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Immune support cancer fighting

Keshava K Datta, Arun H Patil, Krishna Patel, Gourav Dey, Anil K Madugundu, Santosh Renuse, Jyothi E Kaviyil, Raja Sekhar, Aryashree Arunima, Bhavna Daswani, Inderjeet Kaur, Jyotirmaya Mohanty, Ranjana Sinha, Sangeeta Jaiswal, S Sivapriya, Yeshwanth Sonnathi, Bharat B Chattoo, Harsha Gowda, Raju Ravikumar, T S Keshava Prasad
The frequency of Candida infections is currently rising, and thus adversely impacting global health. The situation is exacerbated by azole resistance developed by fungal pathogens. Candida tropicalis is an opportunistic pathogen that causes candidiasis, for example, in immune-compromised individuals, cancer patients, and those who undergo organ transplantation. It is a member of the non-albicans group of Candida that are known to be azole-resistant, and is frequently seen in individuals being treated for cancers, HIV-infection, and those who underwent bone marrow transplantation...
April 2016: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
B Říhová, M Šťastný
Immunotherapy dates back to 1868 when German physicist Busch intentionally infected patients suffering from soft tissue sarcoma with erysipelas. Rapid tumor shrinkage was observed but response was only partial and tumor recurrence subsequently occurred. It was William B. Coley who in 1891 injected a patient with a soft tissue sarcoma with streptococcal cultures. Following a severe attack of erysipelas, the tumor underwent extensive necrosis and the patient remained diseasefree for eight years. The mixture of Streptococcus and other bacteria including Seratia marcescens, Staphylococcus and Escherichia coli was referred to as Coleys toxin and was used for the next 45 years...
2015: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
Brian C Miller, Marcela V Maus
Adoptive cell immunotherapy is a novel tool in the fight against cancer. Serving both effector and memory functions for the immune system, T cells make an obvious candidate for adoptive cell immunotherapy. By modifying native T cells with a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR), these cells can theoretically be targeted against any extracellular antigen. To date, the best-studied and clinically validated CAR T cells recognize CD19, a cell surface molecule on B cells and B cell malignancies. These CD19-directed T cells have shown clinical utility in chronic lymphocytic leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, with some patients achieving long-term disease remissions after treatment...
2015: Oncology Research and Treatment
Birgitte Grum-Schwensen, Jörg Klingelhöfer, Mette Beck, Charlotte Menné Bonefeld, Petra Hamerlik, Per Guldberg, Mariam Grigorian, Eugene Lukanidin, Noona Ambartsumian
BACKGROUND: The tumor microenvironment plays a determinative role in stimulating tumor progression and metastasis. Notably, tumor-stroma signals affect the pattern of infiltrated immune cells and the profile of tumor-released cytokines. Among the known molecules that are engaged in stimulating the metastatic spread of tumor cells is the S100A4 protein. S100A4 is known as an inducer of inflammatory processes and has been shown to attract T-cells to the primary tumor and to the pre-metastatic niche...
2015: BMC Cancer
Birgitte Grum-Schwensen, Jörg Klingelhöfer, Mette Beck, Charlotte Menné Bonefeld, Petra Hamerlik, Per Guldberg, Mariam Grigorian, Eugene Lukanidin, Noona Ambartsumian
BACKGROUND: The tumor microenvironment plays a determinative role in stimulating tumor progression and metastasis. Notably, tumor-stroma signals affect the pattern of infiltrated immune cells and the profile of tumor-released cytokines. Among the known molecules that are engaged in stimulating the metastatic spread of tumor cells is the S100A4 protein. S100A4 is known as an inducer of inflammatory processes and has been shown to attract T-cells to the primary tumor and to the pre-metastatic niche...
2015: BMC Cancer
Hui Wang, Jianping Ye
Inflammation regulates energy metabolism in both physiological and pathological conditions. Pro-inflammatory cytokines involves in energy regulation in several conditions, such as obesity, aging (calorie restriction), sports (exercise), and cancer (cachexia). Here, we introduce a view of integrative physiology to understand pro-inflammatory cytokines in the control of energy expenditure. In obesity, chronic inflammation is derived from energy surplus that induces adipose tissue expansion and adipose tissue hypoxia...
