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Jie Tang, Jiaqian Fei, Chunxia Gu, Weixia Liu, Minwei Li, Cheng Zhou
BACKGROUND/AIMS: B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) is an immune inhibitory receptor involved in the pathogenesis of chronic viral infections. Little is known about the effects of BTLA gene polymorphisms on chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections. In this study, we investigated whether the polymorphisms of BTLA are associated with the progression of chronic HBV infection. METHODS: A total of 382 chronic HBV carriers and 170 healthy individuals in the same region were recruited for this study...
March 16, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Akhilesh Kumar, Manas Ranjan Dikhit, Ajay Amit, Amir Zaidi, Raj Kishor Pandey, Ashish Kumar Singh, Shashi S Suman, Vahab Ali, Vidya Nand Rabi Das, Krishna Pandey, Vikas Kumar, Shubhankar Kumar Singh, Shyam Narayan, Hirendra Kumar Chourasia, Pradeep Das, Sanjiva Bimal
We report here a Leishmania donovani ornithine decarboxylase (Ld-ODC) gene used as a DNA vaccine against visceral leishmaniasis in a murine Balb/c mouse model. This study also evaluated the possible mechanism of action directed by this candidate. We found a Th1 immune response after immunization using an Ld-ODC DNA vaccine, with results based on the rearrangement of TCR-V-α-2, proliferation of Carboxy fluorescein Succinimidyle ester positive T cells, which were able to produce cytokines such as TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-12 and IL-2, but not IL-4, IL-5, IL-6 and IL-10, and modulations of the STAT-1 and p38 MAP kinase signaling pathways...
March 17, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Sara Cristinelli, Angela Ciuffi
Single-cell analyses allow uncovering cellular heterogeneity, not only per se, but also in response to viral infection. Similarly, single cell transcriptome analyses (scRNA-Seq) can highlight specific signatures, identifying cell subsets with particular phenotypes, which are relevant in the understanding of virus-host interactions.
March 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
Hinrich Schulenburg
Oomycetes are best known as plant pathogens, causing for example potato blight. Other oomycetes are deadly yet less well studied pathogens of animals including humans. Osman and colleagues now present the nematode C. elegans as a new, genetically tractable host model that should enhance our general understanding of oomycete infections.
March 19, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Stefanos Siozios, Michael Gerth, Joanne S Griffin, Gregory D D Hurst
The inherited bacterium Wolbachia is an important component of the biology of many arthropods. What makes it so common? An analysis of drosophilids revealed one strain host shifts at a surprisingly high rate, infecting eight species in under 30,000 years.
March 19, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Jeffrey Braithwaite, Peter D Hibbert, Adam Jaffe, Les White, Christopher T Cowell, Mark F Harris, William B Runciman, Andrew R Hallahan, Gavin Wheaton, Helena M Williams, Elisabeth Murphy, Charlotte J Molloy, Louise K Wiles, Shanthi Ramanathan, Gaston Arnolda, Hsuen P Ting, Tamara D Hooper, Natalie Szabo, John G Wakefield, Clifford F Hughes, Annette Schmiede, Chris Dalton, Sarah Dalton, Joanna Holt, Liam Donaldson, Ed Kelley, Richard Lilford, Peter Lachman, Stephen Muething
Importance: The quality of routine care for children is rarely assessed, and then usually in single settings or for single clinical conditions. Objective: To estimate the quality of health care for children in Australia in inpatient and ambulatory health care settings. Design, Setting, and Participants: Multistage stratified sample with medical record review to assess adherence with quality indicators extracted from clinical practice guidelines for 17 common, high-burden clinical conditions (noncommunicable [n = 5], mental health [n = 4], acute infection [n = 7], and injury [n = 1]), such as asthma, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, tonsillitis, and head injury...
March 20, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Jes M Sanders, Alexandra B Steverson, Anna E Pawlowski, Daniel Schneider, Chad J Achenbach, Donald M Lloyd-Jones, Matthew J Feinstein
BACKGROUND: Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected (HIV+) persons have elevated risks for various manifestations of cardiovascular disease (CVD). No studies to our knowledge have compared atrial fibrillation (AF) and atrial flutter (AFL) prevalence and associated characteristics for HIV+ persons and matched uninfected controls. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Persons with diagnoses of HIV receiving care at a large urban academic medical center were frequency-matched 1:2 on age, sex, race, zip code, and clinic location with uninfected persons...
