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Immune support cancer fighting

Agnieszka Szczygieł, Elżbieta Pajtasz-Piasecka
Dendritic cells (DCs), as a link between innate and adaptive immunity, play a pivotal role in maintaining homeostasis of the immune system. The DC population is characterized by heterogeneity; it consists of many subpopulations which, despite their phenotypic and localization differences, play an essential function - they are professional antigen presenting cells. Due to their role, DCs can be utilized in a new cancer treatment strategy. Their main purpose is to generate an anticancer response leading to the elimination of cancer cells...
November 19, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
Daniel N Santiago, Johannes P W Heidbuechel, Wendy M Kandell, Rachel Walker, Julie Djeu, Christine E Engeland, Daniel Abate-Daga, Heiko Enderling
After decades of research, oncolytic virotherapy has recently advanced to clinical application, and currently a multitude of novel agents and combination treatments are being evaluated for cancer therapy. Oncolytic agents preferentially replicate in tumor cells, inducing tumor cell lysis and complex antitumor effects, such as innate and adaptive immune responses and the destruction of tumor vasculature. With the availability of different vector platforms and the potential of both genetic engineering and combination regimens to enhance particular aspects of safety and efficacy, the identification of optimal treatments for patient subpopulations or even individual patients becomes a top priority...
August 23, 2017: Viruses
Yu-Ling Ni, Chang-Hung Hsieh, Seung-Hun Kim, Jing-Ping Wang, Chun-Li Su, Ching-Fa Yao, Kang Fang
To fight cancer at its roots by targeting cancer stem cells is a promising approach for therapy. Previously, an indolylquinoline derivative, 3-((7-ethyl-1H-indol-3-yl)-methyl)-2-methylquinoline (EMMQ), was reported effectively inhibiting the growth of lung cancer cells through impairment of cellular mitochondria functions. To address more on drug efficiency, the study further exploited if EMMQ can impede the propagation of tumorspheres stemmed from non-small cell lung cancer cells. EMMQ inhibited proliferation of spheroids in culture...
October 2017: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
Timothy W Jolis, Brenna M Brucker, Christoph Schorl, James N Butera, Peter J Quesenberry
Microchimerism has generally been shown to protect against cancer (Gilmore et al. in Exp Hematol 36(9):1073-1077, 2008). The mechanism of how this occurs is an area of intense study, as it may lead to new cancer treatments. The leading theory is that microchimeric cells perform immune surveillance by directly fighting cancerous cells and that they also act as stem cells, repairing damaged tissue (Khosrotehrani et al. in JAMA 292:75-80, 2004). However, there is conflicting evidence to support this theory. Several small studies have found few microchimeric cells in tumor tissue (Gadi in Breast Cancer Res Treat 121(1):241-244, 2010; Cirello et al...
April 2017: Medical Oncology
Xinlong Zang, Xiuli Zhao, Haiyang Hu, Mingxi Qiao, Yihui Deng, Dawei Chen
Although most researches and therapies have been focused on the tumor itself, it is becoming clear that immune cells can not only suppress tumor development but support and maintain their malignant type. Promising recent developments in immunology will provide opportunities for tumor-specific immunotherapy, which can orchestrate the patients immune system to target, fight and eradicate cancer cells without destroying healthy cells. However, antitumor immunity driven by self-immune system alone may be therapeutically insufficient...
June 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Jewell N Walters, Bernadette Ferraro, Elizabeth K Duperret, Kimberly A Kraynyak, Jaemi Chu, Ashley Saint-Fleur, Jian Yan, Hy Levitsky, Amir S Khan, Niranjan Y Sardesai, David B Weiner
Tumor-associated antigens have emerged as important immunotherapeutic targets in the fight against cancer. Germline tumor antigens, such as WT1, Wilms' tumor gene 1, are overexpressed in many human malignancies but have low expression in somatic tissues. Recent vaccination approaches to target WT1 have been hampered by poor in vivo immune potency, likely due to the conserved self-antigen nature of WT1. In this study, we use a novel synthetic micro-consensus SynCon DNA vaccine approach with the goal of breaking tolerance and increasing vaccine immune potency...
