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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905696/the-curative-effect-of-early-use-of-enteral-immunonutrition-in-postoperative-gastric-cancer-a-meta-analysis
#1
Hu Qiang, Lu Hang, Sun Y Shui
INTRODUCTION: It's uncertain about the clinical efficacy which early enteral immunonutrition in postoperative gastric cancer patients,and this study attempts to assess its clinical efficacy. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Use the search engine database incuding the Pubmed,the Cochrane library, Web of Science, Medline,and Embase,which there are comparative studies of early efficacy of enteral immune nutrition and standard enteral nutrition after gastric cancer operation.According to the studies,we use the RevMan 5...
December 1, 2016: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905403/infusion-with-human-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-improves-%C3%AE-cell-function-in-patients-and-non-obese-mice-with-severe-diabetes
#2
Lirong Li, Hui Hui, Xiaolei Jia, Jie Zhang, Ying Liu, Qianyue Xu, Dalong Zhu
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transplantation is a promising therapeutic strategy for type 1 diabetes (T1D). However, little is known on whether MSC transplantation can benefit T1D patients with ketoacidosis and its potential actions. Here, we show that infusion with bone marrow MSCs preserves β-cell function in some T1D patients with ketoacidosis by decreasing exogenous insulin requirement and increasing plasma C-peptide levels up to 1-2 years. MSC transplantation increased plasma and islet insulin contents in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice with severe diabetes...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904768/combined-vegfr-and-ctla-4-blockade-increases-the-antigen-presenting-function-of-intratumoral-dcs-and-reduces-the-suppressive-capacity-of-intratumoral-mdscs
#3
Stephanie Du Four, Sarah K Maenhout, Simone P Niclou, Kris Thielemans, Bart Neyns, Joeri L Aerts
Melanoma brain metastases (MBM) occur in 10% to 50% of melanoma patients. They are often associated with a high morbidity and despite the improvements in the treatment of advanced melanoma, including immunotherapy, patients with MBM still have a poor prognosis. Antiangiogenic treatment was shown to reduce the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. Therefore we investigated the effect of the combination of VEGFR- and CTLA-4 blockade on the immune cells within the tumor microenvironment. In this study we investigated the effect of the combination of axitinib, a TKI against VEGFR-1, -2 and -3, with therapeutic inhibition of CTLA-4 in subcutaneous and intracranial mouse melanoma models...
2016: American Journal of Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904530/blockade-of-il-23-ameliorates-allergic-lung-inflammation-via-decreasing-the-infiltration-of-tc17-cells
#4
Sheng Cheng, Huilong Chen, Aili Wang, Hansvin Bunjhoo, Yong Cao, Jungang Xie, Yongjian Xu, Weining Xiong
INTRODUCTION: Tc17 cells are interleukin (IL)-17-producing CD8(+) T cells and have been found to participate in the development of allergic asthma. Interleukin-23 is a cytokine that may be involved in modulating the IL-17 response via Th17 cells. This study aimed to investigate whether IL-23 also has immunomodulatory effects on Tc17 cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An allergic asthmatic mouse model was induced by sensitizing and challenging with ovalbumin (OVA). Anti-IL-23 antibody was administered intratracheally before challenge to the OVA-induced asthmatic mouse model...
December 1, 2016: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903862/improved-cancer-immunotherapy-by-a-cd25-mimobody-conferring-selectivity-to-human-interleukin-2
#5
Natalia Arenas-Ramirez, Chao Zou, Simone Popp, Daniel Zingg, Barbara Brannetti, Emmanuelle Wirth, Thomas Calzascia, Jiri Kovarik, Lukas Sommer, Gerhard Zenke, Janine Woytschak, Catherine H Regnier, Andreas Katopodis, Onur Boyman
Interleukin-2 (IL-2) immunotherapy is an attractive approach in treating advanced cancer. However, by binding to its IL-2 receptor α (CD25) subunit, IL-2 exerts unwanted effects, including stimulation of immunosuppressive regulatory T cells (Tregs) and contribution to vascular leak syndrome. We used a rational approach to develop a monoclonal antibody to human IL-2, termed NARA1, which acts as a high-affinity CD25 mimic, thereby minimizing association of IL-2 with CD25. The structure of the IL-2-NARA1 complex revealed that NARA1 occupies the CD25 epitope of IL-2 and precisely overlaps with CD25...
