, Li Li, Caihong Zhong, Yifei Liu, Hongwen Huang
Kiwifruit is an important fruit crop; however, technologies for its functional genomic and molecular improvement are limited. The clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein (Cas) system has been successfully applied to genetic improvement in many crops, but its editing capability is variable depending on the different combinations of the synthetic guide RNA (sgRNA) and Cas9 protein expression devices. Optimizing conditions for its use within a particular species is therefore needed to achieve highly efficient genome editing...
January 13, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331062/benefits-of-increasing-transpiration-efficiency-in-wheat-under-elevated-co2-for-rainfed-regions
#10
Brendan Christy, Sabine Tausz-Posch, Michael Tausz, Richard Richards, Greg Rebetzke, Anthony Condon, Terry Mclean, Glenn Fitzgerald, Maryse Bourgault, Garry O'Leary
Higher transpiration efficiency (TE) has been proposed as a mechanism to increase crop yields in dry environments where water availability usually limits yield. The application of a coupled radiation and transpiration efficiency simulation model shows wheat yield advantage of a high TE cultivar (cv. Drysdale) over its almost identical low TE parent line (Hartog), from about -7 to 558 kg ha-1 (mean 187 kg ha-1 ) over the rainfed cropping region in Australia (221 to 1351 mm annual rainfall), under the present-day climate...
January 13, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330900/overexpression-of-microrna408-enhances-photosynthesis-growth-and-seed-yield-in-diverse-plants
#11
Jiawei Pan, Dahui Huang, Zhonglong Guo, Zheng Kuang, He Zhang, Xinyu Xie, Zengfeng Ma, Shaopei Gao, Manuel T Lerdau, Chengcai Chu, Lei Li
The ability of a plant to produce grain, fruit, or forage depends ultimately on photosynthesis. There have been few attempts, however, to study microRNAs, which are a class of endogenous small RNAs post-transcriptionally programming gene expression, in relation to photosynthetic traits. We focused on miR408, one of the most conserved plant miRNAs, and overexpressed it in parallel in Arabidopsis, tobacco, and rice. The transgenic plants all exhibited increased copper content in the chloroplast, elevated abundance of plastocyanin, and an induction of photosynthetic genes...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330556/evolution-of-the-phosphatidylcholine-biosynthesis-pathways-in-green-algae-combinatorial-diversity-of-methyltransferases
#12
Takashi Hirashima, Masakazu Toyoshima, Takashi Moriyama, Naoki Sato
Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is one of the most common phospholipids in eukaryotes, although some green algae such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii are known to lack PC. Recently, we detected PC in four species in the genus Chlamydomonas: C. applanata NIES-2202, C. asymmetrica NIES-2207, C. debaryana NIES-2212, and C. sphaeroides NIES-2242. To reveal the PC biosynthesis pathways in green algae and the evolutionary scenario involved in their diversity, we analyzed the PC biosynthesis genes in these four algae using draft genome sequences...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Molecular Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329302/phylogeography-and-conservation-genetics-of-the-rare-and-relict-bretschneidera-sinensis-akaniaceae
#13
Mei-Na Wang, Lei Duan, Qi Qiao, Zheng-Feng Wang, Elizabeth A Zimmer, Zhong-Chao Li, Hong-Feng Chen
Bretschneidera sinensis, a class-I protected wild plant in China, is a relic of the ancient Tertiary tropical flora endemic to Asia. However, little is known about its genetics and phylogeography. To elucidate the current phylogeographic patterns and infer the historical population dynamics of B. sinensis, and to make recommendations for its conservation, three non-coding regions of chloroplast DNA (trnQ-rps16, rps8-rps11, and trnT-trnL) were amplified and sequenced across 256 individuals from 23 populations of B...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329249/scaffolding-for-repair-understanding-molecular-functions-of-the-smc5-6-complex
#14
REVIEW
Mariana Diaz, Ales Pecinka
Chromosome organization, dynamics and stability are required for successful passage through cellular generations and transmission of genetic information to offspring. The key components involved are Structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) complexes. Cohesin complex ensures proper chromatid alignment, condensin complex chromosome condensation and the SMC5/6 complex is specialized in the maintenance of genome stability. Here we summarize recent knowledge on the composition and molecular functions of SMC5/6 complex...
January 12, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328532/population-genomic-footprints-of-host-adaptation-introgression-and-recombination-in-coffee-leaf-rust
#15
Diogo Nuno Silva, Vítor Várzea, Octávio Salgueiro Paulo, Dora Batista
Coffee Leaf Rust, caused by Hemileia vastatrix (Hv), represents the biggest threat to coffee production worldwide and ranks amongst the most serious fungal diseases in history. Despite a recent series of outbreaks and emergence of hyper-virulent strains, the population evolutionary history and potential of this pathogen remains poorly understood. To address this issue, we used RADseq to generate ∼19,000 SNPs across a worldwide collection of 37 Hv samples. Contrarily to the longstanding idea that Hv represents a genetically unstructured and cosmopolitan species, our results reveal the existence of a cryptic species complex with marked host tropism...
