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postoperative cognitive dysfunction

Chao Xiong, Zhiquan Zhang, Gurpreet S Baht, Niccolo Terrando
Surgery is commonly used to improve and maintain quality of life. Unfortunately, in vulnerable patients such as the elderly, complications may occur and significantly diminish the outcome. Indeed, after routine orthopedic surgery to repair a fracture, as many as 50% of elderly patients suffer from neurologic complications like delirium. Also, the capacity to heal and regenerate tissue after surgery decreases with age, and can impact the quality of fracture repair and even osseous integration of implants. Thus, a better understanding of mechanisms that drive these age-dependent changes could provide strategic targets to minimize risk for such complications and optimize outcomes...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Hui-Ying Xu, Guang-Hua Fu, Gui-Sheng Wu
Objective: To investigate the effect of dexmedetomidine at maintenance dose on the postoperative function of elder patients after general anesthesia for laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy. Methods: We enrolled a total of 96 elder patients who were admitted to this hospital for laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy under general anesthesia between March 2015 and March 2017, and divided them into two groups, Group A (n = 48) and B (n = 48). Patients in both groups received the same methods for anesthesia induction and maintenance drugs...
December 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Bin Mei, Gaige Meng, Guanghong Xu, Xinqi Cheng, Shishou Chen, Ye Zhang, Ming Zhang, Xuesheng Liu, Erwei Gu
BACKGROUND: Peripheral nerve block is a preferable method for elderly patients receiving hip arthroplasty. Sedation with dexmedetomidine may reduce postoperative delirium. The aim of this study was to investigate whether intraoperative sedation with dexmedetomidine, as a supplementary to peripheral nerve block for elderly patients receiving total hip arthroplasty, can decrease the prevalence of postoperative delirium. METHODS: A prospective, randomized controlled study was conducted with patients 65 years of age or older who underwent total hip arthroplasty between June 2016 and June 2017...
March 9, 2018: Clinical Journal of Pain
Yi-Qing Zou, Xiao-Bao Li, Zhi-Xing Yang, Jing-Min Zhou, Yi-Nan Wu, Zhi-Hu Zhao, Xiang-Zhu Liu, Chang-Li Hu
BACKGROUND: Conflict findings of the impact of inhalational anesthetics on postoperative cognitive function are reported. No systematic review has been performed to solve the problem. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of different inhalational anesthetics on postoperative cognitive function in a network meta-analysis. METHODS: We will search MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Central Register of Controlled Trials in the Cochrane library, and CINAHL for randomized controlled trials or cohort studies assessing the short-term or long-term cognitive function of elderly patients (over 60 years) receiving major surgeries and inhalational anesthetics (desflurane, isoflurane, sevoflurane, halothane, and nitrous oxide) during surgery...
January 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Panlong Li, Han Shan, Shengxiang Liang, Binbin Nie, Hua Liu, Shaofeng Duan, Qi Huang, Tianhao Zhang, Guanglong Dong, Yulin Guo, Jin Du, Hongkai Gao, Lin Ma, Demin Li, Baoci Shan
OBJECTIVE: Bariatric surgery could recover regional dysfunction of cerebral cortex. However, it is unknown whether bariatric surgery could recover the global-level dysfunction in subjects with obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of bariatric surgery on global-level dysfunction in subjects with obesity by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). METHODS: Resting-state fMRI was used to investigate dysfunction of whole-brain in 34 subjects with obesity and 34 age-and gender-matched normal-weight subjects, in which 17 subjects with obesity received sleeve gastrectomy...
March 2, 2018: Obesity Surgery
Jing-Yu Xiao, Bing-Rui Xiong, Wen Zhang, Wen-Chang Zhou, Hui Yang, Feng Gao, Hong-Bing Xiang, Anne Manyande, Xue-Bi Tian, Yu-Ke Tian
AIM: Multifactors contribute to the development of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD), of which the most important mechanism is neuroinflammation. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is a key neuroinflammatory molecule and could modulate hippocampal synaptic transmission and plasticity. This study was designed to investigate whether PGE2 and its receptors signaling pathway were involved in the pathophysiology of POCD. METHODS: Sixteen-month old male C57BL/6J mice were exposed to laparotomy...
