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coronary atherosclerosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450819/familial-hypercholesterolemia-cascade-screening-in-children-and-relatives-of-the-affected
#1
Nitika Setia, Renu Saxena, J P S Sawhney, Ishwar C Verma
OBJECTIVE: Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an inherited disorder of lipid metabolism characterized by very high low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol since birth, resulting in premature atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease (CAD). Cascade screening of children and family members of proven FH individuals can identify more subjects who have high LDL cholesterol or the family mutation and appropriate intervention can reduce their risk of atherosclerosis and prevent its complications...
February 15, 2018: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450473/elevated-blood-viscosity-and-micro-recirculation-linked-to-coronary-stent-malapposition
#2
Eric Poon, Vikas Thondapu, Umair Hayat, Peter Barlis, Chooi Yap, Po Kuo, Qisen Wang, Jiawei Ma, Shuang Zhu, Stephen Moore, Andrew Ooi
One particular complexity of coronary artery is the natural tapering of the vessel with proximal segments having larger caliber and distal tapering as the vessel get smaller. The natural tapering of a coronary artery often leads to proximal incomplete stent apposition (ISA). ISA alters coronary hemodynamics and creates pathological path to develop complications such as in-stent restenosis, and more worryingly, stent thrombosis. By employing state-of-the-art computer-aided design software, generic stent hoops were virtually deployed in an idealized tapered coronary artery with decreasing malapposition distance...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449335/bempedoic-acid-lowers-low-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-and-attenuates-atherosclerosis-in-low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-deficient-ldlr-and-ldlr-yucatan-miniature-pigs
#3
Amy C Burke, Dawn E Telford, Brian G Sutherland, Jane Y Edwards, Cynthia G Sawyez, P Hugh R Barrett, Roger S Newton, J Geoffrey Pickering, Murray W Huff
OBJECTIVE: Bempedoic acid (BemA; ETC-1002) is a novel drug that targets hepatic ATP-citrate lyase to reduce cholesterol biosynthesis. In phase 2 studies, BemA lowers elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in hypercholesterolemic patients. In the present study, we tested the ability of BemA to decrease plasma cholesterol and LDL-C and attenuate atherosclerosis in a large animal model of familial hypercholesterolemia. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Gene targeting has been used to generate Yucatan miniature pigs heterozygous ( LDLR +/- ) or homozygous ( LDLR -/- ) for LDL receptor deficiency (ExeGen)...
February 15, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448251/expression-of-lectin-like-oxidized-low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-1-in-human-epicardial-and-intramyocardial-coronary-arteries-of-male-patients-undergoing-coronary-artery-bypass-grafting
#4
Andreas Synetos, Antonios Karanasos, Stauros Spyropoulos, Maria Gazouli, George Latsios, Konstantinos Toutouzas, Despina Perrea, Dimitrios Tousoulis, Ioannis A Chloroyiannis
OBJECTIVES: Atherosclerosis is almost absent in intramyocardial coronary arteries, while epicardial coronary arteries may show extensive occlusive disease. Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) expression has been implicated in atherogenesis. We aimed to investigate differences in arterial wall LOX-1 expression between human epicardial and intramyocardial coronary arteries. METHODS: Epicardial and intramyocardial total artery wall specimens were obtained from 13 male patients (aged 61...
February 15, 2018: Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446834/the-hdl-anti-inflammatory-function-is-impaired-in-the-context-of-low-normal-free-thyroxine-in-diabetic-and-non-diabetic-individuals
#5
Lynnda J N van Tienhoven-Wind, Uwe J F Tietge, Robin P F Dullaart
Differences in thyroid function status within the euthyroid range have been proposed to affect the development of (subclinical) atherosclerosis [1], as evidenced by a greater carotid artery intima media thickness and progression of coronary artery calcification in the context of low normal thyroid function, i.e. a higher thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) or a lower free thyroxine (FT4) thyroid hormone in the euthyroid range [2,3]. Importantly, with respect to high density lipoproteins (HDL) the concept is emerging that abnormalities in function rather than low concentrations of HDL cholesterol per se may give rise to impaired atheroprotective potential of this lipoprotein fraction...