March 2015: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Frances Y McWhorter, Chase T Davis, Wendy F Liu
Macrophages are tissue-resident immune cells that play a critical role in maintaining homeostasis and fighting infection. In addition, these cells are involved in the progression of many pathologies including cancer and atherosclerosis. In response to a variety of microenvironmental stimuli, macrophages can be polarized to achieve a spectrum of functional phenotypes. This review will discuss some emerging evidence in support of macrophage phenotypic regulation by physical and mechanical cues. As alterations in the physical microenvironment often underlie pathophysiological states, an understanding of their effects on macrophage phenotype and function may help provide mechanistic insights into disease pathogenesis...
April 2015: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
H Terunuma
INTRODUCTION: Cancer, the major killer disease of the century requires a multi-pronged approach and among the latest modalities of treatments, Immunotherapy occupies a promising role. Immunotherapy for cancer was first started to be practised in the NIH and cell based immunotherapy for cancer is in practice for the past three decades. ([1, 2]) There are several literatures from various countries on the successful application of cell based Immunotherapies for various solid tumours and haematological malignancies...
2012: Journal of Stem Cells & Regenerative Medicine
Giuseppe Di Caro, Federica Marchesi, Luigi Laghi, Fabio Grizzi
Inflammatory cells are involved in tumour initiation and progression. In parallel, the adaptive immune response plays a key role in fighting tumour growth and dissemination. The double-edged role of the immune system in solid tumours is well represented in colorectal cancer (CRC). The development and progression of CRC are affected by the interactions between the tumour and the host's response, occurring in a milieu named tumour microenvironment. The role of immune cells in human CRC is being unravelled and there is a strong interest in understanding their dynamics as to tumour promotion, immunosurveillance and immunoevasion...
September 2013: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Adele Mount, Sandra Koernig, Anabel Silva, Debbie Drane, Eugene Maraskovsky, Adriana Baz Morelli
It is thought that the development of vaccines for the treatment of infectious diseases and cancer is likely to be achieved in the coming decades. This is partially due to a better understanding of the regulatory networks connecting innate with adaptive immune responses. The innate immune response is triggered by the recognition of conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns by germ line-coded pattern recognition receptors. Several families of pattern recognition receptors have been characterized, including Toll-like receptors and nucleotide-binding domain receptors...
July 2013: Expert Review of Vaccines
Simone Mocellin, Donato Nitti
Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) plays a key role in restraining the adaptive immune response of T-cells towards a variety of antigens including tumor associated antigens (TAAs). The blockade of this immune checkpoint elicits an effective anticancer immune response in a range of preclinical models, suggesting that naturally occurring (or therapeutically induced) TAA specific lymphocytes need to be "unleashed" in order to properly fight against malignant cells. Therefore, investigators have tested this therapeutic hypothesis also in humans: the favorable results obtained with this strategy in patients with advanced cutaneous melanoma are revolutionizing the management of this highly aggressive disease and are fueling new enthusiasm on cancer immunotherapy in general...
December 2013: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Jaleh Barar
In recent years, huge investigations on cancer progression and invasion have led to under-stand the pivotal role of tumor microenvironment. The current era of cancer therapy is based on the concept of simply targeting precise mechanisms to kill or to suppress the growth and expansion of malignant cells. Clinical data clearly correlate with in-vitro re-sults, emphasizing the direct impact of cancer environment on disease progression. This provides the opportunity to advance cancer therapy by virtue of targeting cancerous cells and non-cancerous component of tumor in a combinatorial manner...
2012: BioImpacts: BI
Joachim von Eichborn, Anna Lena Woelke, Filippo Castiglione, Robert Preissner
BACKGROUND: Despite progress in conventional cancer therapies, cancer is still one of the leading causes of death in industrial nations. Therefore, an urgent need of progress in fighting cancer remains. A promising alternative to conventional methods is immune therapy. This relies on the fact that low-immunogenic tumours can be eradicated if an immune response against them is induced. Peptide vaccination is carried out by injecting tumour peptides into a patient to trigger a specific immune response against the tumour in its entirety...
