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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531813/immunomodulatory-function-of-whole-human-umbilical-cord-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#1
Hao Zhang, Yanling Tao, Haihui Liu, Saisai Ren, Bin Zhang, Hu Chen
Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) play a critical role in immune modulation. However, immunomodulatory function of whole human umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) remains unclear. In this study, UC-MSCs were separated from whole umbilical cord using a single enzyme digestion. UC-MSCs (CD73(+), CD90(+), CD105(+), and CD34(-), CD45(-), HLA-DR(-)) were differentiated into adipocytes, osteocytes and chondrocytes in vitro under specific stimulatory environments. UC-MSCs suppressed umbilical cord blood lymphocyte proliferation stimulated by mitogen, and ELISA showed that the secretion of INF-γ was downregulated, and the secretion of IL-4 was upregulated, with CD8(+) T cells markedly decreased and CD4(+) T cells changed lightly...
May 19, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530714/cd8%C3%AE-%C3%AE-intraepithelial-lymphocytes-arise-from-two-main-thymic-precursors
#2
Roland Ruscher, Rebecca L Kummer, You Jeong Lee, Stephen C Jameson, Kristin A Hogquist
TCRαβ(+)CD4(-)CD8α(+)CD8β(-) intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (CD8αα IELs) are an abundant population of thymus-derived T cells that protect the gut barrier surface. We sought to better define the thymic IEL precursor (IELp) through analysis of its maturation, localization and emigration. We defined two precursor populations among TCRβ(+)CD4(-)CD8(-) thymocytes by dependence on the kinase TAK1 and rigorous lineage-exclusion criteria. Those IELp populations included a nascent PD-1(+) population and a T-bet(+) population that accumulated with age...
May 22, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530712/the-microrna-mir-31-inhibits-cd8-t-cell-function-in-chronic-viral-infection
#3
Howell F Moffett, Adam N R Cartwright, Hye-Jung Kim, Jernej Godec, Jason Pyrdol, Tarmo Äijö, Gustavo J Martinez, Anjana Rao, Jun Lu, Todd R Golub, Harvey Cantor, Arlene H Sharpe, Carl D Novina, Kai W Wucherpfennig
During infection, antigen-specific T cells undergo tightly regulated developmental transitions controlled by transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. We found that the microRNA miR-31 was strongly induced by activation of the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) in a pathway involving calcium and activation of the transcription factor NFAT. During chronic infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) clone 13, miR-31-deficent mice recovered from clinical disease, while wild-type mice continued to show signs of disease...
May 22, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530241/notch-mediated-conversion-of-activated-t-cells-into-stem-cell-memory-like-t-cells-for-adoptive-immunotherapy
#4
Taisuke Kondo, Rimpei Morita, Yuumi Okuzono, Hiroko Nakatsukasa, Takashi Sekiya, Shunsuke Chikuma, Takashi Shichita, Mitsuhiro Kanamori, Masato Kubo, Keiko Koga, Takahiro Miyazaki, Yoshiaki Kassai, Akihiko Yoshimura
Adoptive T-cell immunotherapy is a promising approach to cancer therapy. Stem cell memory T (TSCM) cells have been proposed as a class of long-lived and highly proliferative memory T cells. CD8(+) TSCM cells can be generated in vitro from naive CD8(+) T cells via Wnt signalling; however, methods do not yet exist for inducing TSCM cells from activated or memory T cells. Here, we show a strategy for generating TSCM-like cells in vitro (iTSCM cells) from activated CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in mice and humans by coculturing with stromal cells that express a Notch ligand...
May 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530155/an-oncolytic-adenovirus-encoding-decorin-and-gm-csf-inhibits-tumor-growth-in-a-colorectal-tumor-model-by-targeting-pro-tumorigenic-signals-and-via-immune-activation
#5
Zhao Liu, Yuefeng Yang, Xiaoyan Zhang, Hao Wang, Weidong Xu, Hua Wang, FengJun Xiao, Zhigang Bai, Hongwei Yao, Xuemei Ma, Lan Jin, Chu-Tse Wu, Prem Seth, Zhongtao Zhang, Lisheng Wang
In advanced and metastatic stages of colorectal cancer (CRC), reduced sensitivity to conventional strategies is still a major obstacle to successful treatments. Decorin is an important regulator in the development and progression of various cancers. To examine if CRC patients have altered decorin levels, expression of decorin and its target genes, Met and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) were analyzed in their tumors. Compared to normal tissues, decorin expression was reduced in CRC patients' tumors, while, there were increased Met and VEGFA levels...