2018: PloS One
Scott A Dee, Fernando V Bauermann, Megan C Niederwerder, Aaron Singrey, Travis Clement, Marcelo de Lima, Craig Long, Gilbert Patterson, Maureen A Sheahan, Ana M M Stoian, Vlad Petrovan, Cassandra K Jones, Jon De Jong, Ju Ji, Gordon D Spronk, Luke Minion, Jane Christopher-Hennings, Jeff J Zimmerman, Raymond R R Rowland, Eric Nelson, Paul Sundberg, Diego G Diel
The goal of this study was to evaluate survival of important viral pathogens of livestock in animal feed ingredients imported daily into the United States under simulated transboundary conditions. Eleven viruses were selected based on global significance and impact to the livestock industry, including Foot and Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV), Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV), African Swine Fever Virus (ASFV), Influenza A Virus of Swine (IAV-S), Pseudorabies virus (PRV), Nipah Virus (NiV), Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV), Swine Vesicular Disease Virus (SVDV), Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV), Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) and Vesicular Exanthema of Swine Virus (VESV)...
2018: PloS One
Cornelia Wiegand, Andrea Völpel, Andrea Ewald, Markko Remesch, Jan Kuever, Janine Bauer, Stefanie Griesheim, Carolin Hauser, Julian Thielmann, Silke Tonndorf-Martini, Bernd W Sigusch, Jürgen Weisser, Ralf Wyrwa, Peter Elsner, Uta-Christina Hipler, Martin Roth, Carolin Dewald, Claudia Lüdecke-Beyer, Jörg Bossert
Bactericidal materials gained interest in the health care sector as they are capable of preventing material surfaces from microbial colonization and subsequent spread of infections. However, commercialization of antimicrobial materials requires proof of their efficacy, which is usually done using in vitro methods. The ISO 22196 standard (Japanese test method JIS Z 2801) is a method for measuring the antibacterial activity of daily goods. As it was found reliable for testing the biocidal activity of antimicrobially active materials and surface coatings most of the laboratories participating in this study used this protocol...
2018: PloS One
Dimitrios Chanouzas, Alexander Small, Richard Borrows, Simon Ball
BACKGROUND: The measurement of CMV specific cellular immunity in organ transplant recipients could contribute additional acuity to serology based, CMV infection risk stratification, facilitating optimisation of immunosuppression and anti-viral prophylaxis. METHODS: A pilot study of renal transplant recipient (RTR's) responses in the T-SPOT.CMV ELISPOT based assay. 108 RTR's were recruited 3 months post-transplantation, immediately prior to the cessation of stratified anti-viral prophylaxis, used in recipients from seropositive donors...
2018: PloS One
Xingyu Zhang, Di Chen, Guifeng Xu, Weichun Huang, Xing Wang
Infection by carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CR-KP) is a public health challenge worldwide, in particular among children, which was associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. There was limited data in pediatric populations, thus this study aimed to investigate molecular epidemiology and drug resistant mechanism of CR-KP strains from pediatric patients in Shanghai, China. A total of 41 clinical CR-KP isolates from sputum, urine, blood or drainage fluid were collected between July 2014 and May 2015 in Shanghai Children's Medical Center...
2018: PloS One
Stevenson K Chea, Tabitha W Mwangi, Kennedy K Ndirangu, Osman A Abdullahi, Patrick K Munywoki, Amina Abubakar, Amin S Hassan
BACKGROUND: Home delivery, referring to pregnant women giving birth in the absence of a skilled birth attendant, is a significant contributor to maternal mortality, and is encouragingly reported to be on a decline in the general population in resource limited settings. However, much less is known about home delivery amongst HIV-infected women in sub-Saharan Africa (sSA). We described the prevalence and correlates of home delivery among HIV-infected women attending care at a rural public health facility in Kilifi, Coastal Kenya...
2018: PloS One
Nuria González, Krisha McKee, Rebecca M Lynch, Ivelin S Georgiev, Laura Jimenez, Eulalia Grau, Eloísa Yuste, Peter D Kwong, John R Mascola, José Alcamí
BACKGROUND: Only a small fraction of HIV-1-infected patients develop broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs), a process generally associated to chronic antigen stimulation. It has been described that rare aviremic HIV-1-infected patients can generate bNAbs but this issue remains controversial. To address this matter we have assessed bNAb responses in a large cohort of long-term non-progressors (LTNPs) with low or undetectable viremia. METHODS: Samples from the LTNP cohort of the Spanish AIDS Research Network (87 elite and 42 viremic controllers) and a control population of 176 viremic typical-progressors (TPs) were screened for bNAbs using Env-recombinant viruses...
