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Irritable bowel disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440889/a-glucagon-like-peptide-1-analog-liraglutide-improves-visceral-sensation-and-gut-permeability-in-rats
#1
Tsukasa Nozu, Saori Miyagishi, Shima Kumei, Rintaro Nozu, Kaoru Takakusaki, Toshikatsu Okumura
BACKGROUND AND AIM: A glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analog, liraglutide, has been reported to block inflammatory somatic pain. We hypothesized that liraglutide attenuates lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and repeated water avoidance stress (WAS)-induced visceral hypersensitivity and tested the hypothesis in rats. METHODS: The threshold of the visceromotor response (VMR) induced by colonic balloon distention was measured to assess visceral sensation. Colonic permeability was determined in vivo by quantifying the absorbed Evans blue spectrophotometrically, which was instilled in the proximal colon for 15 min...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440501/transfer-of-cd11c-lamina-propria-mononuclear-phagocytes-from-post-infectious-irritable-bowel-syndrome-causes-mucosal-barrier-dysfunction-and-visceral-hypersensitivity-in-recipient-mice
#2
Ya-Jun Ren, Lei Zhang, Tao Bai, Hong-Lu Yu, Ying Li, Wei Qian, Si Jin, Zhi-Fan Xiong, Huan Wang, Xiao-Hua Hou
The role of low-grade inflammation in the development of post‑infectious irritable bowel syndrome (PI‑IBS) has attracted increasing attention. Abnormal CD11c+ mononuclear phagocytes, such as dendritic cells (DCs), macrophages, and monocytes, are involved in the disruption of immune tolerance in organisms, which can lead to the development of chronic inflammatory diseases. The present study tested the hypothesis that CD11c+ lamina propria mononuclear phagocytes (CD11c+ LPMPs) contribute to increased mucosal permeability and visceral hypersensitivity in a PI‑IBS mouse model...
April 25, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432691/tenapanor-administration-and-the-activity-of-the-h-coupled-transporter-pept1-in-healthy-volunteers
#3
Susanne Johansson, David P Rosenbaum, Johan Palm, Bergur Stefansson, Mikael Knutsson, Eleanor A Lisbon, Constanze Hilgendorf
AIM: Tenapanor (RDX5791/AZD1722), an inhibitor of gastrointestinal Na(+) /H(+) exchanger NHE3, is being evaluated for the treatment of patients with constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome and the treatment of hyperphosphataemia in patients with chronic kidney disease on dialysis. By reducing intestinal H(+) secretion, inhibition of NHE3 by tenapanor could indirectly affect H(+) -coupled transporter activity, leading to drug-drug interactions. We investigated the effect of tenapanor on the activity of the H(+) -coupled peptide transporter PepT1 via assessment of the pharmacokinetics of cefadroxil - a compound transported by PepT1 - in healthy volunteers...
April 22, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426464/comparative-effectiveness-in-urology-a-state-of-the-art-review-utilizing-a-systematic-approach
#4
Jathin Bandari, Charles B Wessel, Bruce L Jacobs
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Comparative effectiveness research plays a vital role in healthcare delivery by guiding evidence-based practices. We performed a state-of-the-art review of comparative effectiveness research in the urology literature for 2016, utilizing a systematic approach. Seven high-impact papers are reviewed in detail. RECENT FINDINGS: Across the breadth of urology, there were several important studies in comparative effectiveness research, of which we will highlight two randomized controlled trials and five observational trials: radiotherapy, prostatectomy, and active monitoring have equivalent mortality outcomes in patients with localized prostate cancer; the ideal modality of patient education is yet to be determined, and written education has minimal effect on patient perception of prostate specific antigen screening; robotic prostatectomy is associated with higher perioperative complication rates on a population basis; racial disparities exist in incontinence rates after treatment for localized prostate cancer, but not in irritative, bowel, or sexual function; androgen deprivation therapy is associated with higher fracture, peripheral artery disease, and cardiac-related complications than bilateral orchiectomy; robotic and open cystectomy offer comparable cancer-specific mortality and perioperative outcomes; and bonuses for low-cost hospitals can inadvertently reward low-quality hospitals...