May 20, 2017: Human Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529928/the-probiotic-compound-vsl-3-modulates-mucosal-peripheral-and-systemic-immunity-following-murine-broad-spectrum-antibiotic-treatment
#6
Ira Ekmekciu, Eliane von Klitzing, Ulrike Fiebiger, Christian Neumann, Petra Bacher, Alexander Scheffold, Stefan Bereswill, Markus M Heimesaat
There is compelling evidence linking the commensal intestinal microbiota with host health and, in turn, antibiotic induced perturbations of microbiota composition with distinct pathologies. Despite the attractiveness of probiotic therapy as a tool to beneficially alter the intestinal microbiota, its immunological effects are still incompletely understood. The aim of the present study was to assess the efficacy of the probiotic formulation VSL#3 consisting of eight distinct bacterial species (including Streptococcus thermophilus, Bifidobacterium breve, B...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529646/peptide-vaccination-in-the-presence-of-adjuvants-in-patients-after-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-with-cd4-t-cell-reconstitution-elicits-consistent-cd8-t-cell-responses
#7
Michael Schmitt, Anita Schmitt, Markus Wiesneth, Angela Hückelhoven, Zeguang Wu, Jürgen Kuball, Lei Wang, Peter Schauwecker, Susanne Hofmann, Marlies Götz, Birgit Michels, Birgit Maccari, Patrick Wuchter, Volker Eckstein, Thomas Mertens, Paul Schnitzler, Hartmut Döhner, Anthony D Ho, Donald W Bunjes, Peter Dreger, Hubert Schrezenmeier, Jochen Greiner
Rationale: Patients receiving an allogeneic stem cell graft from cytomegalovirus (CMV) seronegative donors are particularly prone to CMV reactivation with a high risk of disease and mortality. Therefore we developed and manufactured a novel vaccine and initiated a clinical phase I trial with a CMV phosphoprotein 65 (CMVpp65)-derived peptide. Methods: Ten patients after allogeneic stem cell transplantation received four vaccinations at a biweekly interval. All patients were monitored for CMVpp65 antigenemia...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529575/japanese-kampo-medicine-ninjin-yoeito-synergistically-enhances-tumor-vaccine-effects-mediated-by-cd8-t-cells
#8
Shun Takaku, Masumi Shimizu, Hidemi Takahashi
Although Japanese traditional herbal medicine (Kampo) has been widely applied to the treatment of various diseases, including cancer, their mechanisms of action have not yet been elucidated in detail, particularly regarding their role in tumor immunology. The present study investigated the antitumor effects of the Japanese Kampo medicine, ninjin'yoeito (NYT; Ren-Shen-Yang-Rong-Tang in Chinese), which was orally administered with or without an irradiated tumor cell vaccine to a subcutaneous CT26 colon carcinoma tumor model...
May 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529323/an-immunogenic-phenotype-in-paternal-antigen-specific-cd8-t-cells-at-embryo-implantation-elicits-later-fetal-loss-in-mice
#9
Lachlan M Moldenhauer, Kerrilyn R Diener, John D Hayball, Sarah A Robertson
Central to pregnancy success is a state of T cell tolerance to paternal antigens, which is initiated at conception. The role and regulation of specific phenotypes of CD8(+) T cells in mediating pregnancy tolerance is not clear. This study aimed to investigate the impact on pregnancy outcome of altering the cytokine environment during maternal CD8(+) T cell priming in early pregnancy. Transgenic Act-mOVA male mice were mated to C57BL/6 (B6) females to generate fetuses expressing ovalbumin (OVA) as a model paternal antigen...
May 22, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529105/psme3-induces-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-with-inducing-the-expression-of-csc-markers-and-immunosuppression-in-breast-cancer
#10
Ziying Yi, Dejuan Yang, Xuelian Liao, Fuchun Guo, Yongsheng Wang, Xiaoyi Wang
Proteasome activator subunit 3 (PSME3) plays a key role in breast cancer by regulating the cell cycle. However, its role in other pathogenesis-related features of breast cancer is unclear. In this study, we found that overexpression of PSME3 induced the epithelial-mesenchymal transition and contributed to induce the expression of cancer stem cell markers of the MDA-MB-231 cell line, thus increasing the migration, and invasion of the cells. Moreover, overexpression of PSME3 reduced the chemotaxis of CD8(+) T cells and induced the apoptosis of T cells in vitro...
