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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918411/combining-cd4-recovery-and-cd4-cd8-ratio-restoration-as-an-indicator-for-evaluating-the-outcome-of-continued-antiretroviral-therapy-an-observational-cohort-study
#1
Shui Shan Lee, Ngai Sze Wong, Bonnie Chun Kwan Wong, Ka Hing Wong, Kenny Chi Wai Chan
OBJECTIVES: Immune recovery following highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is commonly assessed by the degree of CD4 reconstitution alone. In this study, we aimed to assess immune recovery by incorporating both CD4 count and CD4:CD8 ratio. DESIGN: Observational cohort study SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Clinical data from Chinese HIV-positive patients attending the largest HIV service in Hong Kong and who had been on HAART for ≥4 years were accessed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Optimal immune outcome was defined as a combination of a CD4 count ≥500/μL and a CD4:CD8 ratio ≥0...
September 15, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918288/th9-cells-promote-antitumor-immunity-via-il-9-and-il-21-and-demonstrate-atypical-cytokine-expression-in-breast-cancer
#2
Fa-Ping You, Jian Zhang, Tao Cui, Rui Zhu, Chong-Qing Lv, Hai-Tao Tang, Di-Wen Sun
Breast cancer is a major cause of cancer-related death in women. Antitumor T cell responses play critical therapeutic roles, including direct cytotoxicity mediated by CD8(+) T cells and immunomodulatory roles mediated by CD4(+) T cells. The IL-9-expressing Th9 cells are recently found to present antitumor immunity in melanoma and lung adenocarcinoma. In this study, we found that IL-9 expression in the serum and in circulating CD4(+) T cells were significantly upregulated in breast cancer patients compared to healthy controls...
September 14, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918040/codon-optimized-p1a-encoding-dna-vaccine-toward-a-therapeutic-vaccination-against-p815-mastocytoma
#3
Alessandra Lopes, Kevin Vanvarenberg, Véronique Préat, Gaëlle Vandermeulen
DNA vaccine can be modified to increase protein production and modulate immune response. To enhance the efficiency of a P815 mastocytoma DNA vaccine, the P1A gene sequence was optimized by substituting specific codons with synonymous ones while modulating the number of CpG motifs. The P815A murine antigen production was increased with codon-optimized plasmids. The number of CpG motifs within the P1A gene sequence modulated the immunogenicity by inducing a local increase in the cytokines involved in innate immunity...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917721/low-levels-of-the-immunoregulator-semaphorin-4d-cd100-in-sera-of-hiv-patients
#4
Z Vadas, D Elbirt, S Radian, S Bezalel-Rosenberg, K Mahlab-Guri, E Toubi, I Asher, Z Sthoeger
INTRODUCTION: Semaphorin-4D (CD100), generated by CD4/CD8 cells, plays an important role in T cells activation. It also regulates B cell differentiation via its receptor the CD72. Both have soluble forms - sCD100/sCD72. METHODS: sCD100 and sCD72 levels were determined by ELISA (MyBioSource, USA). RESULTS: 28 chronic HIV patients and 50 matched healthy volunteers participated in our study. Before treatment, CD4 cell counts were 267±216cells/mcl and viral load (VL) was 586,675±1,897,431copies/ml...
September 13, 2017: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917539/hemagglutinin-specific-cd4-t-cell-responses-following-2009-ph1n1-inactivated-split-vaccine-inoculation-in-humans
#5
Shuguang Tan, Shihong Zhang, Bin Wu, Yingze Zhao, Wei Zhang, Min Han, Ying Wu, Guoli Shi, Yingxia Liu, Jinghua Yan, Guizhen Wu, Hua Wang, George F Gao, Fengcai Zhu, William J Liu
Influenza A virus remains a major threat to public health, and the inactivated split-virus vaccine is the most prevalent vaccine used worldwide. However, our knowledge about cellular immune responses to the inactivated influenza virus vaccine and its correlation with humoral responses are yet limited, which has restricted our understanding of the vaccine's protective mechanisms. Herein, in two clinical trials, T-cell responses specific for both previously identified human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-I-restricted epitopes from influenza virus and hemagglutinin (HA) protein were longitudinally investigated before, during, and after a two-dose vaccination with the inactivated 2009 pandemic H1N1 (2009-pH1N1) vaccine...