February 27, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Ruixue Hou, Hong Wang, Lianhua Chen, Yimin Qiu, Shitong Li
Objectives: Clinical observation, as well as randomized controlled trials, indicated an increasing rate of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) with increasing depth of general anesthesia. However, the findings are subject to bias due to varying degree of analgesia. In this trial, we compared the rate of POCD between patients receiving light versus high anesthesia while holding analgesia comparable using nerve block. Methods: Elderly patients (≧60 years) receiving elective total knee replacement were randomized to receive the surgery under general anesthesia at BIS 40-50 (LOBIS group) or BIS 55-65 (HIBIS group)...
February 2018: Brain and Behavior
Frédéric Aubrun, Noël Zahr, Olivier Langeron, Nicolas Boccheciampe, Nathalie Cozic, Lisa Belin, Jean-Sebastien Hulot, Frederic Khiami, Bruno Riou
BACKGROUND: Among the various factors that may influence the pharmacological response to opioids, genetic polymorphisms [single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP)] have generated some interest. OBJECTIVES: To examine the influence on morphine dose requirements and adverse events in the postoperative period of four SNP [opioid receptor mu1 (OPRM1), ATP-binding cassette subfamily B, member 1 (ABCB1) ex-21 and ex-26, catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT)] in candidate genes involved in morphine pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics...
February 22, 2018: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
Wenyao Li, Qing Chai, Hongwei Zhang, Jing Ma, Chengfen Xu, Jifu Dong, Xianghua Wei, Zhiyi Wang, Kexian Zhang
Objective Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is common after surgery in elderly patients and is associated with high morbidity. The molecular mechanisms responsible for POCD are unknown. Minocycline, an inhibitor of microglial activation, may be useful in treating and preventing POCD. We explored whether minocycline can inhibit microglial activation and prevent POCD in aged rats as a surgery model. Methods Rats aged 18 to 20 months were randomly allocated to the following groups: naïve, abdominal surgery alone, or minocycline injection before abdominal surgery...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
Lan Wei, Minmin Yao, Zhimeng Zhao, Hui Jiang, Shengjin Ge
BACKGROUND: Silent Information Regulator 1 (Sirt1) and apoptosis play key roles in postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). Consuming a high-fat diet (HFD), a prevalent type of diet in modern society, has been increasingly recognized as contributing to neurodegenerative diseases. Although Sirt1 and apoptosis are significant responders to HFD in the brain, little is known regarding the functional correlations between HFD and POCD. METHODS: Thirty-two aged C57BL/6 male mice were randomly divided into 2 groups: an ad libitum (AL) group (fed a regular diet) and high-fat diet (HF) group (fed a high-fat diet)...
February 13, 2018: BMC Anesthesiology
Insa Feinkohl, Georg Winterer, Tobias Pischon
BACKGROUND: Lipid imbalance is linked to age-related cognitive impairment, but its role in postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is unknown. Here, we present a systematic review and meta-analysis on dyslipidaemia, lipid-lowering treatment and POCD risk. METHODS: PubMed, Ovid SP and Cochrane databases were searched for longitudinal studies that reported on associations of any measure of dyslipidaemia and/or lipid-lowering treatment with POCD as relative risks (RRs) or ORs...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Jie Chen, Na Shen, Xiaohui Duan, Yaning Guo
The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of dexmedetomidine in improving postoperative cognitive dysfunction from the perspectives of alleviating neuronal mitochondrial membrane oxidative stress and electrophysiological dysfunction. A total of 120 patients undergoing elective surgery under general anesthesia from June 2013 to May, 2016 were selected as the subjects of the study and randomly divided into the propofol + remifentanil and dexmedetomidine groups. The Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were performed at day 1 before operation and at day 1, 3, 5 and 15 after operation...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Andres Zorrilla-Vaca, Ryan Healy, Michael C Grant, Brijen Joshi, Lucia Rivera-Lara, Charles Brown, Marek A Mirski
PURPOSE: Although evidence from observational studies in a variety of clinical settings supports the utility of cerebral oximetry as a predictor of outcomes, prospective clinical trials thus far have reported conflicting results. This systematic review and meta-analysis was designed to evaluate the influence of management associated with intraoperative cerebral oximetry on postoperative outcomes. The primary outcome was postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD), with secondary outcomes that included postoperative delirium, length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay, and hospital length of stay (LOS)...