May 18, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529001/a-single-intranasal-administration-of-virus-like-particle-vaccine-induces-an-efficient-protection-for-mice-against-human-respiratory-syncytial-virus
#11
Yue-Ying Jiao, Yuan-Hui Fu, Yi-Fei Yan, Ying Hua, Yao Ma, Xiu-Juan Zhang, Jing-Dong Song, Xiang-Lei Peng, Jiaqiang Huang, Tao Hong, Jin-Sheng He
Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important pediatric pathogen causing acute viral respiratory disease in infants and young children. However, no licensed vaccines are currently available. Virus-like particles (VLPs) may bring new hope to producing RSV VLP vaccine with high immunogenicity and safety. Here, we constructed the recombinants of matrix protein (M) and fusion glycoprotein (F) of RSV, respectively into a replication-deficient first-generation adenoviral vector (FGAd), which were used to co-infect Vero cells to assemble RSV VLPs successfully...
May 18, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528219/the-ongoing-saga-of-the-mechanism-s-of-mhc-class-i-restricted-cross-presentation
#12
Jeff E Grotzke, Debrup Sengupta, Qiao Lu, Peter Cresswell
Cross-presentation is an MHC-I antigen processing pathway that results in the presentation of peptides from exogenous viral, bacterial, parasitic, and tumor antigens and ultimately leads to priming of naïve CD8(+) T cells. This process involves several cellular compartments and multiple components. Successful generation of MHC-I-peptide complexes requires that these components act together in a coordinated fashion. We discuss recent findings on the source of MHC-I, the role of the TAP transporter, the importance of intracellular trafficking events, mechanisms of antigen access the cytosol, and how innate immune signals can affect presentation, with an emphasis on how these pathways compare to conventional antigen presentation and how they correlate with existing data...
May 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527686/local-innate-responses-and-protective-immunity-after-intradermal-immunization-with-bovine-viral-diarrhea-virus-e2-protein-formulated-with-a-combination-adjuvant-in-cattle
#13
Sams M A Sadat, Marlene Snider, Ravendra Garg, Robert Brownlie, Sylvia van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is one of the most serious pathogens in cattle. Recently, we developed a novel adjuvant platform (TriAdj) that includes a toll-like receptor 3 agonist, poly (I:C); an innate defense regulatory peptide; and water-soluble polymer, poly[di(sodiumcarboxylatoethylphenoxy)]-phosphazene (PCEP). To develop a needle-free intradermal (ID) subunit vaccine, the BVDV type-2 E2 protein was formulated with TriAdj, and immune protection was evaluated in calves against a BVDV-2 strain. Intradermal delivery of E2/TriAdj elicited robust virus neutralizing antibodies and cell-mediated immune responses including CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell responses...
May 17, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527162/evaluation-of-the-association-between-cd4-cd8-and-cd25-cell-counts-and-sle-in-active-disease-and-in-remission
#14
Archana Sonawale, Vinay Bohara, L S Bichile
AIM: To evaluate the correlation between the levels of CD4, CD8 and CD25 cells and SLE disease in active phase and in remission. METHODS: A total of 25 SLE patients, aged between 18-60 years, and fulfilling the ACR criteria with preferential Renal and CNS involvement were included in this study. Baseline CD4/CD8 and CD25 counts, lab parameters etc were conducted. Approximately at the end of 6 months with the settlement of the disease activity blood sample was drawn for the CD4, CD8 and CD25 counts and other lab parameters...
April 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526759/il-2-high-tissue-resident-t-cells-in-the-human-liver-sentinels-for-hepatotropic-infection
#15
Laura J Pallett, Jessica Davies, Emily J Colbeck, Francis Robertson, Navjyot Hansi, Nicholas J W Easom, Alice R Burton, Kerstin A Stegmann, Anna Schurich, Leo Swadling, Upkar S Gill, Victoria Male, TuVinh Luong, Amir Gander, Brian R Davidson, Patrick T F Kennedy, Mala K Maini
The liver provides a tolerogenic immune niche exploited by several highly prevalent pathogens as well as by primary and metastatic tumors. We have sampled healthy and hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected human livers to probe for a subset of T cells specialized to overcome local constraints and mediate immunity. We characterize a population of T-bet(lo)Eomes(lo)Blimp-1(hi)Hobit(lo) T cells found within the intrahepatic but not the circulating memory CD8 T cell pool expressing liver-homing/retention markers (CD69(+)CD103(+) CXCR6(+)CXCR3(+))...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525888/combination-of-desi2-and-ip10-gene-therapy-significantly-improves-therapeutic-efficacy-against-murine-carcinoma
#16
Chao Lin, HuaYing Yan, Jun Yang, Lei Li, Mei Tang, Xinyu Zhao, Chunlai Nie, Na Luo, Yuquan Wei, Zhu Yuan
DESI2 (also known as PNAS-4) is a novel pro-apoptotic gene activated during the early response to DNA damage. We previously reported that overexpression of DESI2 induces S phase arrest and apoptosis by activating checkpoint kinases. The present study was designed to test whether combination of DESI2 and IP10 could improve the therapy efficacy in vitro and in vivo. The recombinant plasmid co-expressing DESI2 and IP10 was encapsulated with DOTAP/Cholesterol nanoparticle. Immunocompetent mice bearing CT26 colon carcinoma and LL2 lung cancer were treated with the complex...