September 13, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917531/hollow-microneedle-mediated-intradermal-delivery-of-model-vaccine-antigen-loaded-plga-nanoparticles-elicits-protective-t-cell-mediated-immunity-to-an-intracellular-bacterium
#6
Anne Marit de Groot, Guangsheng Du, Juha Mönkäre, Anouk C M Platteel, Femke Broere, Joke A Bouwstra, Alice J A M Sijts
The skin is an attractive organ for immunization due to the presence of a large number of epidermal and dermal antigen-presenting cells. Hollow microneedles allow for precise and non-invasive intradermal delivery of vaccines. In this study, ovalbumin (OVA)-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles with and without TLR3 agonist poly(I:C) were prepared and administered intradermally by hollow microneedles. The capacity of the PLGA nanoparticles to induce a cytotoxic T cell response, contributing to protection against intracellular pathogens, was examined...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917024/decreased-percentage-of-peripheral-na%C3%A3-ve-t-cells-is-independently-associated-with-ischemic-stroke-in-patients-on-hemodialysis
#7
Rongyi Chen, Jiachang Hu, Fangfang Xiang, Xiao Tan, Bo Shen, Zhonghua Liu, Wenlv Lv, Xiaoqiang Ding, Xuesen Cao, Jianzhou Zou
PURPOSE: Cerebrovascular complications, including ischemic stroke, account for poor outcomes in patients on hemodialysis. T cell responses may be involved in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke. We aimed to evaluate the role of naïve T cells in development of ischemic stroke in patients on hemodialysis. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 156 patients on hemodialysis in our blood purification center were included. These patients were divided into the ischemic stroke (IS) group (61 cases) and non-ischemic stroke (non-IS) group (95 cases) according to a new diagnosis after initiation of hemodialysis...
September 15, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916780/preserved-immune-functionality-and-high-cmv-specific-t-cell-responses-in-hiv-infected-individuals-with-poor-cd4-t-cell-immune-recovery
#8
Elisabet Gómez-Mora, Elisabet García, Victor Urrea, Marta Massanella, Jordi Puig, Eugenia Negredo, Bonaventura Clotet, Julià Blanco, Cecilia Cabrera
Poor CD4(+) T-cell recovery after cART has been associated with skewed T-cell maturation, inflammation and immunosenescence; however, T-cell functionality in those individuals has not been fully characterized. In the present study, we assessed T-cell function by assessing cytokine production after polyclonal, CMV and HIV stimulations of T-cells from ART-suppressed HIV-infected individuals with CD4(+) T-cell counts >350 cells/μL (immunoconcordants) or <350 cells/μL (immunodiscordants). A group of HIV-uninfected individuals were also included as controls...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916749/checkpoint-blockade-immunotherapy-reshapes-the-high-dimensional-phenotypic-heterogeneity-of-murine-intratumoural-neoantigen-specific-cd8-t-cells
#9
M Fehlings, Y Simoni, H L Penny, E Becht, C Y Loh, M M Gubin, J P Ward, S C Wong, R D Schreiber, E W Newell
The analysis of neoantigen-specific CD8(+) T cells in tumour-bearing individuals is challenging due to the small pool of tumour antigen-specific T cells. Here we show that mass cytometry with multiplex combinatorial tetramer staining can identify and characterize neoantigen-specific CD8(+) T cells in mice bearing T3 methylcholanthrene-induced sarcomas that are susceptible to checkpoint blockade immunotherapy. Among 81 candidate antigens tested, we identify T cells restricted to two known neoantigens simultaneously in tumours, spleens and lymph nodes in tumour-bearing mice...