January 18, 2018: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
Mengya Cao, Jiakai Fang, Xueqin Wang, Yi Wang, Kaiming Duan, Feng Ye, Wen Ouyang, Jianbin Tong
The upstream signal molecule modulating neuro-inflammation and synaptic changes during the pathogenesis of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is still elusive. Here, we examined the effects and mechanisms of energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the pathogenesis of POCD. Our data showed that surgery significantly increased the expression of p-AMPK in aged rats (p < 0.05), but not in adult rats (p > 0.05). Moreover, inhibiting AMPK activation via compound C during operation significantly improved surgery-induced impairment of the learning and memory of aged rats in water maze (p < 0...
April 1, 2018: Brain Research
Vsevolod V Kuzkov, Maxim Y Obraztsov, Oleg Y Ivashchenko, Nadezhda Y Ivashchenko, Valery M Gorenkov, Mikhail Y Kirov
OBJECTIVE: Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is effective for the prevention of stroke, yet can be associated with a postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) that may be affected by the type of anesthesia. The aim of the study was to compare the effects of total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) with propofol to volatile induction and maintenance of anesthesia (VIMA) with sevoflurane on cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (SctO2) and POCD. DESIGN: Single-center, pilot randomized prospective study...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
Fredrik Tjernström, Per-Anders Fransson, Babar Kahlon, Mikael Karlberg, Sven Lindberg, Peter Siesjö, Måns Magnusson
OBJECT: To evaluate post-surgical postural stability when treating patients with remaining vestibular function with intratympanic gentamicin (PREHAB) prior to schwannoma surgery. METHOD: 44 consecutive patients with some form remaining vestibular function scheduled for vestibular schwannoma surgery. 20 were medically deafferented with intratympanic gentamicin before surgery and 24 were not. Both groups were of the same age, had the same tumor size, same type of surgery, and same perioperative sensory rehabilitation (training exercises), and no surgical complications...
2018: Journal of Vestibular Research: Equilibrium & Orientation
Zhipeng Wu, Mei Zhang, Zhenhong Zhang, Wei Dong, Qingben Wang, Juan Ren
β-amyloid (Aβ) and Tau proteins are biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease neuropathogenesis. We hypothesized that they are also potential biomarkers for postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). The present study was designed to evaluate the use of the Aβ-42/Tau ratio for the diagnosis of POCD in patients undergoing hip/knee replacement surgery. A total of 80 patients who underwent total hip/knee replacement surgery were grouped into POCD or non-POCD patients at 7 days, 1 and 3 months after surgery, according to a z-score recommended by the international study of POCD...