April 5, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
Isabel Prieto, Sara Montemuiño, Javier Luna, Maria Victoria de Torres, Enrique Amaya
The significant role of the immune system in cancer treatment has given rise to an emerging field of study within oncology, and one that is attracting increasing attention from researchers. Immunotherapy has demonstrated that the immune system is crucial in the fight against cancer. This challenge has led researchers to analyze whether the immune influencing capacity of immunonutrition may aid in improving immune status, modulate the acquired immune response, decrease the treatment toxicity and improve patient outcomes...
December 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
P Zatloukalová, M Pjechová, S Babčanová, T R Hupp, B Vojtěšek
BACKGROUND: Correct function of the immune system depends on close cooperation between stimulation and inhibition signals, which protect an organism from outside microorganisms and other agents, but also protects healthy tissues against possible self-destructing attacks of the immune system. However, the inhibitory mechanisms can be abused by cancer cells that evade immune responses and, in fact, they help develop cancer. Therefore, one of the characteristics of cancer cells is the ability to evade immune recognition...
December 0: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
Keshava K Datta, Arun H Patil, Krishna Patel, Gourav Dey, Anil K Madugundu, Santosh Renuse, Jyothi E Kaviyil, Raja Sekhar, Aryashree Arunima, Bhavna Daswani, Inderjeet Kaur, Jyotirmaya Mohanty, Ranjana Sinha, Sangeeta Jaiswal, S Sivapriya, Yeshwanth Sonnathi, Bharat B Chattoo, Harsha Gowda, Raju Ravikumar, T S Keshava Prasad
The frequency of Candida infections is currently rising, and thus adversely impacting global health. The situation is exacerbated by azole resistance developed by fungal pathogens. Candida tropicalis is an opportunistic pathogen that causes candidiasis, for example, in immune-compromised individuals, cancer patients, and those who undergo organ transplantation. It is a member of the non-albicans group of Candida that are known to be azole-resistant, and is frequently seen in individuals being treated for cancers, HIV-infection, and those who underwent bone marrow transplantation...
April 2016: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
B Říhová, M Šťastný
Immunotherapy dates back to 1868 when German physicist Busch intentionally infected patients suffering from soft tissue sarcoma with erysipelas. Rapid tumor shrinkage was observed but response was only partial and tumor recurrence subsequently occurred. It was William B. Coley who in 1891 injected a patient with a soft tissue sarcoma with streptococcal cultures. Following a severe attack of erysipelas, the tumor underwent extensive necrosis and the patient remained diseasefree for eight years. The mixture of Streptococcus and other bacteria including Seratia marcescens, Staphylococcus and Escherichia coli was referred to as Coleys toxin and was used for the next 45 years...
2015: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
Brian C Miller, Marcela V Maus
Adoptive cell immunotherapy is a novel tool in the fight against cancer. Serving both effector and memory functions for the immune system, T cells make an obvious candidate for adoptive cell immunotherapy. By modifying native T cells with a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR), these cells can theoretically be targeted against any extracellular antigen. To date, the best-studied and clinically validated CAR T cells recognize CD19, a cell surface molecule on B cells and B cell malignancies. These CD19-directed T cells have shown clinical utility in chronic lymphocytic leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, with some patients achieving long-term disease remissions after treatment...
2015: Oncology Research and Treatment
Birgitte Grum-Schwensen, Jörg Klingelhöfer, Mette Beck, Charlotte Menné Bonefeld, Petra Hamerlik, Per Guldberg, Mariam Grigorian, Eugene Lukanidin, Noona Ambartsumian
BACKGROUND: The tumor microenvironment plays a determinative role in stimulating tumor progression and metastasis. Notably, tumor-stroma signals affect the pattern of infiltrated immune cells and the profile of tumor-released cytokines. Among the known molecules that are engaged in stimulating the metastatic spread of tumor cells is the S100A4 protein. S100A4 is known as an inducer of inflammatory processes and has been shown to attract T-cells to the primary tumor and to the pre-metastatic niche...
February 12, 2015: BMC Cancer
Birgitte Grum-Schwensen, Jörg Klingelhöfer, Mette Beck, Charlotte Menné Bonefeld, Petra Hamerlik, Per Guldberg, Mariam Grigorian, Eugene Lukanidin, Noona Ambartsumian
BACKGROUND: The tumor microenvironment plays a determinative role in stimulating tumor progression and metastasis. Notably, tumor-stroma signals affect the pattern of infiltrated immune cells and the profile of tumor-released cytokines. Among the known molecules that are engaged in stimulating the metastatic spread of tumor cells is the S100A4 protein. S100A4 is known as an inducer of inflammatory processes and has been shown to attract T-cells to the primary tumor and to the pre-metastatic niche...