April 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422780/understanding-the-gut-microbiota-in-inflammatory-and-functional-gastrointestinal-diseases
#5
Johanna Sundin, Lena Öhman, Magnus Simren
OBJECTIVE: During the last decade experimental and observational studies have shown that patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) and Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) may have an altered intestinal microbial composition compared to healthy subjects. However, no uniform microbial signature has as yet been detected for either IBD or IBS. This review summarizes the current knowledge of microbial dysbiosis, and its potential relationship to the pathophysiology in IBD and IBS. METHODS: A selective review was conducted to summarize the current knowledge of gut microbiota in the pathophysiology of IBD and IBS...
April 18, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413456/role-of-stem-cell-growth-factor-c-kit-in-the-pathogenesis-of-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#6
Yuna Chai, Yusheng Huang, Hongmei Tang, Xing Tu, Jianbo He, Ting Wang, Qingye Zhang, Fen Xiong, Detang Li, Zhenwen Qiu
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional bowel disease with a complicated etiopathogenesis, often characterized by gastrointestinal motility disorder and high visceral sensitivity. IBS is a comprehensive multi-systemic disorder, with the interaction of multiple factors, such as mental stress, intestinal function and flora, heredity, resulting in the disease. The existence of a common mechanism underlying the aforementioned factors is currently unknown. The lack of therapies that comprehensively address the disease symptoms, including abdominal pain and diarrhea, is a limitation of current IBS management...
April 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410406/lubiprostone-improves-intestinal-permeability-in-humans-a-novel-therapy-for-the-leaky-gut-a-prospective-randomized-pilot-study-in-healthy-volunteers
#7
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Takayuki Kato, Yasushi Honda, Yusuke Kurita, Akito Iwasaki, Takamitsu Sato, Takaomi Kessoku, Shiori Uchiyama, Yuji Ogawa, Hidenori Ohkubo, Takuma Higurashi, Takeharu Yamanaka, Haruki Usuda, Koichiro Wada, Atsushi Nakajima
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The barrier function of the small intestinal mucosa prevents the introduction of undesired pathogens into the body. Breakdown of this barrier function increases intestinal permeability. This has been proposed to induce not only gastrointestinal diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome, but also various other diseases, including allergies, diabetes mellitus, liver diseases, and collagen diseases, which are associated with this so called "leaky gut syndrome...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404070/pathophysiology-of-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#8
REVIEW
Gerald J Holtmann, Alexander C Ford, Nicholas J Talley
Traditionally, irritable bowel syndrome has been considered to be a disorder with no known underlying structural or biochemical explanation, but this concept is likely to be outdated. In this Review we challenge the widely accepted view that irritable bowel syndrome is an unexplained brain-gut disorder. There is epidemiological evidence that, in a major subset of patients, gastrointestinal symptoms arise first and only later do incident mood disorders occur. Additionally, possible mechanisms for gut-brain dysfunction have been identified, suggesting primary gut disturbances might be the underlying cause in a subgroup...
October 2016: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404068/association-between-functional-gastrointestinal-disorders-and-migraine-in-children-and-adolescents-a-case-control-study
#9
Julie Le Gal, Jean-Francois Michel, Victoria Elisa Rinaldi, Daniele Spiri, Raffaella Moretti, Donatella Bettati, Silvia Romanello, Paola Berlese, Rosa Lualdi, Priscilla Boizeau, Jerome Viala, Marc Bellaiche, Gian Vincenzo Zuccotti, Giovanni Crichiutti, Corinne Alberti, Luigi Titomanlio
BACKGROUND: Functional gastrointestinal disorders and migraine are both common causes of medical attention. We have previously shown an association between migraine and infant colic. In this case-control study, we aimed to establish whether there is an association between migraine and other functional gastrointestinal disorders in children and adolescents. METHODS: We included children and adolescents aged 6-17 years presenting to the emergency department of four tertiary hospitals in France and Italy...