November 30, 2016: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903740/protective-t-cell-responses-featured-by-concordant-recognition-of-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-derived-cd8-t-cell-epitopes-and-host-mhc
#6
William J Liu, Jiaming Lan, Kefang Liu, Yao Deng, Yanfeng Yao, Shaolian Wu, Hong Chen, Lingling Bao, Haifeng Zhang, Min Zhao, Qihui Wang, Lingxia Han, Yan Chai, Jianxun Qi, Jincun Zhao, Songdong Meng, Chuan Qin, George F Gao, Wenjie Tan
The coordinated recognition of virus-derived T cell epitopes and MHC molecules by T cells plays a pivotal role in cellular immunity-mediated virus clearance. It has been demonstrated that the conformation of MHC class I (MHC I) molecules can be adjusted by the presented peptide, which impacts T cell activation. However, it is still largely unknown whether the conformational shift of MHC I influences the protective effect of virus-specific T cells. In this study, utilizing the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus-infected mouse model, we observed that through the unusual secondary anchor Ile5, a CD8(+) T cell epitope drove the conformational fit of Trp(73) on the α1 helix of murine MHC I H-2K(d) In vitro renaturation and circular dichroism assays indicated that this shift of the structure did not influence the peptide/MHC I binding affinity...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903649/structural-mechanism-underpinning-cross-reactivity-of-a-cd8-t-cell-clone-that-recognises-a-peptide-derived-from-human-telomerase-reverse-transcriptase
#7
David K Cole, Hugo A van den Berg, Angharad Lloyd, Michael D Crowther, Konrad Beck, Julia Ekeruche-Makinde, John J Miles, Anna M Bulek, Garry Dolton, Andrea J Schauenburg, Aaron Wall, Anna Fuller, Mathew Clement, Bruno Laugel, Pierre J Rizkallah, Linda Wooldridge, Andrew K Sewell
T-cell cross-reactivity is essential for effective immune surveillance, but has also been implicated as a pathway to autoimmunity. Previous studies have demonstrated that T-cell receptors (TCRs) that focus on a minimal motif within the peptide are able to facilitate a high level of T-cell cross-reactivity. However, the structural database shows that most TCRs exhibit less focussed antigen binding involving contact with more peptide residues. To further explore the structural features that allow the clonally expressed TCR to functionally engage with multiple peptide-major histocompatibility complexes (pMHCs), we examined the ILA1 CD8+ T-cell clone that responds to a peptide sequence derived from human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT)...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903271/differential-humoral-and-cellular-immunity-induced-by-vaccination-using-plasmid-dna-and-protein-recombinant-expressing-the-ns3-protein-of-dengue-virus-type-3
#8
M L Hurtado-Melgoza, A Ramos-Ligonio, L M Álvarez-Rodríguez, T Meza-Menchaca, A López-Monteon
BACKGROUND: The dengue non-structural 3 (NS3) is a multifunctional protein, containing a serine-protease domain, located at the N-terminal portion, and helicase, NTPase and RTPase domains present in the C-terminal region. This protein is considered the main target for CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses during dengue infection, which may be involved in protection. However, few studies have been undertaken evaluating the use of this protein as a protective antigen against dengue, as well as other flavivirus...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903079/preclinical-evaluation-of-a-replication-deficient-recombinant-adenovirus-serotype-5-vaccine-expressing-guanylate-cyclase-c-and-the-padre-t-helper-epitope
#9
Adam Eugene Snook, Trevor R Baybutt, Terry Hyslop, Scott Arthur Waldman
There is an unmet need for improved therapeutics for colorectal cancer, the second leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Adjuvant chemotherapy only marginally improves survival in some patients, and has no benefit in others, underscoring the clinical opportunity for novel immunotherapeutic approaches to improve survival in colorectal cancer. In that context, guanylate cyclase C (GUCY2C) is an established biomarker and therapeutic target for metastatic colorectal cancer with immunological characteristics that promote durable antitumor efficacy without autoimmunity...
November 30, 2016: Human Gene Therapy Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902485/impacts-of-cigarette-smoking-on-immune-responsiveness-up-and-down-or-upside-down
#10
REVIEW
Feifei Qiu, Chun-Ling Liang, Huazhen Liu, Yu-Qun Zeng, Shaozhen Hou, Song Huang, Xiaoping Lai, Zhenhua Dai
Cigarette smoking is associated with numerous diseases and poses a serious challenge to the current healthcare system worldwide. Smoking impacts both innate and adaptive immunity and plays dual roles in regulating immunity by either exacerbation of pathogenic immune responses or attenuation of defensive immunity. Adaptive immune cells affected by smoking mainly include T helper cells (Th1/Th2/Th17), CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells, CD8+ T cells, B cells and memory T/B lymphocytes while innate immune cells impacted by smoking are mostly DCs, macrophages and NK cells...