2013: BMC Bioinformatics
Kulveer Singh Ahlawat, Bhupender Singh Khatkar
Aloe vera is used for vigor, wellness and medicinal purposes since rigvedic times. Health benefits of aloe vera include its application in wound healing, treating burns, minimizing frost bite damage, protection against skin damage from x-rays, lung cancer, intestinal problems, increasing high density lipoprotein (HDL), reducing low density lipoprotein (LDL), reducing blood sugar in diabetics, fighting acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), allergies and improving immune system. Phytochemistry of aloe vera gel has revealed the presence of more than 200 bioactive chemicals...
October 2011: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Gilberto de Lima Lopes, Jonas A de Souza, Carlos Barrios
Major breakthroughs have been realized in controlling cancer in the past five decades. However, for patients in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), many of these advances are nothing but an aspiration and hope for the future. Indeed, the greatest challenge we face in oncology today is how to reconcile small, incremental and significant improvements in the management of cancer with the exponentially increasing costs of new treatments. Emerging economies are attempting to address this important issue of access to cancer medications...
June 2013: Nature Reviews. Clinical Oncology
Simone Mocellin, Clara Benna, Pierluigi Pilati
The adaptive immune response is controlled by checkpoints represented by coinhibitory molecules, which are crucial for maintaining self-tolerance and minimizing collateral tissue damage under physiological conditions. A growing body of preclinical evidence supports the hypothesis that unleashing this immunological break might be therapeutically beneficial in the fight against cancer, as it would elicit an effective antitumor immune response. Remarkably, recent clinical trials have demonstrated that this novel strategy can be highly effective in the treatment of patients with cancer, as shown by the paradigmatic case of ipilimumab (a monoclonal antibody blocking the coinhibitory molecule cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated antigen-4 [CTLA4]) that is opening a new era in the therapeutic approach to a chemoresistant tumor such as cutaneous melanoma...
April 2013: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Susan B Ingersoll, Sarfraz Ahmad, Neil J Finkler, John R Edwards, Robert W Holloway
Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death among gynecologic malignancies and the 5th leading cause of cancer deaths for women in the United States. Two-thirds of patients present with advanced-stage disease (Stage III and IV) and the majority will suffer recurrence of disease, require ongoing treatment, and eventually succumb to chemotherapy-resistant disease. To potentially circumvent chemo-resistance in recurrent ovarian cancer, immunotherapy is being explored as a novel treatment option. Our laboratory findings demonstrate that immune effector cells from healthy donors elicit a significant cytotoxic response in the presence of IL-2 and IFN alpha- 2b against ovarian cancer in vitro; however, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) isolated from ovarian cancer patients fail to elicit a similar response...
2012: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Shin Kurosawa
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Along with the increasing population of elderly people in developed countries, anesthesiologists have increasing opportunities to anesthetize cancer patients in their routine work. However, no guideline of anesthesia procedures for cancer patients is available even though guidelines of operative procedures have been formulated for different types of cancer. This review provides recent findings related to the optimal choice of anesthetics and adequate anesthesia management for cancer patients...
June 2012: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
Astrid Schmieder, Julia Michel, Kathrin Schönhaar, Sergij Goerdt, Kai Schledzewski
Tumor microenvironment is composed of proliferating neoplastic cells, a vascular network of endothelial cells, extra cellular matrix produced by fibroblasts, cellular compartments of adaptive immunity like lymphocytes and dendritic cells as well as cells of innate immunity, e.g., natural killer cells and macrophages. Many pre-clinical and clinical studies demonstrate an inversed correlation between macrophage infiltrate and patients' prognosis indicating a macrophage supporting role for tumor progression as producers of growth and angiogenic factors and as regulators of tissue remodelling...
August 2012: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Daniela Spano, Massimo Zollo
Over recent decades, various studies have argued that the metastatic tissue microenvironment is fully controlled by the intrinsic properties of the cancer cells (growth, motility and invasion, angiogenesis, extracellular matrix remodeling, immune escape) and additional cells types. Overall, the extrinsic factors and determinants mediate the contribution of the host microenvironment to metastasis formation. The tumor microenvironment carries out these functions by secretion of molecules that can influence and modulate its phenotype, making these complex interactions the basis for support for the progression of a cancer...
April 2012: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
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