January 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Rebecca Y Klinger, Olga G James, Salvador Borges-Neto, Tiffany Bisanar, Yi-Ju Li, Wenjing Qi, Miles Berger, Niccolò Terrando, Mark F Newman, P Murali Doraiswamy, Joseph P Mathew, Michael W Weiner, Paul Aisen, Michael Weiner, Paul Aisen, Ronald Petersen, Clifford R Jack, William Jagust, John Q Trojanowki, Arthur W Toga, Laurel Beckett, Robert C Green, Andrew J Saykin, John Morris, Leslie M Shaw, Zaven Khachaturian, Greg Sorensen, Maria Carrillo, Lew Kuller, Marc Raichle, Steven Paul, Peter Davies, Howard Fillit, Franz Hefti, David Holtzman, M Marcel Mesulam, William Potter, Peter Snyder, Adam Schwartz, Robert C Green, Tom Montine, Ronald Petersen, Paul Aisen, Ronald G Thomas, Michael Donohue, Sarah Walter, Devon Gessert, Tamie Sather, Gus Jiminez, Archana B Balasubramanian, Jennifer Mason, Iris Sim, Laurel Beckett, Danielle Harvey, Michael Donohue, Clifford R Jack, Matthew Bernstein, Nick Fox, Paul Thompson, Norbert Schuff, Charles DeCArli, Bret Borowski, Jeff Gunter, Matt Senjem, Prashanthi Vemuri, David Jones, Kejal Kantarci, Chad Ward, William Jagust, Robert A Koeppe, Norm Foster, Eric M Reiman, Kewei Chen, Chet Mathis, Susan Landau, John C Morris, Louis Nigel J Cairns, Erin Franklin, Lisa Taylor-Reinwald, Leslie M Shaw, John Q Trojanowki, Virginia Lee, Magdalena Korecka, Michal Figurski, Arthur W Toga, Karen Crawford, Scott Neu, Andrew J Saykin, Tatiana M Foroud, Steven Potkin, Li Shen, Kelley Faber, Sungeun Kim, Kwangsik Nho, Michael W Weiner, Lean Thal, Zaven Khachaturian, Leon Thal, Neil Buckholtz, Michael W Weiner, Peter J Snyder, William Potter, Steven Paul, Marilyn Albert, Richard Frank, Zaven Khachaturian, John Hsiao, Jeffrey Kaye, Joseph Quinn, Lisa Silbert, Betty Lind, Raina Carter, Sara Dolen, Lon S Schneider, Sonia Pawluczyk, Mauricio Becerra, Liberty Teodoro, Bryan M Spann, James Brewer, Helen Vanderswag, Adam Fleisher, Judith L Heidebrink, Joanne L Lord, Ronald Petersen, Sara S Mason, Colleen S Albers, David Knopman, Kris Johnson, Rachelle S Doody, Javier Villanueva-Meyer, Valory Pavlik, Victoria Shibley, Munir Chowdhury, Susan Rountree, Mimi Dang, Yaakov Stern, Lawrence S Honig, Karen L Bell, Beau Ances, John C Morris, Maria Carroll, Mary L Creech, Erin Franklin, Mark A Mintun, Stacy Schneider, Angela Oliver, Daniel Marson, David Geldmacher, Marissa Natelson Love, Randall Griffith, David Clark, John Brockington, Erik Roberson, Hillel Grossman, Effie Mitsis, Raj C Shah, Leyla deToledo-Morrell, Ranjan Duara, Maria T Greig-Custo, Warren Barker, Marilyn Albert, Chiadi Onyike, Daniel D'Agostino, Stephanie Kielb, Martin Sadowski, Mohammed O Sheikh, Anaztasia Ulysse, Mrunalini Gaikwad, Jeffrey R Petrella, Terence Z Wong, Edward Coleman, Steven E Arnold, Jason H Karlawish, David A Wolk, Christopher M Clark, Charles D Smith, Greg Jicha, Peter Hardy, Partha Sinha, Elizabeth Oates, Gary Conrad, Oscar L Lopez, MaryAnn Oakley, Donna M Simpson, Anton P Porsteinsson, Bonnie S Goldstein, Kim Martin, Kelly M Makino, M Saleem Ismail, Connie Brand, Steven G Potkin, Adrian Preda, Dana Nguyen, Kyle Womack, Dana Mathews, Mary Quiceno, Allan I Levey, James J Lah, Janet S Cellar, Jeffrey M Burns, Russell H Swerdlow, William M Brooks, Liana Apostolova, Kathleen