2015: BMC Cancer
Hui Wang, Jianping Ye
Inflammation regulates energy metabolism in both physiological and pathological conditions. Pro-inflammatory cytokines involves in energy regulation in several conditions, such as obesity, aging (calorie restriction), sports (exercise), and cancer (cachexia). Here, we introduce a view of integrative physiology to understand pro-inflammatory cytokines in the control of energy expenditure. In obesity, chronic inflammation is derived from energy surplus that induces adipose tissue expansion and adipose tissue hypoxia...
March 2015: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Frances Y McWhorter, Chase T Davis, Wendy F Liu
Macrophages are tissue-resident immune cells that play a critical role in maintaining homeostasis and fighting infection. In addition, these cells are involved in the progression of many pathologies including cancer and atherosclerosis. In response to a variety of microenvironmental stimuli, macrophages can be polarized to achieve a spectrum of functional phenotypes. This review will discuss some emerging evidence in support of macrophage phenotypic regulation by physical and mechanical cues. As alterations in the physical microenvironment often underlie pathophysiological states, an understanding of their effects on macrophage phenotype and function may help provide mechanistic insights into disease pathogenesis...
April 2015: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
H Terunuma
INTRODUCTION: Cancer, the major killer disease of the century requires a multi-pronged approach and among the latest modalities of treatments, Immunotherapy occupies a promising role. Immunotherapy for cancer was first started to be practised in the NIH and cell based immunotherapy for cancer is in practice for the past three decades. ([1, 2]) There are several literatures from various countries on the successful application of cell based Immunotherapies for various solid tumours and haematological malignancies...
2012: Journal of Stem Cells & Regenerative Medicine
Giuseppe Di Caro, Federica Marchesi, Luigi Laghi, Fabio Grizzi
Inflammatory cells are involved in tumour initiation and progression. In parallel, the adaptive immune response plays a key role in fighting tumour growth and dissemination. The double-edged role of the immune system in solid tumours is well represented in colorectal cancer (CRC). The development and progression of CRC are affected by the interactions between the tumour and the host's response, occurring in a milieu named tumour microenvironment. The role of immune cells in human CRC is being unravelled and there is a strong interest in understanding their dynamics as to tumour promotion, immunosurveillance and immunoevasion...
September 2013: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Adele Mount, Sandra Koernig, Anabel Silva, Debbie Drane, Eugene Maraskovsky, Adriana Baz Morelli
It is thought that the development of vaccines for the treatment of infectious diseases and cancer is likely to be achieved in the coming decades. This is partially due to a better understanding of the regulatory networks connecting innate with adaptive immune responses. The innate immune response is triggered by the recognition of conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns by germ line-coded pattern recognition receptors. Several families of pattern recognition receptors have been characterized, including Toll-like receptors and nucleotide-binding domain receptors...
July 2013: Expert Review of Vaccines
Simone Mocellin, Donato Nitti
Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) plays a key role in restraining the adaptive immune response of T-cells towards a variety of antigens including tumor associated antigens (TAAs). The blockade of this immune checkpoint elicits an effective anticancer immune response in a range of preclinical models, suggesting that naturally occurring (or therapeutically induced) TAA specific lymphocytes need to be "unleashed" in order to properly fight against malignant cells. Therefore, investigators have tested this therapeutic hypothesis also in humans: the favorable results obtained with this strategy in patients with advanced cutaneous melanoma are revolutionizing the management of this highly aggressive disease and are fueling new enthusiasm on cancer immunotherapy in general...
December 2013: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Jaleh Barar
In recent years, huge investigations on cancer progression and invasion have led to under-stand the pivotal role of tumor microenvironment. The current era of cancer therapy is based on the concept of simply targeting precise mechanisms to kill or to suppress the growth and expansion of malignant cells. Clinical data clearly correlate with in-vitro re-sults, emphasizing the direct impact of cancer environment on disease progression. This provides the opportunity to advance cancer therapy by virtue of targeting cancerous cells and non-cancerous component of tumor in a combinatorial manner...
2012: BioImpacts: BI
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