February 15, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437574/csl112-apolipoprotein-a-i-human-enhances-cholesterol-efflux-similarly-in-healthy-individuals-and-stable-atherosclerotic-disease-patients
#6
Andreas Gille, Denise D'Andrea, Michael A Tortorici, Gunter Hartel, Samuel D Wright
OBJECTIVE: CSL112 (apolipoprotein A-I [apoA-I; human]) is a novel formulation of apoA-I in development for reduction of early recurrent cardiovascular events after acute myocardial infarction. Cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC) is a marker of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) function that is strongly correlated with incident cardiovascular disease. Impaired CEC has been observed in patients with coronary heart disease. Here, we determined whether infused apoA-I improves CEC when administered to patients with stable atherosclerotic disease versus healthy volunteers...
February 8, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436385/cholesterol-efflux-capacity-does-not-associate-with-coronary-calcium-plaque-vulnerability-and-telomere-length-in-healthy-octogenarians
#7
Francesca Zimetti, Wladimir M Freitas, Alessandra M Campos, Mauricio Daher, Maria Pia Adorni, Franco Bernini, Andrei C Sposito, Ilaria Zanotti
Several studies revealed that traditional risk factors are less effective in predicting CVD risk in the elderly, suggesting the need to identify new biomarkers. Here we evaluated the association between serum cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC), an atheroprotective property of HDL recently identified as a novel marker of CVD risk, and atherosclerotic burden in a cohort of very old, healthy individuals. Serum CEC values were not significantly correlated neither with calcium score nor with markers of vulnerable plaque, such as positive remodeling, hypodensity, spotty calcification or napking-ring sign...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433446/homocysteine-is-a-bystander-for-st-segment-elevation-myocardial-infarction-a-case-control-study
#8
Ching-Yu Julius Chen, Tzu-Ching Yang, Christopher Chang, Shao-Chun Lu, Po-Yuan Chang
BACKGROUND: Homocysteine has been long considered a risk factor for atherosclerosis. However, cardiovascular events cannot be reduced through homocysteine lowering by B vitamin supplements. Although several association studies have reported an elevation of serum homocysteine levels in cardiovascular diseases, the relationship of homocysteine with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is not well established. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled STEMI patients who were consecutively admitted to an intensive care unit following coronary intervention in a single medical center in Taiwan...
February 13, 2018: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433015/effect-of-strenuous-exercise-on-mediators-of-inflammation-in-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease
#9
Joanna Cwikiel, Ingebjørg Seljeflot, Eivind Berge, Ida Unhammer Njerve, Hilde Ulsaker, Harald Arnesen, Arnljot Flaa
BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is considered a low-grade inflammatory disease. We aimed to identify effects of short-term strenuous exercise on mediators of systemic inflammation, endothelial and platelet activation in patients with angiographically verified CAD. We hypothesized that a more pronounced inflammatory response would be present in patients with CAD than in those without CAD. METHODS: In subjects with symptoms indicative of stable CAD, an exercise stress test on a bicycle ergometer was performed...
February 9, 2018: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432898/acarbose-inhibits-the-proliferation-and-migration-of-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-via-targeting-ras-signaling
#10
Meng-Hsun Yu, Ming-Cheng Lin, Chien-Ning Huang, Kuei-Chuan Chan, Chau-Jong Wang
Atherosclerosis involves the proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). The migration of VSMCs from the media into the intima and their subsequent proliferation are important processes in neointima formation in atherosclerosis and restenosis after percutaneous coronary interventions. Acarbose, an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, has been demonstrated to not affect serum levels of glucose and decrease the progression of intima-media thickening in rabbits fed with a high cholesterol diet (HCD)...