Tingus, Ellen Woo, Daniel H S Silverman, Po H Lu, George Bartzokis, Neill R Graff-Radford, Francine Parfitt, Kim Poki-Walker, Martin R Farlow, Ann Marie Hake, Brandy R Matthews, Jared R Brosch, Scott Herring, Christopher H van Dyck, Richard E Carson, Martha G MacAvoy, Pradeep Varma, Howard Chertkow, Howard Bergman, Chris Hosein, Sandra Black, Bojana Stefanovic, Curtis Caldwell, Ging-Yuek, Robin Hsiung, Benita Mudge, Vesna Sossi, Howard Feldman, Michele Assaly, Elizabeth Finger, Stephen Pasternack, Irina Rachisky, Dick Trost, Andrew Kertesz, Charles Bernick, Donna Munic, Marek-Marsel Mesulam, Emily Rogalski, Kristine Lipowski, Sandra Weintraub, Borna Bonakdarpour, Diana Kerwin, Chuang-Kuo Wu, Nancy Johnson, Carl Sadowsky, Teresa Villena, Raymond Scott Turner, Kathleen Johnson, Brigid Reynolds, Reisa A Sperling, Keith A Johnson, Gad Marshall, Jerome Yesavage, Joy L Taylor, Barton Lane, Allyson Rosen, Jared Tinklenberg, Marwan N Sabbagh, Christine M Belden, Sandra A Jacobson, Sherye A Sirrel, Neil Kowall, Ronald Killiany, Andrew E Budson, Alexander Norbash, Patricia Lynn Johnson, Thomas O Obisesan, Saba Wolday, Joanne Allard, Alan Lerner, Paula Ogrocki, Curtis Tatsuoka, Parianne Fatica, Evan Fletcher, Pauline Maillard, John Olichney, Charles DeCarli, Owen Carmichael, Smita Kittur, Michael Borrie, T-Y Lee, Dr Rob Bartha, Sterling Johnson, Sanjay Asthana, Cynthia M Carlsson, Steven G Potkin, Adrian Preda, Dana Nguyen, Pierre Tariot, Anna Burke, Ann Marie Milliken, Nadira Trncic, Adam Fleisher, Stephanie Reeder, Vernice Bates, Horacio Capote, Michelle Rainka, Douglas W Scharre, Maria Kataki, Brendan Kelley, Earl A Zimmerman, Dzintra Celmins, Alice D Brown, Godfrey D Pearlson, Karen Blank, Karen Anderson, Laura A Flashman, Marc Seltzer, Mary L Hynes, Robert B Santulli, Kaycee M Sink, Leslie Gordineer, Jeff D Williamson, Pradeep Garg, Franklin Watkins, Brian R Ott, Geoffrey Tremont, Lori A Daiello, Stephen Salloway, Paul Malloy, Stephen Correia, Howard J Rosen, Bruce L Miller, David Perry, Jacobo Mintzer, Kenneth Spicer, David Bachman, Elizabeth Finger, Stephen Pasternak, Irina Rachinsky, John Rogers, Andrew Kertesz, Dick Drost, Nunzio Pomara, Raymundo Hernando, Antero Sarrael, Susan K Schultz, Karen Ekstam Smith, Hristina Koleva, Ki Won Nam, Hyungsub Shim, Norman Relkin, Gloria Chiang, Michael Lin, Lisa Ravdin, Amanda Smith, Balebail Ashok Raj, Kristin Fargher, Michael W Weiner, Paul Aisen, Michael Weiner, Paul Aisen, Ronald Petersen, Robert C Green, Danielle Harvey, Clifford R Jack, William Jagust, John C Morris, Andrew J Saykin, Leslie M Shaw, Arthur W Toga, John Q Trojanowki, Thomas Neylan, Jordan Grafman, Jordan Grafman, Robert C Green, Tom Montine, Michael Weiner, Ronald Petersen, Paul Aisen, Ronald G Thomas, Michael Donohue, Devon Gessert, Tamie Sather, Melissa Davis, Rosemary Morrison, Gus Jiminez, Thomas Neylan, Jacqueline Hayes, Shannon Finely, Danielle Harvey, Michael Donohue, Clifford R Jack, Matthew Bernstein, Bret Borowski, Jeff Gunter, Matt Senjem, Kejal Kantarci, Chad Ward, William Jagust, Robert A Koeppe, Norm Foster, Eric M Reiman, Kewei Chen, Susan Landau, John C Morris, Nigel J Cairns, Erin Householder, Leslie M Shaw, John Q Trojanowki, Virginia Lee, Magdalena Korecka, Michal Figurski, Arthur W Toga, Karen