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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351694/treatment-outcomes-for-right-sided-endocarditis-in-intravenous-drug-users-a-systematic-review-and-analysis-of-outcomes-in-a-tertiary-centre
#1
Karen Magsino, Rohan Sanjanwala, Brett Hiebert, Janet Rothney, Rizwan Manji, Rakesh Arora, Pallav Shah
BACKGROUND:  The increasing prevalence of intravenous drug users (IVDU) has resulted in higher incidence of right-sided infective endocarditis (RSIE). However, treatment guidelines for RSIE in IVDU are not well defined. The aim is to evaluate efficacy of different treatment strategies in reducing mortality and to describe treatment outcomes. METHODS:  We systematically reviewed the literature using PubMed, Cochrane, CENTRAL, OvidEMBASE, Web of Science, and Medline databases to include prospective studies that compare mortality rates among IVDU with RSIE receiving isolated medical treatment versus those receiving medical-surgical treatment...
January 19, 2018: Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351683/novel-bilateral-extracavitary-approach-for-thoracolumbar-decompression
#2
Jeffrey P Mullin, Alvin Y Chan, Emily Bennett, Michael P Steinmetz
BACKGROUND: Bilateral extracavitary approach (BECA) is an option for decompression cases that require a more extended ventral approach. The clear advantage is increased accessibility to the most ventral aspects of the spine from a bilateral perspective. OBJECTIVE: To assess the safety and efficacy of thoracic and thoracolumbar decompression and/or reconstruction from BECA. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed reviewing all patients who underwent BECA for thoracolumbar decompression from 2003 to 2012 at our institution...
February 1, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351672/high-treatment-success-rate-among-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-patients-in-myanmar-2012-2014-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#3
Myat K Thu, Ajay M V Kumar, Kyaw T Soe, Saw Saw, Saw Thein, Zaw Mynit, Htet M W Maung, Si T Aung
Background: Since 2011, Myanmar has adopted domiciliary care for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) patients and implemented several patient-support measures such as community-based directly observed treatment, nutritional support and financial incentives for patients and providers. We assessed treatment outcomes among MDR-TB patients registered for treatment in the Yangon and Mandalay Regions of Myanmar during 2012-2014 and factors associated with unfavourable treatment outcomes...
January 17, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351668/evaluation-of-the-rapid-carbapenem-inactivation-method-rcim-a-phenotypic-screening-test-for-carbapenemase-producing-enterobacteriaceae
#4
Madalina-Maria Muntean, Andrei-Alexandru Muntean, Lauraine Gauthier, Elodie Creton, Garance Cotellon, Mircea Ioan Popa, Rémy A Bonnin, Thierry Naas
Objectives: Fast and accurate diagnostic tests to identify carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) are mandatory for proper antimicrobial therapy and implementing infection control measures. Here, we have developed a rapid Carbapenem Inactivation Method (rCIM) for CPE detection. Methods: The rCIM consists of the incubation of a potential carbapenemase producer with meropenem discs and use of the resulting supernatant to challenge a susceptible indicator strain...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351663/mini-review-can-non-human-leucocyte-antigen-genes-determine-susceptibility-to-severe-dengue-syndromes
#5
Dorothy Ng, Aparna Ghosh, Mark Jit, Suranjith L Seneviratne
Dengue viral infections are endemic or epidemic in virtually all tropical countries. Among individuals infected with the dengue virus, severe dengue syndromes (i.e., dengue haemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndromes) tend to affect only some and this may be due to a combination of host genetic susceptibility and viral factors. In this review article we analyse and discuss the present knowledge of non-human leucocyte antigen host genetic susceptibility to severe dengue syndromes. The relevance of genetic polymorphisms in the pathways of antigen recognition, uptake, processing and presentation, activation of interferon α responses, mast cell and complement activation and T cell activation and dengue disease severity has been reviewed and analysed...