February 9, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424733/decreased-fendrr-and-lincrna-p21-expression-in-atherosclerotic-plaque
#11
Nilgün Çekin, Arzu Özcan, Sabahattin Göksel, Serdal Arslan, Ergün Pınarbaşı, Öcal Berkan
OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular diseases are the most important cause of mortality worldwide, particularly atherosclerosis. Recently, lncRNAs affecting atherosclerotic progression have been reported in vascular smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, and monocytes, suggesting that lncRNAs play an important role in atherosclerosis. METHODS: In recent clinical studies, nowadays, it was determined that internal mammary bypass grafts are closest to ideal grafts in coronary artery bypass surgery...
February 2018: Anatolian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424329/-the-un-predictability-of-coronary-atherosclerosis
#12
T W Elffers, J W Jukema
Coronary atherosclerosis is a common disease. The plaques developing inside coronary vessels may have serious consequences such as myocardial infarction. However, the course of this multifactorial and heterogeneous disease is difficult to predict and is different for each patient. Atherosclerosis is often described as a gradually progressive disease, but in addition to slow progression, a certain periodicity is often seen. There may be periods with more stability and periods of regression. Several processes are known to be involved in plaque development and their increasing vulnerability...
2018: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422264/perilipin-2-levels-are-increased-in-patients-with-in-stent-neoatherosclerosis-a-clue-to-mechanisms-of-accelerated-plaque-formation-after-drug-eluting-stent-implantation
#13
Giampaolo Niccoli, Domenico D'Amario, Josip A Borovac, Erminio Santangelo, Giancarla Scalone, Francesco Fracassi, Rocco Vergallo, Vincenzo Vetrugno, Giorgia Copponi, Anna Severino, Giovanna Liuzzo, Asiia Imaeva, Andrea Siracusano, Filippo Crea
BACKGROUND: Perilipin 2 (PLIN2) is a protein that potentially facilitates atherogenesis in native coronary arteries or arteries with an implanted drug-eluting stent (DES). The aim of the study was to determine PLIN2 protein levels in peripheral monocytes of enrolled subjects and compare them between patients with native coronary artery disease (CAD) and those with an in-stent restenosis (ISR) due to neoatherosclerosis occurring >1 year after DES implantation. METHODS: Forty-two patients were prospectively enrolled in the study in 3:1 fashion and underwent coronary catheterization...
February 5, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422093/reduced-coronary-collateralization-in-type-2-diabetic-patients-with-chronic-total-occlusion
#14
REVIEW
Ying Shen, Feng Hua Ding, Yang Dai, Xiao Qun Wang, Rui Yan Zhang, Lin Lu, Wei Feng Shen
BACKGROUND: The extent of coronary collateral formation is a primary determinant of the severity of myocardial damage and mortality after coronary artery occlusion. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) represents an important risk factor for impaired collateral vessel growth. However, the mechanism of reduced coronary collateralization in type 2 diabetic patients remains unclear. METHODS: With the reference to the recent researches, this review article describes the pathogenic effects of T2DM on collateral development and outlines possible clinical and biochemical markers associated with reduced coronary collateralization in type 2 diabetic patients with chronic total occlusion (CTO)...