October 2016: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395553/proteomics-and-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#10
Athanasios Tsigaridas, Ioannis S Papanikolaou, Anna Vaiopoulou, Athanasios K Anagnostopoulos, Nikos Viazis, George Karamanolis, Dimitrios G Karamanolis, George T Tsangaris, Gerasimos Mantzaris, Maria Gazouli
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a gastrointestinal disease that according to Rome IV criteria is subdivided into four subtypes. The pathophysiology of this disease is not well understood due to numerous factors playing multiple roles in disease development, such as diet, stress and hormones. IBS has a variety of symptoms and overlaps with many other gastrointestinal and non-gastrointestinal diseases. Area covered: This review aims to present an overview of implementation of proteomics in experimental studies in the field of IBS...
April 11, 2017: Expert Review of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389566/microbial-metabolites-in-health-and-disease-navigating-the-unknown-in-search-of-function
#11
Kristina B Martinez, Vanessa A Leone, Eugene B Chang
The gut microbiota has been implicated in the development of a number of chronic gastrointestinal and systemic diseases. These include inflammatory bowel diseases, irritable bowel syndrome, metabolic (i.e. obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, diabetes), and neurological diseases. The advanced understanding of host-microbe interactions has largely been due to new technologies such as 16S rRNA sequencing to identify previously unknown microbial communities and more importantly their functional characteristics through metagenomic sequencing, and other multi-omic technologies such as metatranscriptomics, metaproteomics, and metabolomics...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385695/transient-receptor-potential-ion-channel-function-in-sensory-transduction-and-cellular-signaling-cascades-underlying-visceral-hypersensitivity
#12
Dafne Balemans, Guy E Boeckxstaens, Karel Talavera, Mira M Wouters
Visceral hypersensitivity is an important mechanism underlying increased abdominal pain perception in functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) including functional dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and inflammatory bowel disease in remission. Although the exact pathophysiological mechanisms are poorly understood, recent studies described upregulation and altered functions of nociceptors and their signaling pathways in aberrant visceral nociception, in particular the transient receptor potential (TRP) channel family...
April 6, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376573/the-gut-microbiome
#13
Mayenaaz Sidhu, David van der Poorten
BACKGROUND: More than a trillion, mostly good, microbes live within our gastrointestinal tract and are responsible for vital metabolic, immune and nutritional functions. Dysbiosis, meaning a maladaptive imbalance of the microbiome, is associated with many common diseases and is a target for therapy. OBJECTIVE: This article provides an overview of the gut microbiome in health and disease, highlighting conditions such as Clostridium difficile infection, inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, with which dysbiosis is associated...
2017: Australian Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375407/hot-topics-in-primary-care-role-of-the-microbiome-in-disease-implications-for-treatment-of-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#14
REVIEW
Brian E Lacy
Dietary and some other treatments for IBS are supported by a growing body of evidence, much of which comes from programs such as the Human Microbiome Project and Human Gut Microbiome Initiative, which were intended to identify and characterize microorganisms found in association with both healthy and diseased humans. These programs used state-of-the-art technology to characterize the human microbiome from multiple body sites. This evidence indicates that the gut microbiome plays an important role in IBS and some other gastrointestinal (GI) disorders...
April 2017: Journal of Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368979/undifferentiated-connective-tissue-disease-fibromyalgia-and-the-environmental-factors
#15
Laura Andreoli, Angela Tincani
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this study was to discuss the role of environmental factors in the induction and perpetuation of autoimmunity, with particular focus on undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD) and fibromyalgia. These two entities may share undefined clinical and laboratory features and recognize environmental exposures as triggering factors. From this particular point of view, both UCTD and fibromyalgia may resemble the picture of the 'Autoimmune/Inflammatory Syndrome Induced by Adjuvants' (ASIA)...