September 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916595/normative-data-for-flow-cytometry-immunophenotyping-of-benign-lymph-nodes-sampled-by-surgical-biopsy
#10
Gregory David Scott, Susan K Atwater, Dita A Gratzinger
AIMS: To create clinically relevant normative flow cytometry data for understudied benign lymph nodes and characterise outliers. METHODS: Clinical, histological and flow cytometry data were collected and distributions summarised for 380 benign lymph node excisional biopsies. Outliers for kappa:lambda light chain ratio, CD10:CD19 coexpression, CD5:CD19 coexpression, CD4:CD8 ratios and CD7 loss were summarised for histological pattern, concomitant diseases and follow-up course...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916112/a-novel-mimovirus-encoding-chga10-19-peptide-with-pd-l1-induces-t-cell-tolerance-and-ameliorates-the-severity-of-diabetes
#11
Hong Sun, Xiaoguang Han, Xiuhui Yan, Jingli Xu, Qiujing Huang, Fanqing Meng, Hongjin Zhang, Shufa Li
Related studies demonstrate that type 1 diabetes (T1D) is caused by β-cell antigen specific autoreactive CD8+ T cells. ChgA has recently been identified as the autoantigen in NOD mice and T1D patients. Therefore, attenuating the activation of ChgA specific CD8+ T cells might be a promising target for T1D therapy. The negative co-stimulatory PD-L1 inhibits T cell mediated alloimmunity and induces tolerance. In this experiment, a novel mimovirus encoding ChgA10-19 peptide with PD-L1 was constructed. The NOD...
September 7, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915695/evaluation-of-intracavitary-administration-of-curcumin-for-the-treatment-of-sarcomatoid-mesothelioma
#12
Daniel L Pouliquen, Béatrice Nawrocki-Raby, Joëlle Nader, Stéphanie Blandin, Myriam Robard, Philippe Birembaut, Marc Grégoire
A rat model of sarcomatoid mesothelioma, mimicking some of the worst clinical conditions encountered, was established to evaluate the therapeutic potential of intracavitary curcumin administration. The M5-T1 cell line, selected from a collection established from F344 rats induced with asbestos, produces tumors within three weeks, with extended metastasis in normal tissues, after intraperitoneal inoculation in syngeneic rats. The optimal concentration/time conditions for killing M5-T1 cells with curcumin were first determined in vitro...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915679/prognostic-role-of-tumor-infiltrating-lymphocytes-in-gastric-cancer-a-meta-analysis
#13
Xiao Zheng, Xing Song, Yingjie Shao, Bin Xu, Lujun Chen, Qi Zhou, Wenwei Hu, Dachuan Zhang, Changping Wu, Min Tao, Yibei Zhu, Jingting Jiang
BACKGROUND: In patients with gastric cancer, the prognostic value of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) is still controversial. A meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the prognostic value of TILs in gastric cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identify studies from PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library to assess the prognostic effect of TILs in patients with gastric cancer. Fixed-effects models or random-effects models were used estimate the pooled hazard ratios (HRs) for overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS), which depend on the heterogeneity...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915590/combination-of-desi2-and-ip10-gene-therapy-significantly-improves-therapeutic-efficacy-against-murine-carcinoma
#14
Chao Lin, HuaYing Yan, Jun Yang, Lei Li, Mei Tang, Xinyu Zhao, Chunlai Nie, Na Luo, Yuquan Wei, Zhu Yuan
DESI2 (also known as PNAS-4) is a novel pro-apoptotic gene activated during the early response to DNA damage. We previously reported that overexpression of DESI2 induces S phase arrest and apoptosis by activating checkpoint kinases. The present study was designed to test whether combination of DESI2 and IP10 could improve the therapy efficacy in vitro and in vivo. The recombinant plasmid co-expressing DESI2 and IP10 was encapsulated with DOTAP/Cholesterol nanoparticle. Immunocompetent mice bearing CT26 colon carcinoma and LL2 lung cancer were treated with the complex...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915576/hepatic-b-cell-leukemia-3-suppresses-chemically-induced-hepatocarcinogenesis-in-mice-through-altered-mapk-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation
#15
Nadine Gehrke, Marcus A Wörns, Amrit Mann, Yvonne Huber, Nadine Hoevelmeyer, Thomas Longerich, Ari Waisman, Peter R Galle, Jörn M Schattenberg