May 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525856/oleuropein-prevents-the-development-of-experimental-autoimmune-myocarditis-in-rats
#17
Jia-Ying Zhang, Zheng Yang, Kun Fang, Zhan-Li Shi, Dan-Hong Ren, Jing Sun
Oleuropein (OLE) is a natural secoiridoid that is derived from Olea europaea. OLE possesses cardioprotective effects in experimental models of hypertension, myocardial infarction, atherosclerosis and hyperlipidaemia. In the present study, the effects of OLE on experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) were evaluated. EAM in rats were induced by subcutaneous injections of porcine cardiac myosin. Cardiac function parameters, myocardial pathology, myocardial inflammatory cell infiltration and nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) expression were measured...
May 16, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525366/mesenchymal-stem-cell-carriers-enhance-antitumor-efficacy-of-oncolytic-adenoviruses-in-an-immunocompetent-mouse-model
#18
Esther Rincón, Teresa Cejalvo, Deepak Kanojia, Arantzazu Alfranca, Miguel Ángel Rodríguez-Milla, Raul Andrés Gil Hoyos, Yu Han, Lingjiao Zhang, Ramón Alemany, Maciej S Lesniak, Javier García-Castro
Oncolytic virotherapy represents a promising alternative for cancer treatment; however, viral delivery to the tumor represents a major challenge. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) chemotax to tumors, and can serve as a viral delivery tool. Previously, we demonstrated antitumor therapeutic efficacy for mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) infected with the oncolytic human adenovirus ICOVIR5 (Celyvir) for treatment of neuroblastoma patients. Given the lack of suitable immunocompetent preclinical models, the mechanism underlying Celyvir antitumor activity remains unknown...
May 2, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525344/morphometric-abnormalities-in-spleen-and-kidney-of-the-progeny-of-mice-fed-american-cranberry-extract-vaccinium-macrocarpon-during-pregnancy-and-lactation
#19
B J Bałan, S Lewicki, A K Siwicki, M Stelmasiak, P Skopiński, E Skopińska-Różewska, A Wasiutyński, R Zdanowski
Cranberries and cranberry-derived diet supplements are often recommended for the treatment of urinary tract infections, also during pregnancy. These products contain strongly anti-angiogenic chemical compounds which could not be indifferent to the developing fetus. In the present work we evaluated the effect of feeding pregnant and lactating mice American cranberry extract (daily dose 0.88 mg) on the morphology and some parameters of spleen and kidney function of their adult progeny. Six weeks after delivery the morphometry of spleen and kidney, cytometric analysis of spleen lymphocytes, evaluation of humoral response to SRBC (Sheep Red Blood Cells), and examination of serum creatinine/urea concentration, were performed in the offspring...
March 28, 2017: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524767/immune-biomarkers-in-older-adults-role-of-physical-activity
#20
Vanessa Valdiglesias, María Sánchez-Flores, Ana Maseda, Laura Lorenzo-López, Diego Marcos-Pérez, Ana López-Cortón, Barbara Strasser, Dietmar Fuchs, Blanca Laffon, José C Millán-Calenti, Eduardo Pásaro
Aging is associated with a decline in the normal functioning of the immune system. Several studies described the relationship between immunological alterations, including immunosenescence and inflammation, and aging or age-related outcomes, such as sarcopenia, depression, and neurodegenerative disorders. Physical activity is known to improve muscle function and to exert a number of benefits on older adult health, including reduced risk for heart and metabolic system chronic diseases. However, the positive influence of physical activity on the immune system has not been elucidated...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
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