Crawford, Scott Neu, Andrew J Saykin, Tatiana M Foroud, Steven Potkin, Li Shen, Kelley Faber, Sungeun Kim, Kwangsik Nho, Michael W Weiner, Karl Friedl, Lon S Schneider, Sonia Pawluczyk, Mauricio Becerra, James Brewer, Helen Vanderswag, Yaakov Stern, Lawrence S Honig, Karen L Bell, Debra Fleischman, Konstantinos Arfanakis, Raj C Shah, Ranjan Duara, Daniel Varon, Maria T Greig, Jeffrey R Petrella, Anton P Porsteinsson, Bonnie Goldstein, Kimberly S Martin, Steven G Potkin, Adrian Preda, Dana Nguyen, Jacobo Mintzer, Dino Massoglia, Olga Brawman-Mintzer, Carl Sadowsky, Walter Martinez, Teresa Villena, William Jagust, Susan Landau, Howard Rosen, David Perry, Raymond Scott Turner, Kelly Behan, Brigid Reynolds, Reisa A Sperling, Keith A Johnson, Gad Marshall, Marwan N Sabbagh, Sandra A Jacobson, Sherye A Sirrel, Thomas O Obisesan, Saba Wolday, Joanne Allard, Sterling C Johnson, J Jay Fruehling, Sandra Harding, Elaine R Peskind, Eric C Petrie, Gail Li, Jerome A Yesavage, Joy L Taylor, Ansgar J Furst, Steven Chao, Norman Relkin, Gloria Chiang, Lisa Ravdin, James A Blumenthal, Jorn A Karhausen, Miklos D Kertai, Mihai V Podgoreanu, Mark Stafford-Smith, Madhav Swaminathan, David S Warner, Bonita L Funk, Narai Balajonda, Rachele Brassard, Mary Cooter, Yanne Toulgoat-Dubois, Peter Waweru, Michael A Babyak, James A Blumenthal, Jeffrey N Browndyke, Kathleen A Welsh-Bohmer, Michael H Sketch, Ellen R Bennett, Carmelo Graffagnino, Daniel T Laskowitz, Warren J Strittmatter, Kevin Collins, Greg Smigla, Ian Shearer, Thomas A D'Amico, Mani A Daneshmand, R Jeffrey G Gaca, Donald D Glower, Jack Haney, R David Harpole, Mathew G Hartwig, G Chad Hughes, Jacob A Klapper, Shu S Lin, Andrew J Lodge, Carmelo A Milano, Ryan P Plichta, Jacob N Schroeder, Peter K Smith, Betty C Tong
BACKGROUND: Amyloid deposition is a potential contributor to postoperative cognitive dysfunction. The authors hypothesized that 6-week global cortical amyloid burden, determined by F-florbetapir positron emission tomography, would be greater in those patients manifesting cognitive dysfunction at 6 weeks postoperatively. METHODS: Amyloid deposition was evaluated in cardiac surgical patients at 6 weeks (n = 40) and 1 yr (n = 12); neurocognitive function was assessed at baseline (n = 40), 6 weeks (n = 37), 1 yr (n = 13), and 3 yr (n = 9)...
February 1, 2018: Anesthesiology
Yafeng Wang, Ailan Huang, Lixia Gan, Yanli Bao, Weilin Zhu, Yanyan Hu, Li Ma, Shiyang Wei, Yuyan Lan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 25, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Tomohisa Yamamoto, Tatsushige Iwamoto, Seishi Kimura, Shinichi Nakao
BACKGROUND: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is likely to occur in elderly people, who often suffer from cerebral hypoperfusion and white matter lesions even in the absence of cerebral infarctions. METHODS: Thirty-two adult male rats were randomly assigned to one of four groups: the cerebral normoperfusion + normotension group (n = 8), cerebral normoperfusion + hypotension group (n = 8), chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) + normotension group (n = 8), and CCH + hypotension group (n = 8)...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Anesthesia
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