February 8, 2018: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420653/estimating-the-mutational-load-for-cardiovascular-diseases-in-pakistani-population
#15
Muhammad Shakeel, Muhammad Irfan, Ishtiaq Ahmad Khan
The deleterious genetic variants contributing to certain diseases may differ in terms of number and allele frequency from population to population depending on their evolutionary background. Here, we prioritize the deleterious variants from Pakistani population in manually curated gene list already reported to be associated with common, Mendelian, and congenital cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) using the genome/exome sequencing data of Pakistani individuals publically available in 1000 Genomes Project (PJL), and Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC) South Asia...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420547/coronary-artery-calcium-before-and-after-hospitalization-with-pneumonia-the-mesa-study
#16
Vicente F Corrales-Medina, Girish Dwivedi, Monica Taljaard, William Petrcich, Joao A Lima, Sachin Yende, Richard A Kronmal, Julio A Chirinos
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological analyses demonstrate that pneumonia survivors have a higher risk of myocardial infarction than people with similar load of risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) but without pneumonia. This may be due to a higher baseline burden of ASCVD in patients with pneumonia that is not captured by the accounting of known ASCVD risk factors in epidemiological analyses or to unfavorable accelerating effects of pneumonia on atherosclerosis. METHODS: We analyzed data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420219/neopterin-counters-vascular-inflammation-and-atherosclerosis
#17
Remina Shirai, Kengo Sato, Tomoyuki Yamashita, Maho Yamaguchi, Taisuke Okano, Kaho Watanabe-Kominato, Rena Watanabe, Taka-Aki Matsuyama, Hatsue Ishibashi-Ueda, Shinji Koba, Youichi Kobayashi, Tsutomu Hirano, Takuya Watanabe
BACKGROUND: Neopterin, a metabolite of GTP, is produced by activated macrophages and is abundantly expressed within atherosclerotic lesions in human aorta and carotid and coronary arteries. We aimed to clarify the influence of neopterin on both vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis, as neither effect had been fully assessed. METHODS AND RESULTS: We investigated neopterin expression in coronary artery lesions and plasma from patients with coronary artery disease...
February 2, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416584/the-current-conditions-and-lifestyles-of-obese-university-students
#18
Natsumi Morito, Yasunori Suematsu, Rie Koyoshi, Yuhei Shiga, Takashi Kuwano, Atsushi Iwata, Kanta Fujimi, Akira Kawamura, Shin-Ichiro Miura
Background: The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in Japan remains high, and the onset becomes early. Studies on the current conditions and lifestyles of obese university students may support early interventions to achieve lifestyle modification. Methods and Results: The results of periodic health examinations in 32,262 first-year university students revealed that 2,036 (6.3%) were obese. We performed a more detailed examination in 221 of these obese students (165 males and 56 females, age 19 ± 1 years) with study agreement from 2014 to 2016...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415207/progression-of-calcium-density-in-the-ascending-thoracic-aorta-is-inversely-associated-with-incident-cardiovascular-disease-events
#19
Isac C Thomas, Robyn L McClelland, Matthew A Allison, Joachim H Ix, Erin D Michos, Nketi I Forbang, Wendy S Post, Nathan D Wong, Matthew J Budoff, Michael H Criqui
Aims: Little is known regarding the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) conferred by changes in the volume and density of ascending thoracic aorta calcium (ATAC) over time. We evaluated changes in ATAC volume and density scores and incident ASCVD events. Methods and results: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis is a prospective cohort study of individuals without baseline clinical ASCVD. Ascending thoracic aorta calcium was measured from baseline and follow-up (mean interval 2...
February 5, 2018: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414148/exenatide-modulates-metalloproteinase-expression-in-human-cardiac-smooth-muscle-cells-via-the-inhibition-of-akt-signaling-pathway
#20
Enrique Gallego-Colon, Agnieszka Klych-Ratuszny, Agnieszka Kosowska, Wojciech Garczorz, Mohammad Reza F Aghdam, Michal Wozniak, Tomasz Francuz
BACKGROUND: Incretin analogue drugs, a FDA-approved treatment in diabetes, has been tested for its therapeutic properties as modulators of atherosclerosis. We investigated the effects of incretin drugs on the modulation of gene expression and protein levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) as well as their inhibitors - tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) in coronary artery smooth muscle cells (hCASMC) in the context of atherosclerotic plaque formation and inflammation. METHODS: TNFα-stimulated hCASMC were treated with Glucagon-like Peptide 1 (GLP-1) (10 nM and 100 nM) and Exendin-4 (1 nM and 10 nM)...
October 4, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
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