January 12, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327647/afrina-sporoboliae-sp-n-nematoda-anguinidae-associated-with-sporobolus-cryptandrus-torr-a-gray-from-idaho-usa-phylogenetic-relationships-and-population-structure
#16
Bianca L Barrantes-Infante, Brenda K Schroeder, Sergei A Subbotin, Timothy D Murray
The dropseed gall-forming nematode, Afrina sporoboliae sp. n., is described from seed galls of Sporobolus cryptandrus (Poaceae: Chloridoideae: Sporobolinae) collected in Idaho, USA. This is the third report of an Afrina species in North America and the first report of this genus in a natural plant population on this continent. Morphological, morphometric, and molecular analyses placed this nematode in genus Afrina and demonstrated that it differs from Af. hyparrheniae and Af. spermophaga by having longer body and stylet lengths for females and males, and from Af...
January 12, 2018: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327444/developing-a-flexible-high-efficiency-agrobacterium-mediated-sorghum-transformation-system-with-broad-application
#17
Ping Che, Ajith Anand, Emily Wu, Jeffry D Sander, Marissa K Simon, Weiwei Zhu, Amy L Sigmund, Gina Zastrow-Hayes, Michael Miller, Donglong Liu, Shai J Lawit, Zuo-Yu Zhao, Marc C Albertsen, Todd J Jones
Sorghum is the fifth most widely planted cereal crop in the world and is commonly cultivated in arid and semi-arid regions such as Africa. Despite its importance as a food source, sorghum genetic improvement through transgenic approaches has been limited because of an inefficient transformation system. Here we report a ternary vector (also known as co-habitating vector) system using a recently described pVIR accessory plasmid that facilitates efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of sorghum. We report regeneration frequencies ranging from 6-29% in Tx430 using different selectable markers and single copy, backbone free "quality events" ranging from 45-66% of the total events produced...
January 11, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327227/structural-characterization-of-a-novel-full-length-transcript-promoter-from-horseradish-latent-virus-hrlv-and-its-transcriptional-regulation-by-multiple-stress-responsive-transcription-factors
#18
Ahamed Khan, Ankita Shrestha, Kashyap Bhuyan, Indu B Maiti, Nrisingha Dey
The promoter fragment described in this study can be employed for strong transgene expression under both biotic and abiotic stress conditions. Plant-infecting Caulimoviruses have evolved multiple regulatory mechanisms to address various environmental stimuli during the course of evolution. One such mechanism involves the retention of discrete stress responsive cis-elements which are required for their survival and host-specificity. Here we describe the characterization of a novel Caulimoviral promoter isolated from Horseradish Latent Virus (HRLV) and its regulation by multiple stress responsive Transcription factors (TFs) namely DREB1, AREB1 and TGA1a...
January 11, 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327217/cryobiotechnology-of-apple-malus-spp-development-progress-and-future-prospects
#19
REVIEW
Min-Rui Wang, Long Chen, Jaime A Teixeira da Silva, Gayle M Volk, Qiao-Chun Wang
Cryopreservation provides valuable genes for further breeding of elite cultivars, and cryotherapy improves the production of virus-free plants in Malus spp., thus assisting the sustainable development of the apple industry. Apple (Malus spp.) is one of the most economically important temperate fruit crops. Wild Malus genetic resources and existing cultivars provide valuable genes for breeding new elite cultivars and rootstocks through traditional and biotechnological breeding programs. These valuable genes include those resistant to abiotic factors such as drought and salinity, and to biotic factors such as fungi, bacteria and aphids...
January 11, 2018: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325990/quantitative-proteomics-reveals-a-role-of-jaz7-in-plant-defense-response-to-pseudomonas-syringae-dc3000
#20
Tong Zhang, Li Meng, Wenwen Kong, Zepeng Yin, Yang Wang, Jacqueline D Schneider, Sixue Chen
Jasmonate ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins are key transcriptional repressors regulating various biological processes. Although many studies have studied JAZ proteins by genetic and biochemical analyses, little is known about JAZ7-associated global protein networks and how JAZ7 contributes to bacterial pathogen defense. In this study, we aim to fill this knowledge gap by conducting unbiased large-scale quantitative proteomics using tandem mass tags (TMT). We compared the proteomes of a JAZ7 knock-out line, a JAZ7 overexpression line, as well as the wild type Arabidopsis plants in the presence and absence of Pseudomonas syringae DC3000 infection...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
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