November 25, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902386/establishment-of-memory-cd8-t-cells-with-live-attenuated-influenza-virus-laiv-across-different-vaccination-doses
#11
Zhongfang Wang, Lukasz Kedzierska, Simone Nuessing, Brendon Chua, Sergio M Quiñones-Parra, Victor C Huber, David Jackson, Paul G Thomas, Katherine Kedzierska
FluMist has been used in children and adults for more than ten years. As pre-existing CD8+ T-cell memory pools can provide heterologous immunity against distinct influenza viruses, it is important to understand influenza-specific CD8+ T-cell responses elicited by different LAIV regimens. In this study, we immunized mice intranasally (i.n.) with two different doses of live-attenuated PR8 virus (PR8 ts, H1N1), low and high, and then assessed protective efficacy by challenging animals with heterosubtypic X31-H3N2 virus at 6 weeks post-vaccination...
November 2, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902371/mapping-b-lymphocytes-as-major-reservoirs-of-naturally-occurring-latent-equine-herpesvirus-5-infection
#12
Zelalem Mekuria, Charles El Hage, Nino P Ficorilli, Elizabeth A Washington, James R Gilkerson, Carol Hartley
Equine herpesvirus 5 (EHV5) is a commonly detected gammaherpesvirus which, along with the closely related EHV2, constitute the only two known Percaviruses that infect horses. Apart from detection in horse populations worldwide and the recent publication of the whole genome, there is little known about the biology and pathogenesis of this virus, with many assumptions made by parallels with EHV2. The long-term survival of gammaherpesviruses within infected hosts involves the establishment and maintenance of latency in selected cell and tissues types, particularly lymphocytes...
November 30, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902344/pre-infection-transcript-levels-of-fam26f-in-pbmcs-inform-about-overall-plasma-viral-load-in-acute-and-postacute-phase-after-siv-infection
#13
Aneela Javed, Nicole Leuchte, Gabriela Salinas, Lennart Opitz, Christiane Stahl-Hennig, Sieghart Sopper, Ulrike Sauermann
CD8+ cells from simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected long-term non-progressors and some uninfected macaques can suppress viral replication in vitro without killing the infected cells. The aim of the study was to identify factors responsible for non-cytolytic viral suppression by transcriptional profiling and to investigate their potential impact on SIV-replication. Results of microarray experiments and further validation with cells from infected and uninfected macaques revealed that FAM26F RNA levels distinguished CD8+ cells of controllers and non-controllers (p=0...
October 18, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902325/targeting-naturally-occurring-epitope-variants-of-hepatitis-c-virus-with-high-affinity-t-cell-receptors
#14
Huajun Zhang, Jianbing Zhang, Lei Chen, Zhiming Weng, Ye Tian, Haifeng Zhao, Youjia Li, Lin Chen, Zhaoduan Liang, Hongjun Zheng, Wenzhuo Zhao, Shi Zhong, Yi Li
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) readily establishes chronic infection, which is characterized by failure of virus-specific CD8+ T cells. HCV uses epitope mutation and T-cell exhaustion to escape from the host immune response. Previously, we engineered high-affinity T-cell receptors (HATs) targeting HIV escape mutants. In this study, the affinity of a T-cell receptor specific for the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A2-restricted HCV immunodominant epitope NS3 1406-1415 (KLVALGINAV) was improved from a KD of 6.6 µM to 40 pM...