January 17, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351657/characterization-of-the-spatial-and-temporal-distribution-of-nipah-virus-spillover-events-in-bangladesh-2007-2013
#6
Maria C Cortes, Simon Cauchemez, Noemie Lefrancq, Stephen P Luby, M Jahangir Hossain, Hossain M S Sazzad, Mahmudur Rahman, Peter Daszak, Henrik Salje, Emily S Gurley
Nipah virus is a zoonotic virus, harbored by bats and lethal to humans. Bat to human spillovers occur every winter in Bangladesh. However, there is significant heterogeneity in the number of spillovers detected by district and year that remains unexplained. We analyzed data from all 57 spillovers from 2007-2013 and found that temperature differences explained 36% of the year-to-year variation in the total number of spillovers each winter while distance to surveillance hospitals explained 45% of spatial heterogeneity...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351649/sex-dependent-interactions-between-leptin-wasting-and-humoral-immunity-in-two-ethnic-communities-of-school-aged-children-differentially-exposed-to-schistosoma-haematobium
#7
Emmanuel Hermann, Lobna Gaayeb, Papa S Sow, Modou Seck, Andre B Sagna, Simon Senghor, Lydie Bandagny, Clement Brinkhuizen, Delphine Delcroix-Genete, Anne-Marie Schacht, Gilles Riveau
Background: Leptin is a nutritional hormone whose production is generally higher in females. We investigated how leptin is associated with sex dimorphism during urinary schistosomiasis in relation with wasting. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in three villages in northern Senegal. Ninety-eight school-aged children belonging to the Fulani or Wolof villages were enrolled. We performed parasitic diagnosis and anthropometric measurement to evaluate nutritional status...
January 17, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351639/call-to-action-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hepatitis-b-in-africa
#8
Peyton Wilson, Jonathan B Parr, Ravi Jhaveri, Steve R Meshnick
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a significant public health issue that has not been adequately addressed, especially in the high-prevalence region of Africa. Despite the incorporation of HBV vaccines into the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI), children continue to be infected with HBV through maternal-to-child transmission (MTCT). The addition of a birth dose of HBV vaccine would be a cost-effective method to reduce MTCT. Birth-dose HBV vaccine policies have been adopted in the Western Pacific region but have yet to be implemented in the African region...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351633/evolutionary-genetics-of-cytoplasmic-incompatibility-genes-cifa-and-cifb-in-prophage-wo-of-wolbachia
#9
Amelia R I Lindsey, Danny W Rice, Sarah R Bordenstein, Andrew W Brooks, Seth R Bordenstein, Irene L G Newton
The bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia manipulates arthropod reproduction to facilitate its maternal spread through host populations. The most common manipulation is cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI): Wolbachia-infected males produce modified sperm that cause embryonic mortality, unless rescued by embryos harboring the same Wolbachia. The genes underlying CI, cifA and cifB, were recently identified in the eukaryotic association module of Wolbachia's prophage WO. Here, we use transcriptomic and genomic approaches to address three important evolutionary facets of the cif genes...