March 31, 2017: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368365/mind-body-interventions-for-pediatric-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#16
REVIEW
Ann Ming Yeh, Anava Wren, Brenda Golianu
Pediatric inflammatory bowel disease is an autoimmune disease that causes chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal mucosa. There is emerging evidence that the brain-gut connection affects inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients more than previously thought. This is evidenced by comorbid mood disorders, irritable bowel symptoms concurrent with quiescent IBD, and the potential of psychosocial stressors to trigger IBD flares. Mind-body interventions such as psychotherapy, relaxation, mindfulness, biofeedback, yoga, and clinical hypnosis offer an adjunct to standard medical treatment for IBD...
April 3, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345530/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-methods-of-treatment-of-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infections-and-other-diseases
#17
Klaudia Juszczuk, Katarzyna Grudlewska, Agnieszka Mikucka, Eugenia Gospodarek
Clostridium difficile is a serious epidemiological problem and particularly dangerous microorganism causing hospital infections. Currently, the treatment of C. difficile infections is the use of metronidazole or vancomycin. However, in some patients, recurrent infection difficult to treat occurs. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a new method used to treat the recurrent CDI. FMT consists in the infusion of the fecal suspension from a healthy donor into the gastrointestinal tract of a patient with CDI to restore the natural intestinal microflora...
March 27, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345443/economic-burden-of-irritable-bowel-syndrome-with-diarrhea-retrospective-analysis-of-a-u-s-commercially-insured-population
#18
Jessica L Buono, Kush Mathur, Amelia J Averitt, David A Andrae
BACKGROUND: The economic burden associated with irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea (IBS-D) is not well understood. OBJECTIVES: To (a) evaluate total annual all-cause, gastrointestinal (GI)-related, and symptom-related (i.e., IBS, diarrhea, abdominal pain) health care resource use and costs among IBS-D patients in a U.S. commercially insured population and (b) estimate incremental all-cause health care costs of IBS-D patients versus matched controls. METHODS: Patients aged ≥ 18 years with 12 months of continuous medical and pharmacy benefit eligibility in 2013 were identified from the Truven Health MarketScan research database...
April 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344794/does-calprotectin-level-identify-a-subgroup-among-patients-suffering-from-irritable-bowel-syndrome-results-of-a-prospective-study
#19
Chloé Melchior, Moutaz Aziz, Typhaine Aubry, Guillaume Gourcerol, Muriel Quillard, Alberto Zalar, Moïse Coëffier, Pierre Dechelotte, Anne-Marie Leroi, Philippe Ducrotté
BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome is a multifactorial disease. Although faecal calprotectin has been shown to be a reliable marker of intestinal inflammation, its role in irritable bowel syndrome remains debated. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this prospective study were to select a subgroup of irritable bowel syndrome patients and to characterise those patients with high faecal calprotectin by systematic work-up. METHODS: Calprotectin levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test in consecutive irritable bowel syndrome patients fulfilling Rome III criteria in whom normal colonoscopy and appropriate tests had excluded organic disease...
March 2017: United European Gastroenterology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344174/core-shell-poly-ethylene-oxide-eudragit-fibers-for-site-specific-release
#20
Dong Jia, Yanshan Gao, Gareth R Williams
Electrospinning was used to prepare core/shell fibers containing the active pharmaceutical ingredients indomethacin (IMC) or mebeverine hydrochloride (MB-HCl). The shell of the fibers was fabricated from the pH sensitive Eudragit S100 polymer, while the drug-loaded core was based on the mucoadhesive poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO). Three different drug loadings (from 9 to 23% (w/w) of the core mass) were prepared, and for MB-HCl two different molecular weights of PEO were explored. The resultant fibers generally comprise smooth cylinders, although in some cases defects such as surface particles or flattened or merged fibers were visible...
March 23, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
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