November 11, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900586/role-of-prolactin-in-promotion-of-immune-cell-migration-into-the-mammary-gland
#15
Riva Dill, Ameae M Walker
Immune cells in the mammary gland play a number of important roles, including protection against infection during lactation and, after passing into milk, modulation of offspring immunity. However, little is known about the mechanism of recruitment of immune cells to the lactating gland in the absence of infection. Given the importance of prolactin to other aspects of lactation, we hypothesized it would also play a role in immune cell recruitment. Prolactin treatment of adult female mice for a period equivalent to pregnancy and the first week of lactation increased immune cell flux through the mammary gland, as reflected in the number of immune cells in mammary gland-draining, but not other lymph nodes...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900018/influence-of-ezrin-shrna-in-combination-with-hsp70-on-the-apoptosis-and-proliferation-of-osteosarcoma-cells
#16
Qin Yao, Yihua Pei, Huiqin Zhuo, Bozhen Xie
Ezrin and heat shock protein (HSP)70 have been reported to regulate cell apoptosis and tumor development of osteosarcoma. However, there has not been reported the synergy effect of knocking down ezrin and overexpressing HSP70. In the present study, two vectors, pGFP-V-RS-shRNA and pGFP-V-RS-shRNA-HSP70, were constructed and transfected into LM8 cells [denoted as small hairpin (sh)RNA group and dual group, respectively]. The apoptosis rates in these two transfected groups were significantly higher than those in the control group (empty vector) (P=0...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899981/the-effect-and-clinical-efficacy-of-lienal-polypeptide-injection-combined-with-folfox-chemotherapy-regimen-in-colon-cancer-patients
#17
Juan Zhou, Guoping Niu, Yunfeng Pei, Chunping Cao, Chen Ding, Guangming Sun, Jing Guo, Yong Liu, Yang Yu
The aim was to investigate the clinical efficacy and immunomodulatory effect of lienal polypeptide injection combined with postoperative FOLFOX chemotherapy regimen in colon cancer patients. A total of 84 colon cancer patients were selected between January, 2014 and December, 2015. The selected patients were randomly divided into the observation (42 patients) and control (42 patients) groups. The observation group patients were treated with FOLFOX chemotherapy regimen combined with lienal polypeptide, whereas, the control group patients were treated with FOLFOX chemotherapeutic regimen only...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899739/impact-of-immune-deficiency-on-remodeling-of-maternal-resistance-vasculature-4-weeks-postpartum-in-mice
#18
Elizabeth A Bonney, Ann Howard, Kendall Krebs, Kelly Begin, Kelsey Veilleux, Natalia I Gokina
Pregnancy manifests changes in the vascular and immune systems that persist postpartum (PP), have important implications for future pregnancies, and may modify responses to cardiovascular stress in late life. The association between immune and vascular function and the generation or progression of cardiovascular disease beg the question of whether altered immunity modifies pregnancy-induced changes in the vasculature. Our objective was to compare changes in the function and remodeling of systemic resistance vessels 4 weeks PP in normal C57BL/6 (B6), and immunodeficient mice recombinase 1-deficient/B6 (Rag1(-/-))...
November 28, 2016: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899444/antigen-dependent-competition-shapes-the-local-repertoire-of-tissue-resident-memory-cd8-t-cells
#19
Andreas Muschaweckh, Veit R Buchholz, Anne Fellenzer, Christian Hessel, Paul-Albert König, Sha Tao, Ronny Tao, Mathias Heikenwälder, Dirk H Busch, Thomas Korn, Wolfgang Kastenmüller, Ingo Drexler, Georg Gasteiger
Tissue-resident memory CD8(+) T cells (TRM) constitute a major component of the immune-surveillance system in nonlymphoid organs. Local, noncognate factors are both necessary and sufficient to support the programming of TRM cell fate in tissue-infiltrating T cells. Recent evidence suggests that TCR signals received in infected nonlymphoid tissues additionally contribute to TRM cell formation. Here, we asked how antigen-dependent pathways influence the generation of skin-resident memory T cells that arise from a polyclonal repertoire of cells induced by infection with an antigenically complex virus and recombinant vaccine vector...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899225/humoral-and-cellular-response-after-varicella-vaccination-in-vzv-igg-seronegative-kidney-transplant-candidates
#20
Marcia M L Kho, Joke M Zuijderwijk, Annemiek A van der Eijk, Ronella de Kuiper, Marieken J Boer-Verschragen, Willem Weimar, Nicole M van Besouw
BACKGROUND: In immunocompromised patients, primary infection with VZV may have a disastrous clinical course. Vaccination of VZV-seronegative patients on the waiting list for renal transplantation may prevent severe disease. However, the immunologic response of end-stage renal disease patients to peptide vaccines is far from optimal. Our question was whether end-stage renal disease patients with undetectable VZV-IgG levels were able to mount an adequate humoral and cellular response to a live attenuated varicella vaccine...
November 26, 2016: Vaccine
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