January 17, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351630/prevalence-and-trends-of-transfusion-transmittable-infections-among-blood-donors-in-southwest-china
#10
Ting Xu, Zhong-Mei Yi, Jun-Mei Luo, He-Lian Yu, Ya-Han Fan, Hua Lu, Shu-Ming Zhao, Tian-Lun Jiang
Background: The high prevalence of transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs) is causing serious harm to human health worldwide. The aim of this research was to assess the prevalence and influencing factors of TTIs in Southwest China. Methods: A retrospective study of blood donor records from January 2008 to December 2015 was conducted. All samples were screened for HBV, HCV, HIV and syphilis. The donor's data was recorded and analyzed statistically using SPSS software...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351623/development-of-sugar-chain-binding-single-chain-variable-fragment-antibody-to-adult-t-cell-leukemia-cells-using-glyco-nanotechnology-and-phage-display-method
#11
Kaname Muchima, Taro Todaka, Hiroyuki Shinchi, Ayaka Sato, Arisa Tazoe, Rikiya Aramaki, Yuhei Kakitsubata, Risa Yokoyama, Naomichi Arima, Masanori Baba, Masahiro Wakao, Yuji Ito, Yasuo Suda
Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) is an intractable blood cancer caused by the infection of human T-cell leukemia virus type-1, and effective medical treatment is required. It is known that the structure and expression levels of cell surface sugar chains vary depending on cell states such as inflammation and cancer. Thus, it is expected that the antibody specific for ATL cell surface sugar chain would be an effective diagnostic tool and a strong candidate for the development of an anti-ATL drug. Here, we developed a stable sugar chain binding single chain variable fragment antibody (scFv) that can bind to ATL cells using a fiber type Sugar Chip and phage display method...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351622/antimicrobial-peptide-resistance-mechanism-contributes-to-staphylococcus-aureus-infection
#12
Gordon Y C Cheung, Emilie L Fisher, Joshua W McCausland, Justin Choi, John W M Collins, Seth W Dickey, Michael Otto
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) constitute an important part of innate host defense. Possibly limiting the therapeutic potential of AMPs is the fact that bacteria have developed AMP resistance mechanisms during their co-evolution with humans. However, there is no direct evidence that AMP resistance per se is important during an infection. Here we show that the Staphylococcus aureus Pmt ABC transporter defends the bacteria from killing by important human AMPs and elimination by human neutrophils. By showing that Pmt contributes to virulence during skin infection in an AMP-dependent manner, we provide evidence that AMP resistance plays a key role in bacterial infection...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351615/18f-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission-computed-tomography-and-computed-tomography-angiography-in-prosthetic-heart-valve-endocarditis-from-guidelines-to-clinical-practice
#13
Laurens E Swart, Asbjørn M Scholtens, Wilco Tanis, Koen Nieman, Ad J J C Bogers, Fred J Verzijlbergen, Gabriel P Krestin, Jolien W Roos-Hesselink, Ricardo P J Budde
The timely diagnosis of prosthetic heart valve endocarditis remains challenging yet of utmost importance. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18 F-FDG) positron emission/computed tomography (PET/CT) and cardiac computed tomography angiography (CTA) were recently introduced as additional diagnostic tools in the most recent ESC guidelines on infective endocarditis. However, how to interpret PET/CT findings with regard to what is to be considered abnormal, what the potential confounders may be, as well as which patients benefit most from these additional imaging techniques and how to best perform them in these often-complex patients, remains unclear...
January 16, 2018: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351594/sero-efficacy-of-vi-polysaccharide-tetanus-toxoid-typhoid-conjugate-vaccine-typbar-tcv
#14
Merryn Voysey, Andrew J Pollard
Background: Salmonella Typhi is the major cause of enteric fever in lower income countries. New conjugate vaccines show promise as public health interventions, however there are no efficacy data available from endemic areas. Methods: Data were obtained from a previously published phase 3 randomised controlled trial comparing Vi-polysaccharide tetanus-toxoid conjugate vaccine (Typbar-TCV; Bharat Biotech Intl Ltd, India): (Vi-TT) with Vi-polysaccharide (Typbar; Bharat Biotech Intl Ltd, India): (Vi-PS) in participants aged 2- 45 years...
January 17, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351575/waterlogging-tolerance-tissue-nitrogen-and-oxygen-transport-in-the-forage-legume-melilotus-siculus-a-comparison-of-nodulated-and-nitrate-fed-plants
#15
Dennis Konnerup, Guillermo Toro, Ole Pedersen, Timothy David Colmer
Background and Aims: Soil waterlogging adversely impacts most plants. Melilotus siculus is a waterlogging-tolerant annual forage legume, but data were lacking for the effects of root-zone hypoxia on nodulated plants reliant on N2 fixation. The aim was to compare the waterlogging tolerance and physiology of M. siculus reliant on N2 fixation or with access to NO3-. Methods: A factorial experiment imposed treatments of water level (drained or waterlogged), rhizobia (nil or inoculated) and mineral N supply (nil or 11 mm NO3-) for 21 d on plants in pots of vermiculite in a glasshouse...