The transcriptional nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB)-coactivator B cell leukemia-3 (Bcl-3) is a molecular regulator of cell death and proliferation. Bcl-3 has been shown to be widely expressed in different cancer types including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Its influence on hepatocarcinogenesis is still undetermined. To examine the role of Bcl-3 in hepatocarcinogenesis mice with hepatocyte-specific overexpression of Bcl-3 (Bcl-3(Hep)) were exposed to diethylnitrosamine (DEN) and phenobarbital (PB). Hepatic Bcl-3 overexpression attenuated DEN/PB-induced hepatocarcinogenesis...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915554/resistance-to-ctla-4-checkpoint-inhibition-reversed-through-selective-elimination-of-granulocytic-myeloid-cells
#16
Paul E Clavijo, Ellen C Moore, Jianhong Chen, Ruth J Davis, Jay Friedman, Young Kim, Carter Van Waes, Zhong Chen, Clint T Allen
PURPOSE: Local immunosuppression remains a critical problem that limits clinically meaningful response to checkpoint inhibition in patients with head and neck cancer. Here, we assessed the impact of MDSC elimination on responses to CTLA-4 checkpoint inhibition. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Murine syngeneic carcinoma immune infiltrates were characterized by flow cytometry. Granulocytic MDSCs (gMDSCs) were depleted and T-lymphocyte antigen-specific responses were measured...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915327/adipose-tissue-in-hiv-infection
#17
John R Koethe
HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) treatment exert diverse effects on adipocytes and stromal-vascular fraction cells, leading to changes in adipose tissue quantity, distribution, and energy storage. A HIV-associated lipodystrophic condition was recognized early in the epidemic, characterized by clinically apparent changes in subcutaneous, visceral, and dorsocervical adipose depots. Underlying these changes is altered adipose tissue morphology and expression of genes central to adipocyte maturation, regulation, metabolism, and cytokine signaling...
September 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914581/circulating-lymphocyte-levels-and-relationship-with-infection-status-in-patients-with-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis-treated-with-daclizumab-beta
#18
Gavin Giovannoni, Heinz Wiendl, Benjamin Turner, Kimberly Umans, Oksana Mokliatchouk, Wanda Castro-Borrero, Steven J Greenberg, Peter McCroskery, Giorgio Giannattasio
BACKGROUND: Reversible lymphocyte count reductions have occurred following daclizumab beta treatment for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. OBJECTIVE: To analyse total and differential lymphocyte levels and relationship with infection status. METHODS: In DECIDE, blood samples were collected at 12-week intervals from daclizumab beta- ( n = 919) or intramuscular interferon beta-1a-treated ( n = 922) patients. Infections/serious infections were assessed proximate to grade 2/3 lymphopenia or low CD4(+)/CD8(+) T-cell counts...
September 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914200/development-of-peptide-vaccines-in-dengue
#19
Kavita Reginald, Yanqi Chan, Magdalena Plebanski, Chit Laa Poh
Dengue is one of the most important arboviral infection worldwide, infecting up to 390 million people and causing 25,000 deaths annually. Although a licensed dengue vaccine is available, it is not efficacious against dengue serotypes that infect people living in South East Asia, where dengue is an endemic disease. Hence, there is an urgent need to develop an efficient dengue vaccine for this region. Data from different clinical trials indicate that a successful dengue vaccine must elicit both neutralizing antibodies and cell mediated immunity...
September 13, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914079/co-infection-of-human-herpesvirus-type-2-hhv-2-and-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-among-pregnant-women-in-rio-de-janeiro-brazil
#20
Lyana Rodrigues Pinto Lima, Luis Eduardo Barros Costa Fernandes, Daniel A M Villela, Mariza Gonçalves Morgado, José Henrique Pilotto, Vanessa Salete de Paula
Pregnant women who are infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) are particularly vulnerable to severe and recurrent infections with Human Herpesvirus 2 (HHV-2). Neonatal transmission of HHV-2 has been associated with malformations and neurological sequelae in infants, which makes it very important to perform antenatal monitoring for genital herpes. In the study, 134 pregnant women infected with HIV were tested for HHV-2 IgM and IgG using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and had HHV-2 DNA analyzed by Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR)...
September 15, 2017: AIDS Care
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