2018: PloS One
Caetano Souto-Maior, Gabriel Sylvestre, Fernando Braga Stehling Dias, M Gabriela M Gomes, Rafael Maciel-de-Freitas
Infection is a complex and dynamic process involving a population of invading microbes, the host and its responses, aimed at controlling the situation. Depending on the purpose and level of organization, infection at the organism level can be described by a process as simple as a coin toss, or as complex as a multi-factorial dynamic model; the former, for instance, may be adequate as a component of a population model, while the latter is necessary for a thorough description of the process beginning with a challenge with an infectious inoculum up to establishment or elimination of the pathogen...
March 20, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Timsy Uppal, Roni Sarkar, Ranjit Dhelaria, Subhash C Verma
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus or Human herpesvirus-8 (KSHV/HHV-8), an oncogenic human herpesvirus and the leading cause of cancer in HIV-infected individuals, is a major public health concern with recurring reports of epidemics on a global level. The early detection of KSHV virus and subsequent activation of the antiviral immune response by the host's immune system are crucial to prevent KSHV infection. The host's immune system is an evolutionary conserved system that provides the most important line of defense against invading microbial pathogens, including viruses...
March 20, 2018: Cancers
Amber Hilliard, Dara Leong, Amy O'Callaghan, Eamonn P Culligan, Ciara A Morgan, Niall DeLappe, Colin Hill, Kieran Jordan, Martin Cormican, Cormac G M Gahan
Listeria monocytogenes is a major human foodborne pathogen that is prevalent in the natural environment and has a high case fatality rate. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) analysis has emerged as a valuable methodology for the classification of L. monocytogenes isolates and the identification of virulence islands that may influence infectivity. In this study, WGS was used to provide an insight into 25 L. monocytogenes isolates from cases of clinical infection in Ireland between 2013 and 2015. Clinical strains were either lineage I (14 isolates) or lineage II (11 isolates), with 12 clonal complexes (CC) represented, of which CC1 (6) and CC101 (4) were the most common...
March 20, 2018: Genes
Heather Armstrong, Michael Bording-Jorgensen, Stephanie Dijk, Eytan Wine
Cancer is a multifaceted condition, in which a senescent cell begins dividing in an irregular manner due to various factors such as DNA damage, growth factors and inflammation. Inflammation is not typically discussed as carcinogenic; however, a significant percentage of cancers arise from chronic microbial infections and damage brought on by chronic inflammation. A hallmark cancer-inducing microbe is Helicobacter pylori and its causation of peptic ulcers and potentially gastric cancer. This review discusses the recent developments in understanding microbes in health and disease and their potential role in the progression of cancer...
March 20, 2018: Cancers
Han-Yu Jiang, Jin-Lin Zhang, Jiang-Wei Yang, Hui-Ling Ma
Creeping bentgrass ( Agrostis stolonifera ) is the preferred green lawn grass, with excellent turf characteristics but poor disease resistance. At present, the mechanisms of disease resistance in creeping bentgrass are poorly understood, especially the ethylene signal transduction pathway under the induced systemic resistance (ISR) response. In this study, butanediol (BDO), as a new type of disease-resistance compound, was applied to creeping bentgrass seedlings to induce the ISR response. Then, we measured ethylene production and related enzyme activities...
March 20, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Marte Meyer Walle-Hansen, Sigurd Høye
Antibiotic consumption varies greatly between Norwegian municipalities. We examine whether this variation is associated with inhabitants' consultation rates or general practitioners' (GP) prescription rates. Our study comprises consultations and antibiotic prescriptions for respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in general practice in all Norwegian municipalities with over 5000 inhabitants in 2014. Data was collected from The Norwegian Prescription Database, The Directorate of Health's system for control and payment of health reimbursements registry and Norway Statistics...
March 20, 2018: Antibiotics
Yael Mutsafi, Nihal Altan-Bonnet
Present in many cell types, non-degradative secretory autophagy is a newly discovered pathway in which autophagosomes fuse with the plasma membrane instead of lysosomes. Surprisingly, some viruses exploit secretory autophagy to exit cells non-lytically, shedding into the extracellular environment as particle populations contained within vesicles. As a result, this significantly enhances the infectivity of these viruses. In this paper, this novel cellular exit pathway is highlighted and its advantages for viral transmission discussed...
March 20, 2018: Viruses
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