January 17, 2018: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351567/whole-thorax-irradiation-of-non-human-primates-induces-persistent-nuclear-damage-and-gene-expression-changes-in-peripheral-blood-cells
#16
Shanaz A Ghandhi, Helen C Turner, Igor Shuryak, Gregory O Dugan, J Daniel Bourland, John D Olson, Janet A Tooze, Shad R Morton, Ines Batinic-Haberle, J Mark Cline, Sally A Amundson
We investigated the cytogenetic and gene expression responses of peripheral blood cells of non-human primates (NHP, Macaca mulatta) that were whole-thorax irradiated with a single dose of 10 Gy. In this model, partial irradiation of NHPs in the thoracic region (Whole Thorax Lung Irradiation, WTLI) allows the study of late radiation-induced lung injury, while avoiding acute radiation syndromes related to hematopoietic and gastrointestinal injury. A transient drop in circulating lymphocytes and platelets was seen by 9 days, followed by elevations in respiratory rate, circulating neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes at 60-100 days, corresponding to computed tomography (CT) and histologic evidence of pneumonitis, and elective euthanasia of four animals...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351561/preconception-use-of-cart-by-hiv-positive-pregnant-women-increases-the-risk-of-infants-being-born-small-for-gestational-age
#17
Ingrid J M Snijdewind, Colette Smit, Mieke H Godfried, Rachel Bakker, Jeannine F J B Nellen, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Elisabeth van Leeuwen, Peter Reiss, Eric A P Steegers, Marchina E van der Ende
BACKGROUND: The benefits of combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART) in HIV-positive pregnant women (improved maternal health and prevention of mother to child transmission [pMTCT]) currently outweigh the adverse effects due to cART. As the variety of cART increases, however, the question arises as to which type of cART is safest for pregnant women and women of childbearing age. We studied the effect of timing and exposure to different classes of cART on adverse birth outcomes in a large HIV cohort in the Netherlands...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351513/neuroimmune-interactions-from-the-brain-to-the-immune-system-and-vice-versa
#18
Robert Dantzer
Because of the compartmentalization of disciplines that shaped the academic landscape of biology and biomedical sciences in the past, physiological systems have long been studied in isolation from each other. This has particularly been the case for the immune system. As a consequence of its ties with pathology and microbiology, immunology as a discipline has largely grown independently of physiology. Accordingly, it has taken a long time for immunologists to accept the concept that the immune system is not self-regulated but functions in close association with the nervous system...
January 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351447/cigarette-smoke-dampens-anti-viral-signaling-in-small-airway-epithelial-cells-by-disrupting-tlr3-cleavage
#19
Parker F Duffney, Claire E McCarthy, Aitor Nogales, Thomas H Thatcher, Luis Martinez-Sobrido, Richard P Phipps, Patricia J Sime
Cigarette smokers and people exposed to secondhand smoke are at an increased risk for pulmonary viral infections, yet the mechanism responsible for this heightened susceptibility is not understood. To understand the effect of cigarette smoke on susceptibility to viral infection we used an air-liquid interface culture system, and exposed primary human small airway epithelial cells (SAEC) to whole cigarette smoke followed by treatment with the viral mimetic polyinosinic polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) or influenza A virus (IAV)...
December 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351445/impact-of-hiv-infection-on-alpha-1-antitrypsin-in-the-lung
#20
Sarah E Stephenson, Carole L Wilson, Kristina Crothers, Engi F Attia, Cherry Wongtrakool, Irina Petrache, Lynn M Schnapp
BACKGROUND: Emphysema is one of the most common lung diseases in HIV+ individuals. The pathogenesis of HIV-associated emphysema remains unclear; however, radiographic distribution and earlier age of presentation of emphysema in the lungs of HIV+ patients are similar to deficiency of alpha-1 antitrypsin (A1AT), a key elastase inhibitor in the lung. Reduced levels of circulating A1AT have been detected in HIV+ patients, suggesting a potential mechanism for emphysema development. In the present study, we asked if A1AT levels and activity in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) differ in patients with and without HIV and emphysema...
December 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
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